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KINE 2000, Notes for Week 3/21

by: Tamar Turner

KINE 2000, Notes for Week 3/21 Kine 2000

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Tamar Turner

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These notes cover chapters 9, 10, & 11.
Intro to exercise and sports science
Dr. Espinosa
Class Notes
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This 44 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tamar Turner on Saturday March 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Kine 2000 at East Carolina University taught by Dr. Espinosa in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Intro to exercise and sports science in Kinesiology at East Carolina University.


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Date Created: 03/26/16
Chapter 1: Intro to Kinesiology 01/20/2016 ▯ What is Physical Activity? ▯ -Almost any muscular action is physical activity ▯ -By definition, it is intentional, voluntary, movement directed towards achieving an identifiable goal. ▯ Movement- any change in the position of your body parts relative to each other ▯ ▯ -All physical activity is movement but not all movement is physical activity. ▯ ▯ What is Kinesiology? ▯ -A discipline or body of knowledge that focuses on physical activity. ▯ Consists of: ▯ -Experiential knowledge= experiencing physical activity ▯ -Theoretical knowledge= systematic research about physical activity ▯ -Professional practice knowledge= process of delivering physical activity services ▯ ▯ The Focus of Kinesiology: Exercise and Skilled Movement ▯ -Exercise is one principal form of physical activity. ▯ -People engage in exercise to improve physical performance, improve health, or regain performance that has been reduced due to injury/disease ▯ ▯ Major Categories of Exercise: ▯ Training- exercise performed for express purpose of improving performance ▯ Health-related exercise- to develop or maintain a sound working body, free of disease ▯ Therapeutic exercise- to restore capacities previously developed that have been lost due to injury, disease, etc. ▯ ▯ Skilled Movement ▯ -Second area of focus of kinesiology ▯ -Performances where accuracy of direction, force, rhythm, and timing are essential to accomplishing predetermined goals ▯ -Sport involves skilled movement that is organized in game contexts. ▯ -Developmental skills involve skilled movements that aren’t usually performed in sport settings. ▯ Ex. 1 graders being taught how to skip, hop, or throw ▯ ▯ Holism- interdependence of mind, body, and spirit ▯ ▯ Spheres of Physical Activity Experience ▯ -Competition -Self-sufficiency ▯ -Health -Work ▯ -Leisure -Self-expression ▯ -Education ▯ ▯ Spheres of Scholarly Study of Physical Activity ▯ -Biomechanics -Philosophy of physical activity ▯ -Motor behavior -Physiology of physical activity ▯ -Sociology of physical activity -Sport and exercise psychology ▯ -History of physical activity ▯ ▯ Spheres of Professional Practice Centered in Physical Activity ▯ -Health and fitness -Therapeutic exercise ▯ -Sport management ▯ -Coaching and sport education ▯ Teaching physical education ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Clicker Questions: -Philosophers take intangibles seriously; these include emotions, ideals, values, and daily experiences. -Materialism: this view reflects the belief that subjective experiences are of little value an that humans are complex machines -Deductive reasoning starts with broad, general principle and examines specific facts that follow from it. True -A comparison of play-like sport to duty-like sport finds that play-like sport considers: sport participation justified by its intrinsic value Objectives -Philosophy involves asking questions posing challenges searching for deeper meanings. -Describe how Philosophy is a formal field/sub-discipline of Kinesiology Why should we study Philosophy? -The definition of philosophy is the study of wisdom, knowledge, and the truth. -Critical thinking us pull the “blinders” away from our eyes, break with conventional ideas and follow new ideas. -It helps develop well-reasoned arguments. -It can help us become more open minded. -it can makes us entertain, examine, and accept new ideas, theories, that might have been ignored of rejected. Philosophical Thinking in Physical Activity -Reflection is the key -Various types of reflection are used. -Decisions are based on good judgment and logic. -Valid and reliable results are expected (even without controlled experiments as in the physical sciences). Power of Reflection -Allows for a broader range of phenomenon to be studied. -Forces us to examine our own beliefs in greater depth and to develop well- reasoned arguments for them. -Helps us become more open-minded: We entertain, examine, and possibly accept ideas, theories, and positions we may have previously ignored or discarded without good reason. Reflection -Tools -Logic -Speculation -Imagination -Thinking -Philosophic methods typically do not include the gathering of data from controlled experiments, but the results can still be valid and reliable. Philosophic Claims About Values in Physical Activity -Personal opinion -Speculation -Probable assertion Truth assertion Goals of Philosophy of Physical Activity in Kinesiology 1. To understand the nature and value of health and physical activity, particularly in the form of exercise, sport, games, play, and dance 2. To understand how confident we can be about our claims in kinesiology 3. To understand the most important values of physical activity and its contribution to good living 4. To learn how we ought to behave in sport and in our professional lives as kinesiologists Research Methods -Inductive reasoning begins with specific cases to develop broad, general principles. -Deductive reasoning begins with broad factual or hypothetical premises in order to determine more specific conclusions that follow from them. -Descriptive reasoning begins with one example of some phenomenon and then varies it to see how dramatically it changes. Change allows a more accurate description of the central characteristics of the item being examined. Overview of Knowledge in the Philosophy of Physical Activity -Nature of the person (specifically, the mind-body relationship) -Nature of the sport and competition and its relationships to work and play -Values promoted by physical activity -Ethical values and sport People are composed of two substances: BODY and MIND -Materialism: the human being is nothing more than a complex machine; subjective experiences are real but have no power -Dualism: the mind and body are separate; our thoughts count; priority is given to the mind -Holism: the mind and body are interdependent; all behavior is ambiguous; the mind and body work together Significance of Rules -Rules serve as formal types of game cues: What should be accomplished and how we should accomplish it? -Rules create a problem that is artificial yet intelligible -Respecting the rules preserves sport -Rules liberate us and allow us to explore our capabilities in a protected environment -Rules can be change when the challenge becomes too easy or too difficult Game Characteristics -Mild Physical Exertion -Limited skill -Luck -Recreational activity -Some rules – change them? -Enjoyment or Entertainment -A game may not be a sport Hobbies & Competition Hobbies: -Activity or interest -Done outside one’s regular job -For fun -For pleasure Competition: -Requires two parties, but not necessarily against each other -Can be done by yourself -Surpassing a performance -It can determine winners and losers Play and Duty in Sport Duty-Like Sport: -We participate for the benefits, we do it for what it does for us. Play-Like Sport Health Related Physical Fitness Four Components -Body composition -Flexibility -Cardio -Muscular strength Motor Skills -Balance -Hand/Eye Coordination Do we as Professionals have Responsibilities? -The National Strength and Conditioning Association (NSCA) 1. Non-Discriminate: on the basis of race, color, sex, age, religion, or national origin 2. What type of conduct? -Personally and professionally in a manner that does not compromise their professional responsibility 3. Truthful in what? -Education and Experience Professional Knowledge and Expertise -Kickboxing class Physical Activity Values -Ethical -Aesthetic -Sociopolitical Ethics -Ask us what is right and wrong, and what ought and ought not be done -Help us answer the question “How should we behave?” Examples: -Should children be cut when trying out for a sport? -Should a coach teach an athlete how to intimidate the opponent player? Should an athlete be required to pass all school subjects in order to play? Ethical Behavior in Sport -Fair play: playing within the rules -Seeking to win within the rules and not “at all costs” -Opponents should be treated with respect -Games are played as mutual quests for excellence, is intimidation inappropriate? -Retribution for violent or unfair action is never acceptable Clicker Questions -Intercollegiate athletics were inaugurated on American college campuses by: students -According to Dr. Grimsley ECU student were mainly women. What is true about the male population in 1975? 75 males enrolled and 12 played football. -ECU joined first conference in 1954, which was: North State Atlantic Conference -In 1966, ECU yearly tuition and fees were: $147.00 -By the 1860s, many amateur baseball teams were on their way to becoming professionalized; common practices by that time included charging admission and paying players -From 1900 to 1950 scholarship was influenced by: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, Harvard Fatigue Lab -The physical education teaching profession took root in the United States: just before 1900 -In the second half of the 20th century, growth in participation in exercise and sport greatly outpaced population increases. True Why we study the history of physical activity? -The history of physical activity teaches us about changes as well as stability in the past, which helps us understand the past as well as the present and make reasonable decisions for the future. What does a historian of physical activity do? -College or university faculty members -Teaching -Research -Service Others -Librarians -Consultants to publishing companies -Library archivists -Museum curators Goals of History of Physical Activity -Identify and describe patterns of change and stability in physical activity in particular societies or cultures during specific periods -Analyze patterns of change and stability in physical activity in particular societies or cultures during specific periods. History of the Subdiscipline th -Early beginnings: Late 19 century to 1960s -Identifying the subdiscipline: 1960s to 1970s -Expanding the subdiscipline: 1970s to present -New analytical frameworks: modernization and human agency -Greater focus on gender -New focus on exercise and health Research Methods in History of Physical Activity -Finding sources of evidence -Primary source -Secondary source -Critiquing sources -Authenticity -Credibility -Rule of context -Rule of perspective -Rule of omission or free editing -Examining, analyzing, and synthesizing the evidence History of Physical Activity in North America -Critical time periods -1840-1900: industrialization and westward expansion -1900-1950: consumerism, immigration, and democratization -1950-2007: electronic communication and globalization -Focus -Participation in physical activity -Physical activity professions -Scholarly knowledge about physical activity 1840-1900 -Physical activity participation -Integration of body, mind, and soul -Recommendations for vigorous exercise for boys and men -Recommendations for moderate exercise for girls and women -European gymnastics systems 1900-1950 -Physical activity participation -Competitive sport for males/females -Sport at the center of school and college physical education curriculums -Military and World War I -Golden Age of Sport -The Great Depression -Teaching physical education continued to be the main profession for which students were prepared in college physical education programs during the first half of the 20 thcentury 1950-2012 -Participation -Increase in health-related exercise through 2000, followed by a decline in Americans meeting recommended activity levels -Increase in sport participants and spectators -Girls and women in sport; Title IX (1972) -African Americans in sport -Growth of televised coverage of sport -Increase in outdoor recreation Title IX: Educational Amendment of 1972 (a) No person in the United Stated shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any educational program or activity receiving federal financial assistance Physical Activity Career Growth -Beginning in the 1960s, the discipline of kinesiology grew rapidly, and numerous scholarly subdisciplines developed. Reasons to Study the History of Physical Activity -Learn about the discipline’s past -Learn about societal influences on physical activity -Learn about YOUR past -Consider what might happen in the future History Extends Your “Memory” -Knowledge of the past gives you an important, broad understanding of the present that you can use to make better informed personal and professional decisions for the future. ▯ Clicker Questions: ▯ -Physical activity sociologists: conduct research in natural settings ▯ -Sociologists of physical activity seldom rely on a physical lab space, but rather they see all sport settings in the social world as their laboratory. True ▯ -What year was the game of women’s basketball founded? 1892 ▯ -What is the name of the person who invented basketball? James Naismith ▯ -First WNBA president: Val Ackerman ▯ -Year WNBA was formed: 1996 ▯ -According to Dr. Sartorie-Baldwin, we need mass to move weight. ▯ Sport sociology may be both quantitative and qualitative. True ▯ -In the mid-1990s African American athletes were being portrayed on TV as having: stronger physical skills than whites ▯ -Individuals' opposition to the use of American Indians as mascots is based on the belief that this practice actually distorts and trivializes the culture rather than honors it. True ▯ ▯ Sociology ▯ -study of a society, its institutions, and its relationships ▯ -describes and explains human social organization ▯ -shared meanings of a social organization are its culture ▯ Basic Assumptions -Individuals are, by their very nature, social beings -Individuals are, for the most part, socially determined -Individuals create, sustain, and change the social forms within which they conduct their lives What does a sociologist of physical activity do? -Teach -Research -Service Goals of Sociology of Physical Activity -To look at physical activity with a penetrating gaze that goes beyond our common understanding o social life -To identify and analyze patterns of change and stability in physical activity -To critique physical activity programs in order to identify problems and recommend changes leading to the enhancement of equality and human well-being History of Sociology of Physical Activity th -Early beginnings: Late 19 century to mid 1960s -Identifying the subdiscipline: Mid-1960s to early 1980s Research Methods in Sociology of Physical Activity -Survey research -Interviewing -Thematic analysis -Ethnography -Societal analysis -Historical analysis -Research in sociology of physical activity involves collecting quantitative and qualitative data using a variety of methodologies Overview of Knowledge -Cultural differences -Ethnic and racial relations -Sport and politics -Mass media Society -A collection of people -Living in a defined geographical territory -United through: a political system and a shared sense of self-identification that distinguishes them from other people Power and Power Relationships -Power: the ability to do what you want without being stopped by others -Power relations underlie social inequalities -Power relations affect people’s quality of life and their chances for a better life in the future Gender Relations and Physical Activity -Gender: set of norms or expectations about how we should behave that are linked to societal understandings of sexuality and procreation Participation: -Title IX legislation -More girls and women participating -Societal perceptions of gender-appropriate physical activities Leadership -Decrease in percentage of women coaching girls’ and women’s teams -Reason for the decrease Expression -Sport and heterosexual manhood -Less coverage of women’s sport -Themes in media coverage of men’s and women’s sport -Sports as symbols of male superiority -Conceptions of beautiful bodies Popular Media Representations -Disparity in coverage -Women: focus is on artistic skills -Men: focus is on movements, skills, and strategic knowledge -Giving privilege to masculinity -Body culture -Outward appearance -Disordered eating: anorexia and bulimia -Bodybuilders and steroid use Sports Are Social Phenomena -Sports are related to the social and cultural contexts in which we live Why study sports as social phenomena? -Sports activities and images are part of people’s lives -Sports are connected with ideologies in society Ethnic and Racial Relations -Ethnic group: a group of people who share important and distinct cultural traditions -Race: a group of people who are defined by society as different from others on the basis of genetically inherited traits Participation -African American overrepresentation among athletes in popular male team sports -Access to facilities and coaching Leadership -Low proportion of African American coaches at elite levels, relative to # of players -Several reason for this low proportion Expression -“Cool pose” -Deception of African American boys concerning likelihood of becoming a professional athlete -Media portrayals of white and African American athletes: brains vs. brawn -Racial identity -Stereotypes Socioeconomic Relations -Socioeconomic status: social position based on wealth, education, and occupational prestige Participation -Types and amounts of physical activity among people at different socioeconomic levels -Likelihood of becoming a professional athlete is very slim -Socioeconomic status influences the types of physical activities to which people have access -Physical activities requiring expensive equipment, facilities, and coaching are generally beyond the reach of people at lower income levels Leadership -People who control elite sport are very wealthy -Top collegiate athletic directors and coaches are well paid -Less affluent people have opportunities for leadership in grassroots sport Expression -Expensive sports -Lean, taunt bodies -Sport expresses messages about the importance of winning, discipline, obedience, and hard work, suggesting that the rich and poor both deserve whatever wealth they have Sociology of Physical Activity -Illuminates societal patterns of change and stability in physical activity -Primarily focused on sport, but interest in exercise, fitness, and societal conceptions of the human body is increasing -Identifies social problems and urges modifications aimed at enhancing equality and human well-being ▯ Clicker Questions: ▯ -Who was the father of motor behavior? Franklin Henry ▯ -Dr. Murray’s particular area of research is motor control and motor development. False ▯ -According to Dr. Murray patients with Parkinson’s suffer from freezing gait. True ▯ -According to Dr. Murray “When we practice in sport we perform drills and there is a transfer of training to the performance environment. True ▯ ▯ What is Motor Behavior? ▯ -The study of how motor skills are learned, controlled, and developed across the lifespan. ▯ -Motor behavior guides us in providing better situations for learning and practice ▯ -Valuable to performers and those who teach motor skills What Does a Motor Behaviorist Do? -College or universities -Teaching -Research -Service Other research facilities: hospitals, industrial, military -Research with applications related to setting -Grant writing Goals of Motor Behavior -To understand how motor skills are learned -To understand how motor skills are controlled -To understand how the learning and control of motor skills change across the life span Three Subdisciplines -Motor Learning -Motor Control -Motor Development Goals of Motor Learning -To explain how processes such as feedback and practice improve the learning and performance of motor skills -To explain how response selection and response execution become more efficient and effective Goals of Motor Control -To analyze how the mechanisms in response selection and response execution control the body’s movement -To explain how environmental and individual factors affect the mechanisms of response selection and response execution Goals of Motor Development -To explain how motor learning and control improve during childhood and adolescence -To explain how motor learning and control deteriorate with aging Motor Movements Studied Beyond Sport -Babies learning to use a fork and spoon -Dentists learning to control the drill while looking in a mirror -Surgeons controlling a scalpel -Teens learning to drive History of Motor Behavior -Five themes have persisted over the years in motor behavior research:  Knowledge of results (feedback)  Distribution of practice  Transfer of training  Retention  Individual differences ▯ 1960s ▯ -Memory drum theory: Franklin Henry, father of motor behavior ▯ -Motor behavior as a subdiscipline of kinesiology 1970s to present -The influence of growth and maturation on motor performance -Developmental patterns of fundamental movements -Study of motor learning and motor control in children Focus of Motor Behavior Shifts -Initial focus was on cognition, biology, and military, not on motor behavior itself -Current focus has shifted to motor behavior itself Research Methods in Motor Behavior -Types of studies (experimental designs)  Between-group  Within-group  Descriptive (participants receive no treatment) ▯ ▯ Research Themes in Motor Behavior ▯ -Practice ▯ -Feedback: Knowledge of results and performance ▯ -Transfer ▯ -Individual differences ▯ ▯ Motor Learning ▯ -The goal is to understand the role of practice, feedback, and individual differences ▯ -Studies have included the early stages of learning and expert performers ▯ -Typical studies have used average or typical performers doing novel tasks ▯ Topics studied include: ▯ -Practice -Before practice -Goal setting -Instructions -Demonstrations -Scheduling practice -Context of practice -Feedback -Transfer -Individual differences Motor Control -Motor programs are proposed memory mechanisms that allow movements to be controlled -As motor programs are developed, the become more automatic, allowing the performer to concentrate on the use of the movement in performance situations -Dynamical systems theory has challenged the motor program theory -Dynamical systems theorists believe that a more direct link exists between perception and action, bypassing the need for motor programs Motor Control: 5 Areas of Research -Degrees of freedom: coordination of movement -Motor equivalency -Serial order of movements: coarticulation -Perceptual integration during movement -Skill acquisition Developmental Motor Learning and Control -Goal is to understand skill acquisition across the life span -Descriptive research includes baby biographies Topics studied: -Developmental changes in the mechanics of movement -Life span development -Experience -Changing neuromuscular systems across the life -Growth and gender in the development of overhand throwing Motor Behavior -Important in all aspects of life  Infants and toddlers  Athletes  Employment ▯ -Important to many professions  Teaching  Coaching  Medicine  Therapy  Clicker Questions: -Who was the first to devote a significant portion of his or her career to sport psychology? Coleman Griffith -Personality research in sport has shown that successful and less successful athletes do not typically differ in traits but rather in their use of cognitive strategies and coping mechanisms. True -Most of the stress associated with physical activity participation is based on: fear of failure and fear of evaluation -The presence of spectators helps young athletes concentrate better when they are learning skills for the first time. False -What do sport psychology and exercise psychology (disciplines of kinesiology) focus on? The study of human thought, emotion, and physical activity -What is the state of bodily energy or physical and mental readiness? Arousal -In what decade was sport psychology recognized as an academic sub- discipline? 1970s What is sport and exercise psychology? -Sport and exercise psychology involves the study of human thought, emotion, and behavior in physical activity -The ABCs of Physical Activity  Affect: Emotions  Behavior: Actions  Cognitions: Thoughts ▯ Exercise psychology: focuses on the psychological aspects of fitness, exercise, health, and wellness ▯ Sport psychology: focuses on psychological aspects of competitive sport participation ▯ Translated: understand why people do the things they do ▯ ▯ Sport Psychology ▯ -Kinesiology/EXSS  Physiology  Motor behavior ▯ ▯ Mental Skills ▯ -50-90% of the game for an elite athlete is mental ▯ -Mental skills training is often overlooked ▯ -Mental factors play a large role in day-to-day fluctuations in performance ▯ ▯ Key to Mastering the Mental Game and Achieving Excellence ▯ -We are what we repeatedly do. Excellence, then, is not an act, but a habit. ▯ -Be where we are at when we are there. ▯ ▯ Mental Skills ▯ -Performance skills (Self-control)  Energy management  -Stress management  Attention focus ▯ ▯ Mental Training Techniques ▯ -Goal setting/imagery ▯ -Self-talk ▯ -Relaxation/energize ▯ -Mental plans ▯ -Physical preparation ▯ ▯ Foundational Skills ▯ -Confidence ▯ -Motivation ▯ ▯ Group Techniques ▯ -Team building ▯ -Communication techniques ▯ ▯ Sport Psychology Consultant ▯ -Kinesiology-trained practitioners of sport and exercise psychology focus on education or the teaching of mental skills to enhance the performance or personal fulfillment of individuals involved in sport or exercise ▯ ▯ Clinical or Counseling Psychologists ▯ -Licensed practitioners who provide psychotherapy and consultation for individuals with clinical conditions such as depression, phobias, or anorexia nervosa. Theses may include athletes and exercisers ▯ ▯ Goals of Sport and Exercise Psychology ▯ -To understand social-psychological factors that influence people’s behavior and performance in physical activity ▯ -To understand the psychological effects derived from participation in physical activity ▯ -To enhance the sport and exercise experience for those who participate in physical activity ▯ ▯ Common Uses of Knowledge of Sport and Exercise Psychology ▯ -Physical education teachers use different forms of motivation to “hook” students. ▯ -Coaches motivate players and nurture strong team chemistry ▯ Athletic trainers use psychology to help athletes recover from injuries ▯ ▯ History of Sport and Exercise Psychology (1893-1920) ▯ Late 1800s: Norman Triplett- Psychologist and bicycle racing enthusiast ▯ -Studied the effect of the presence of others on bicycling performance ▯ ▯ 1920s-1930s ▯ -Coleman Griffith: known as the “Father of American Sport Psychology” ▯ -Initiated first coaching schools in America ▯ ▯ 1960s ▯ -Trait personality studies were conducted related to sport participation and social facilitation or audience effects on motor performance ▯ -National and international organizations were formed ▯ ▯ 1970s ▯ -Sport psychology became a legitimate sub-discipline ▯ -Rainer Martens pioneered the systematic study of competitive anxiety in sport ▯ ▯ Modern Sport and Exercise Psychology ▯ 1980s: Emergence of exercise psychology, the growth of field research, and an explosion of applied mental training with athletes ▯ ▯ 1990s: Growth of sport psychology and exercise psychology sub- disciplines continued, professional training standards were implemented, consulting guidelines and ethical standards for exercise were approved and the U.S. Olympic Committee registry of certified professionals was created ▯ ▯ 2000s: The knowledge base of the field grew rapidly with an increase in published research, providing a sound foundation for sport psychology practice ▯ -Tremendous increase in qualitative research, which typically involves interview data ▯ -Rapid expansion of sport and exercise psychology practice ▯ -Online access to websites including Peak Performance Sports, Virtual Brands sport psychology ▯ -A new journal dedicated to practitioners titled the Journal Of Sport Psychology in Action was established in 2010 ▯ ▯ Research Methods in Sport and Exercise Psychology ▯ -Questionnaires: psychological inventories ▯ -Interviews: in-depth, more complex responses ▯ -Observations: behavior checklist or coding ▯ -Physiological measures: heart rate or brain waves ▯ -Biochemical measures: analyze blood or urine ▯ -Content analysis: analyze written work such as activity journals ▯ ▯ Overview of Knowledge in Sport and Exercise Psychology ▯ -Personality ▯ -Motivation ▯ -Energy management ▯ -Interpersonal and group processes ▯ -Developmental concerns ▯ -Intervention techniques for physical activity enhancement ▯ ▯ Personality ▯ -Personality types in sport  No set of traits exists for an athletic personality, but successful athletes posses more positive self-perceptions and use more productive cognitive coping strategies than less successful athletes do. ▯ -Personality types in exercise  No set traits exists for an exercise personality, but persistent and consistent exercisers are more self-motivated and confident in their physical abilities than sedentary people ▯ -Effects of sport on personality  Sport in itself does not build character; moral development and prosocial behaviors must be modeled and created in the structure of the program ▯ -Effects of exercise on personality  Exercise has been shown to produce several benefits including enhanced self-concept and psychological well-being and decreased anxiety and depression ▯ ▯ Motivation ▯ -A complex set of internal and external forces that directs and energizes our behavior in sport and exercise. ▯ -All humans, regardless of their individual goals, are motivated to feel competent and self-determining. ▯ -Intrinsic and extrinsic ▯ -Using extrinsic reinforcers (rewards) to enhance motivation ▯ ▯ Motivational Processes ▯ -Arousal: a state of physical and psychological activation or readiness ▯ -Anxiety: a negative response to a stressful situation characterized by apprehension and feelings of threat ▯ -Stress: a process in which individuals perceive an imbalance between their response capabilities and demands of the situation ▯ ▯ Energy Management in Sport and Exercise ▯ -Feeling states experienced by athletes and exercisers  Mental  Physical  Pleasant or unpleasant  Stress  Anxiety  Flow ▯ -How energy influences performance is unique to the specific experience ▯ ▯ Interpersonal and Group Processes in Sport and Exercise ▯ -Presence of others ▯ -Group membership ▯ -Leadership ▯ -Aggression ▯ -Gender socialization ▯ ▯ Developmental Concerns in Psychology of Sport and Exercise ▯ -Physical activity in children ▯ -Physical activity in older adults ▯ ▯ Intervention Techniques for Physical Activity ▯ -Intervention techniques in sport and exercise psychology are used to increase exercise adherence, enhance sport performance, develop life skills, aid in injury rehab, and ease cancer transitions and retirement from sport. ▯ -Goal setting ▯ -Self-talk ▯ -Attention control and focusing ▯ -Imagery ▯ -Physical relaxation techniques ▯ ▯ Burnout ▯ -Stages  Feelings of mental, emotional, and physical exhaustion  Negative moods and feelings (depression, despair) and a negative change in responses to other people  Lack of accomplishment  Disillusioned with involvement; occurs when personality characteristics interact with life stressors ▯ -Adaptation and staleness ▯ -Entrapment: lack of enjoyment ▯ -Preventing burnout  Challenge  Variety of activity ▯ ▯ Sport and Exercise Psychology Is… ▯ -A young science, developed in the last four decades ▯ -Related to sport and exercise performance, excellence, and enhancement ▯ -Related to the adoption and maintenance of physical activity behaviors for health benefits ▯ ▯ Clicker Questions: ▯ -Dr. Devita’s research is the study of daily living. In particular he discussed the following research examples during his lecture: Both A & C ▯ -Most undergrad courses in Biomechanics contain all of these components except: Exercise Physiology ▯ -Physics is simply: biomechanics of moving around ▯ -Biomechanics can assist with design of equipment, artificial limbs, and orthoses for safety. True ▯ -The guiding principles and concepts of biomechanics come from which of the following subdisciplines? Mechanical physics, mechanical and biological engineering, and biology ▯ -Specialists who apply their knowledge of physiology, biomechanics, anatomy, and psychology in order to improve the movements, working environments, and training programs in the workplace are called: ergonomists or human factors engineers ▯ -Industries in the 1950s needed to know the measurements of people to design seats, cockpits, and instrument panels that fit these users. What is the study of people's physical dimensions that provided this type of information? Anthropometrics ▯ -What is the name of the governing organization for Sports Medicine in the U.S.: The American College Of Sports Medicine (ACSM) ▯ -What does the thoroughbred race horse Man of War and Lance Armstrong have in common making them great athletes: large hearts for their size ▯ ▯ What is Biomechanics of Physical Activity? ▯ -Biomechanics applies the mechanical principles of physics and engineering to the motion, structure, and functioning of all living systems ▯ -Biomechanists in the filed of physical activity study how these principles affect human movement and the structure and function of the human body. ▯ ▯ Undergraduate Biomechanics Courses ▯ Three basic components: ▯ -Neuromuscular-Skeletal Biomechanics: the study of the basic properties of the nervous, muscular, skeletal systems on a biomechanical level ▯ -Functional Anatomy: the study of anatomy on a movement and functional basis ▯ -Biomechanics: the quantitative analysis of human movement as described above – the physics and math calculations ▯ ▯ Goals of Biomechanics ▯ -Understand how the basic laws of physics affect and shape the structure and function of the human body ▯ -Apply this understand to improve the outcomes of our movements (such as performance effectiveness) and increase or maintain the safety and health of our tissues ▯ ▯ Application of Biomechanics ▯ -Improve movement techniques for sport performance, locomotion, and motor skill acquisition ▯ -Improve equipment ▯ -Prevent injury ▯ ▯ Two Main Theme of Study in Biomechanics ▯ -Function: how we produce forces to generate, maintain, or slow down movement during physical activity ▯ -Structure: how forces (such as gravity) affect our body tissues ▯ ▯ What Does a Biomechanist Do? ▯ -Researcher ▯ -Clinical biomechanist ▯ -Performance enhancement specialist ▯ -Ergonomist or human factors engineer ▯ -Forensic biomechanist ▯ -University professor ▯ -Certified orthotist or prosthetist ▯ ▯ Goals of a Biomechanist ▯ -Improve performance in sport and dance ▯ -Reduce or prevent injuries at work, at home, and during exercise and sport tasks ▯ -Improve the movements of people with pathological conditions (clinical settings) ▯ -Increase performers’ health with exercise or training regimens ▯ -Assist with the design of equipment, artificial limbs, and othoses for safety ▯ ▯ History of Biomechanics ▯ -Early beginnings:  Aristotle, Leonardo da Vinci  Biomechanics applications begin in late 1800s  Posse and Skarstrom: first use of the term kinesiology in the United States in late 1800s  1920s and 1930s: researchers such as Ruth Glassow, Thomas Cureton, and Charles McCloy  World events shape biomechanics (WWI, WWII, polio, physical therapy  1960s: conferences, organizations, gradute-level programs, Kinesiology Section (1965)  1970s: rapid expansion, sport medicine, dance kinesiology (biomechanics)  Late 20 century: continued expansion of university programs and organizations, switch from the term kinesiology to biomechanics to identify this subdiscipline ▯ ▯ Movement Analysis Model ▯ 1. Identify your question ▯ 2. State performance goals ▯ 3. Consider influencing factors ▯ 4. Understand motions and mechanics ▯ 5. Determine relevant biomechanical principles and movement techniques ▯ 6. Observe or measure ▯ 7. Assess, evaluate, and interpret ▯ ▯ Biomechanical Instrumentation and Other Tools ▯ -Stopwatches, metronomes, protractors, barbells, and free weights ▯ -Computer simulations ▯ - ▯ Clicker Questions: ▯ -Exercise physiology is the study of: acute and chronic bodily responses to physical activity ▯ -This kinesiologist was one of the first to contribute to the field of exercise physiology with his Nobel Prize-winning work on metabolism. A.V. Hill ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Physiology of Physical Activity ▯ -The study of acute (immediate) physiological responses to physical activity and the changes in physiological responses to chronic (repeated over time) physical activity ▯ -Exercise physiologists apply principles of biology and chemistry to understand how the body responds to physical activity ▯ ▯ Sports Medicine ▯ -Also known as sport and exercise medicine, is a branch of medicine that deals with physical fitness and the treatment and prevention of injuries related to sports and exercise ▯ -Sports thdicine has emerged as a distinct field of health care since the late 20 century ▯ ▯ The field of exercise science involves a range of disciplines similar to those in sports medicine; consequently, it is common for exercise science professionals to work in sports medicine facilities ▯ ▯ The field of exercise science, however is typically much broader than sports medicine… ranging from the study of how organ systems work at the cellular level when confronted with disease… improving the biomechanical efficient of an employee working on an assembly line ▯ ▯ Exercise Physiology vs. Sport Physiology ▯ -Exercise physiology studies how the body’s structures and function are altered when exposed to acute and chronic bouts of exercise ▯ -Sport physiology applies exercise physiology concepts to an athlete’s training and performance ▯ ▯ Modern Branches of Study ▯ Exercise Physiology  Biochemistry  Molecular biology  Metabolism and Nutrition  Endocrinology  Environmental Physiology  Clinical Rehab  Training and Prescription  Sport Performance  -Aging, Gender  Physical Therapy ▯ ▯ Goals of Physiology ▯ -To understand how to enhance physical performance ▯ -To understand how to improve physical function in particular environments, such as a high temperature or high altitude ▯ -To understand how physical activity and exercise improve health and fitness ▯ -To understand how exercise can be used in treating and preventing disease and alleviating ▯ ▯ History of Physiology of Physical Activity ▯ -Early beginnings evolved from physiology  Antoine Lavoisier  August Krogh  A.V. Hill ▯ Early laboratories (1920s-1940s)  Harvard Fatigue Lab: D.B. Dill  Springfield College: Peter V. Karpovich  University of Illinois: Thomas K. Cureton Jr. ▯ ▯ Significant Events Since 1950 ▯ -1950s: Morris Coronary Heart Disease study in England; ACSM founded ▯ -1960s: biopsy needle: Mexico City Olympics; Medicine and Science in Sports ▯ -1970s: ACSM certification program; publications ▯ -1980s: amenorrhea related to low bone density ▯ -1990s: NIH and surgeon general’s reports ▯ ▯ How should we approach designing a training regimen? ▯ FITT Principle  Frequency  Intensity  Time  Type ▯ ▯ What Does a Physiologist of Physical Activity Do? ▯ -University professors -Researchers for the military or NASA -Employees of corporate fitness or hospital-based wellness programs -Clinical exercise physiologists employed by hospitals in cardiac rehabilitation programs Health Effects of Moderate Physical Activity -Moderate physical activity is beneficial in reducing the rick of chronic diseases—heart disease, diabetes, hypertension, and colon cancer Significant research findings linking physical activity and health -Physical Activity and Health: A Report of the Surgeon General -NIH Website -JAMA article Research Methods in Physiology of Physical Activity Laboratory ▯ -Ergometers: treadmills, leg and arm cycles, and swimming flume ▯ -Oxygen uptake: gas analyzers ▯ -Body composition: underwater weighing, calipers, and DEXA ▯ -Biochemical methods: blood samples and muscle biopsies ▯ -Animal models: mammals that match humans as closely as possible; can control the subject and environment more easily and specifically ▯ ▯ Overview of Knowledge in Physiology of Physical Activity ▯ -How physiological systems (cardiovascular, muscular and respiratory) respond and adapt to physical activity (single and repeated boosts) ▯ -Factors that influence physiological responses ▯ -The relationship among fitness, activity, and health ▯ ▯ Skeletal Muscles ▯ -Muscle fiber types ▯ -Adaptations  To anaerobic and aerobic training  To resistance training ▯ -Training principles, including progressive and overload specificity ▯ ▯ Cardiovascular System ▯ -Cardiac output: heart rate and stroke volume ▯ -Blood flow distribution ▯ -Cardiorespiratory adaptions to training ▯ ▯ Respiratory System ▯ -Regulates the exchange of gases (including oxygen) between the external environment (air) and the internal environment (inside the body) ▯ -Ventilation increases rapidly at the onset of physical activity and also as a function of exercise intensity ▯ -Training can alter the efficiency of the body to move and utilize oxygen ▯ ▯ Physical Activity, Fitness, and Health ▯ -Effects of age on fitness ▯ -Physical activity, fitness, and coronary heart disease ▯ -Physical activity and weight control ▯ ▯ Physical Activity, Fitness, and Health Recommendations ▯ -Improvement in cardiovascular endurance requires 20-60 minutes of activity at 70-94% of maximal heart rate, 3-5 days per week. ▯ -Health benefits results from the accumulation of 150 minutes of physical activity in various ways, including 30 minutes 5 days per week or 50 minutes 3 days per week ▯ ▯ Physiology of Physical Activity ▯ -Study and Explore  Acute and chronic adaptations to physical activity for performance, fitness, and health improvements  Cellular and total body physiology  The body’s response to physical activity related to a variety of factors (for instance, heat, environments, altitude) ▯ -Variety of career opportunities ▯ ▯


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