VPHY 3100: Week of 10/26
VPHY 3100: Week of 10/26 VPHY 3100
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lorin Crear on Friday October 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to VPHY 3100 at University of Georgia taught by Dr. Li, Dr. Wells, Dr. Brown in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see Elements of Physiology in Animal Science and Zoology at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 10/30/15
Chapter 15 The Cardiovascular System 0 MBP Control systems 0 Neurologic I Arterial baroreceptor system 0 Hormonal I Renin angiotensin aldosterone system RASS U P quotWOSX N Housed in nephron of kidney 1 Blood pressure falls in afferent arteriole 2 3 Renin acts on angiotensinogen Renin secreted into arteriole by specialized cells in kidney a Angiotensinogen produced by liver Angiotensin I is created ACE angiotensinconverting enzyme converts angiotensin I to angiotensin 11 active form Angiotensin 11 causes vasoconstriction immediately a Effects last short period of time Angiotensin II binds to receptors in adrenal gland Adrenal glands release aldosterone Aldosterone causes kidneys to retain salt and water Blood volume and therefore stroke volume increases a Effects last several days Can be affected by medical treatments unlike baroreceptor system 0 Body Water Distribution 23 of body water is intracellular 80 of extracellular water in interstitial space 20 of extracellular water in blood plasma Diffusion across capillary walls I Pressure differences between arterioles venules and interstitial space create diffusion of uid I More uid moves out of arteriolar end of capillary than in I More uid moves into venular end of capillary than out I Net movement of uid into interstitial space in most tissues 0 Lymphatic System 0 Transports excess interstitial uid as lymph from tissues back to cardiovascular O O O 0 system I Oneway valves in lymph capillaries prevent uid from escaping or reversing directions I Lymph capillaries 9 lymph ducts I Thoracic duct delivers uid back to vena cavae o Produces and houses lymphocytes for immune response I All uid is filtered through lymph node which houses immune response cells before being returned to vessels 0 Transports absorbed fats from intestines to blood 0 Edema I Accumulation of excess interstitial uid I Often caused by parasite that blocks lymph vessels Chapter 16 Respiration 0 Respiratory System 0 Components of Respiration I Ventilation 0 Movement of air in and out of lungs I Gas Exchange diffusion of 02 and C02 0 Lungs between air and blood 0 Tissues between blood and cells I Oxygen utilization 0 Biochemical processes in cells 0 Conducting and Respiratory Zones I Conduction Zones Airways 0 No gas exchange 0 Upper airway o Nosemouth to beginning of trachea 0 Lower airway 0 Beginning of trachea larynx to start of respiratory bronchioles 0 Opening of larynx glottis covered by ap of skin epiglottis to prevent food going down airway 0 Vocal chords housed in larynx 0 Conduct air to respiratory zone 0 Trachea 9 primary bronchus 9 bronchial tree 9 terminal bronchiole 9 respiratory bronchioles 9 alveoli 0 Coated with mucous for filtration of large particles 0 Humidify and warm air 0 Ventilation I Lungs are adherent to pleura of thoracic wall 0 Changing size of thoracic cavity changing lung volume I Lungs and thorax are compliant and elastic 0 Can be actively expanded but will return to normal size once active expansion ceases I Air moves from high to low pressure 0 Increasing lung volume lowers intrapulmonary pressure below atmospheric levels air comes in 0 Decreasing lung volume raises intrapulmonary pressure above atmospheric levels air goes out I InspirationExhalation o Inspirationinhalation breathing in o Diaphragm muscle forming bottom of thoracic cavity contracts and attens 0 External intercostal muscles contract and lift ribs upwards and outwards o Expirationexhalation breathing out 0 O 0 Normally at rest twice as long as inspiration Diaphragm relaxes and curves upwards External intercostal muscles relax I Diseases affecting respiration o Affecting gas exchange 0 Pulmonary edema o Affecting ventilation O O O O O I Spirometry Cystic fibrosis Pulmonary fibrosis COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Asthma Emphysema 0 Ventilatory function test 0 Measures lung volume and capacities 0 Can diagnose lung disorders 0 Terms 0 O O O Tidal volume I Volume of gas inspired or expired in normal respiratory cycle Inspiratory reserve volume I Maximum volume of gas that can be inspired in addition to tidal volume during forced breathing Expiratory reserve volume I Maximum volume of gas that can be expired in addition to tidal volume during forced breathing Residual volume I Volume of gas remaining in lungs after a maximum expiration 0 Respiratory minute volume 0 O 0 Volume of air or exhaled in one minute Inspired volume x respiratory rate Can be increased hyperventilation or decreased hypoventilation 0 Gas exchange in Lungs I Pulmonary arterioles constrict when partial pressure of 02 is low and dilate when partial pressure of 02 is high 0 Blood ow to alveoli increases when they are full of oxygen and decreases when not 0 Ensures only ventilated alveoli are sent blood 0 Opposite trend in systemic arterioles o Dilate when partial pressure of 02 is low and constrict when high o Ensures hypoxic tissues receive increased blood ow 0 Regulation of breathing I Control by motor neurons in two areas of brain 0 Cerebral cortex 0 Voluntary breathing 0 Respiratory centers of medulla oblongata and pons o Involuntary breathing o Apneustic center I In pons I Enhances and prolongs inspiration 0 Pneumotaxic center I In pons I Inhibits inspiration 0 Rhythmicity area I In medulla I Drives autonomic normal breathing I Neurons travel spinal cord from here to 6th cervical vertebra C6 level of diaphragm I Hyperventilation 0 Product of cerebral cortex input to this area I Ondine s curse 0 Gradual loss of function in rhythmicity area 0 Patient must learn to consciously breathe I Chemoreceptors 0 Central chemoreceptors in medulla o 80 of control 0 Monitor pH of uids in brain 0 Peripheral chemoreceptors in carotid artery and aorta o 20 of control 0 Monitor pH and in blood 0 Limited responsiveness to partial pressure of oxygen I Carbon dioxide 0 Driver of respiration 0 C02 H20 lt gt H2C03 lt gt H HCO3 o Rising levels of C02 rising levels of H more inhalation needed 0 Falling levels of C02 falling levels of H less inhalation needed 0 Unless there is a severe drop in 02 concentration it has no real effect on ventilation