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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jacquelyn Stinson on Friday October 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ARH 358 at University of Oregon taught by Lord C in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see History of Design >1 in Art History at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 10/30/15
Week 5 Monday October 26 2015 Beginning of Design Reform I continued from Week 4 Pugin English Design Reformer Portrait of Augustus Pugin as Youth naive representation of him but his ideas have strong influence he critiques industrial mass production of objects Important concepts by Pugin o 1 design should be expressive of the contemporary period values and atmosphere 0 2 There should be no design element that is not an expression of the essential structure of the design This means that decoration should be an enhancement of the core structure Pugin relates the lack of sole to contemporary design 18205 and 305 and the high point in English history with the Gothic 0 Says there should be a close relationship between the designer and the process of the design 0 his designs reference the gothic his conclusion is that gothic is expressive of his own time 0 He is an illustration of a renaissance designer because he works with many different types of materials ceramics textiles furniture and architecture with this he references the gothic everywhere 0 He is incredibly thoughtful to detail St Giles Cheadle England 18405 0 Pugin designed the interior and exterior of this church 0 Also designed the accoutrements to unify the environment Ceramic plates respects integrity of the shape doesn t cover the entire surface and contours the outer limits of the shapes This is an example of his refined way of design Cole Founder of art schools across England Builds on Pugin but uses the machine His designs references past forms such as the Etruscans which are the root of ancient Roman culture Design is integrated with the form Minton Porcelain 1846 industrial exhibition 0 Fundamental structure is streamline and forward looking 0 For example there are various was to pour the tea pot 0 Designs are placed on the handles but decoration does not overcast the function of the piece Not against machine design like Pugin was Address the problem of separating the designer and the production Goes on to be involved in the production of wine glasses Tendril wine glass produced by Cole s Summery s Art Manufacturers Designer Richard Redgrave o Produced by a company he founded Summerly s Art Manufacturers I Goal of factory To revive the practice of best art with the objects of everyday use I Machine production to reduce cost without decreasing the quality maintain integrity of materials Pugin would agree with this I High quality design to follow important principals but collaborate with existing firms and artisans 0 Light airy and simple Wellspring Vase lighter and simplified elegant approach to design cast bronze stove 1851 at the time of the great exhibition in London Publication called the Journal of Design founded in 1849 by Cole 0 In the first issues he offers his definition of design design has a twofold relation First is to utility and second is the beautifyingornamentation of the utility Design is often focused on ornament rather than utility but utility is essential o This refers to the idea that in the hands of industry at large design was being reduced to ornamentation and the object as a whole was lost After 1851 Great Exhibition Cole was in charge of the art schools in England and helped found the Victoria and Albert Art Museum Crystal Palace design by Joseph Paxton London 1851 Site of Great Exhibition sponsored by Prince Albert consort to Queen Victoria 0 Technology of greenhouse architecture which cased natural illumination 0 Sheer skin between inside and outside 0 Paxton was an architect specialized in greenhouse design he was originally a botanist 0 Construction was an example of the modern manufacturing practice because it is made or prefabricated elements 0 Composite building panes of glass in an iron frame 0 It was a platform to showcase industrial design enormous open spaces 0 Cultural exhibitions take place at these exhibitions it is not just about art 0 Duke of Wellington was a visitor o Sugarcane pressing mill was exhibited 0 These exhibitions were the precedent to the World s Fairs 0 Sponsor of the exhibition Prince Albert which gives it great public attention and funds 0 Exhibitions like this were talked about since the French Revolution Prince Albert makes the exhibition about a showcase for modern manufacturing practice Industrial places like this begin to replace the ideas of the gothic cathedral 0 There is a widely recognized sensibility to these types of structures in Europe 0 Nations exhibit their national pride at world s fair 0 Satirical image of the world coming to the crystal palace shown like an ant mound 0 Images of the English center Manchester shown as emptied because everyone has gone to London to see the exhibition 0 Chair designed by Thomas Warren suggests eclecticism that is showcased made of cast iron with cushion it has wheels outcome is illproportioned and ugly Wednesday October 28 2015 Height of design reform push back to the industrial revolution Pugin the foundation figure of the movement Cole relied tremendously on Pugin s thinking became director of art schools in England he is a designer manufacturer and involved in theory Christopher Dresser another leading figure of the movement who was influenced by Pugin from the 1840s born 1834 enrolled in a government school of design at age 13 and later taught here At the 1851 Exhibition design was approached from different ways included economic factors good design produces an income Dresser makes sense of what was learned from the platform of design at the exhibition Unlike Pugin Dresser is less focused on historical elements and is more focused on original designs He has a background in botany scientific viewpoint this makes him overlap with Cole because they both have a focus on nature He uses his scientific learning to generate designs and ornamentations that are abstract John Ruskin the most important art critic of the 19th century influences Dresser 0 Optimal basis for ornamentation 1856 The Grammar of Ornament by Owen Jones 0 Major publication of design reform movement 0 Exposure to advocates of the design reform o Oceanic Tribal and Egyptian design from the Grammar of Ornament I Influence from various cultures from all over the world I Academic study of design is based on a broad range of areas Remember wedgewood vases were influenced by the Etruscans with Flaxman I This is an example of a Pattern Book 0 Botanical drawings for Owen Jones The Grammar of Design 1856 I Not the only pattern book of the time but it is the most carefully studied I The concept of the book is to hold models of design principals I Clearly botanical study based which has an old tradition scientific illustration as a design source culmination of design and science Pages from articles on art botany in Art Journal 185 759 Christopher Dresser 0 From an essay by Dresser 0 Here he is not trying to make decorative design for use by others but exposes the reading to a scientific analysis botanical form 0 Science available to those who were not studying it and maybe only had a background in art 0 Artists can be inspired by science 0 Dresser s ideas are related to Goethe whose has a concept of metamorphous in relation to plant morphology The art of Decorative Design 1862 Christopher Dresser O 0 Cover is a very important design because he is stating his point of design that he elaborates on in this book The plant influence becomes stylized Shows the range of form as a whole It appears flat Shows nature from the eyes of a designer There is a relationship between the text and the plant image It harmoniously relates to the outer frame Plant is objectified It is presented organically Japanese Court at London International Exposition of 1862 O O O 0 Second exhibition in London Dresser is influenced by the Japanese culture contemporary and folk He founds a firm and works with about 30 manufacturer to produce design based on his three interests Japanese culture botany and industry He is later invited to travel to Japan and asked to write a book about the modern industry while he is there 1882 it was published He takes Japanese Designs to Tiffany s in New York Tiffany s was important to design at this time Brings it to design school in Philadelphia as well Academy of Fine Arts Philadelphia architect Frank Furness 1876 0 You see Dressers influence in the aesthetics After Dresser s death thought of as a design reformer who is critiquing populous trends but see him as someone who can channel this critique of popular manufacturing with its problems to have a positive impact Christopher Dresser Evening Star pattern 1862 Inspired by muted colors of plant at twilight O O O 0 Art was influenced by other ancient cultures Dresser focuses on nature that is also done in Rome and other cultures but he brings in the idea of science He suggests that nature is an absolute infinite source of inspiration for designers He brings his own personal experience into his designs as he has a strong background in botany Also brings in a human and experiential dimension Inspired by his experience of twilight out in a field and how his plants are transformed by the shift of light Multiple experience come together to create this illustration Image is flat and stylized but still creates a mood Christopher Dresser Initial sketches of designs inspired by lines of poetry by Shelley and other poets o o o 0 He is intuitive and responsive Relates to nature on a personal level These are initial ideas inspired by a poem Appear like a stream of consciousness without control of his pencil Christopher Dresser design for Minton China 1867 O O O 0 Old traditional porcelain firm Imaginative manner based on natural forms Skeletal elements Explores the space between sleep and consciousthinking Christopher Dresser design sketch and finished vase for Minton China 0 Power energy force and vigor represent the forms it has an experiential quality 0 Bursting buds of spring bones of birds fish species brings in interpretative dimension of forms from nature Wednesday October 28 2015 Christopher Dresser review Inspiration from science nature and his imagination Looks at plant and insect forms There really is a market for these satirical forms He looks deeply into detail and focuses on the energy line and color based on emotions and the perception of images Develops abstract laws of nature Design sketch and finished vase for Minton China 0 Produces abstract forms of nature 0 Natural adaptions are the lowest form of ornament 0 Simply copying from nature is not enough There has to be a thinking process and a filter to arrive at a successful design He has so much information to process influence from Japan nature imagination and life experiences quotGreat Design changes lives Color plays an important role in his work 0 Evening start 1862 vs an image with vibrant color 0 Theories about certain colors being able to induce certain thoughts this idea can be translated to different eras of art 0 Use the best colors for different rooms in the home 0 He has an amazing range of color in his designs 0 Aesthetic Movement interior begun in 1860 I Principle components Godwin and Whistler I Applies his ideas about surface ornaments in various ways idea of the aesthetic interior strong organized aesthetic interior I James Whistler reflect aesthetic ideas in his painting in relation to the aesthetic interior He had his work displayed in a line across a wall at eye height in exhibitions This was different from the common way to present work which was a stacking arrangement He wanted the walls of the gallery painted to complement his work I Art should be appreciated for its pure beauty I Beauty of the object to impact lives I Training of the eye was essential to understand this beauty Design can only truly be appreciated by a very elite few I Edward Godwin designs organized by horizontal bands have wall decoration and furniture elegant proportions I James Whistler painting that illustrates Aesthetic values two examples O O O O 0 Symphony in White No 2 The little white girl1864 o The Lady of the Lang Lijsen 1864 0 Color mood refined appreciation of exquisite art 0 Neoclassic and Gothic characteristics are used Most influential element of the Aesthetic Movement were the Chinese and Japanese Prints in Japan discovered because they were used for packing porcelains Appreciate lines of furniture come from this part of the world Furniture is opened up Edward Godwin Sideboard 1867 0 Open and horizontal and vertical lines Christopher Dresser RenaissanceJapanese Cabinet Cast iron coast stand and chair 1867 Dresser worked more closely with ceramics than he did with Furniture He designed for Minton and Wedgewood Exploited red clay that he was responsive to Very modern looking Slightly decorated contrast to his work for Minton that has more decoration example of Dressers versatility Christopher Dress Pitchers for Linthorpe 1880 o Lintel and Ault Pottery began working in 1879 Peruvian Stirrup pot 1500 Dresser vase for linthrope 1880