Religion and Exploration Oct. 26-30
Religion and Exploration Oct. 26-30 HIST 1010 - 001
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaytlyn Notetaker on Friday October 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1010 - 001 at Auburn University taught by Donna Jean Bohanan in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 73 views. For similar materials see World History I in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 10/30/15
Read witch craze book questions Friday Wars of Religion Oct 26 2015 I Explanations for Religious Violence A Catholic ideas of collective salvation B Protestant martyrs II Patterns of Violence i Purgatory ii The Elect iii Iconoclasm 15591648 one part of Europe or another is in the midst of some religious con ict Why do people that call themselves Christians justify killing others Collective salvation propeed con ict between Catholics and Protestants There is theology of the church which is actual documentation and there is popular religion which are the beliefs of ordinary men and women and they don39t always match up and aren39t always the of cial ideals of the church and one of these was coective salvation aka we are all in it together very communal and they did everything together and had intense feelings of community A protestant in their midst was a threat to the collective salvation of the community When Catholics acted out against Protestants was because they feared the risk of their and their children39s salvation and the community not because they hated them The Protestants made their distinct communities over time and within them they adopted the view of martyrs which indirectly causes violence martyrs die for their beliefs During religious wars there are catholic and protestant martyrs but for Protestants it39s more signi cant because there is ideas of predestination and they have signs that they are chosen and what better sign then dying for the cause This is why so many were willing to die There are distinct patterns of violence between the two Among Catholics in this period when they killed someone they continued mutilating the corpse unlike Protestants Why did they do this Possibly because of the doctrine of purgatory so they39re trying to save that corpse to try and save that soul by cleansing it by in icting more damage Protestant violence is associated with iconocasm which is an icon and they tended to destroy them and worried Catholics worshipped the pictures and statues and that they believed was wrong They would strip their own churches of these icons especiay Calvinists When they got really worked up as a community and attacks the Catholics they did this through iconocasm or destruction of icons conocasm image breaker or someone is a renegade totally different Main Points Collective salvation is how Christians justi ed killing which propelled Catholic and Protestant con ict Collective salvation was an idea of the people not church quotwe are all in this togetherquot Catholics had a strong sense of community so fought Catholics in fear pf that being disrupted Catholics continually mutilated a dead body possibly to quotsave themquot in purgatory and protestants were iconoclastic so they destroyed catholic churches lll Example French Wars of Religion A Huguenot movement B Royal policy C The nobility France was throughout this period overwhelmingly Protestants known as Huguenots Huguenots are like Calvinists Royal policy makes the violence worse The monarchy was a sacred catholic institution and had been since middle ages Henry II persecuted protestants and made it the official policy of the government and made laws to kill them so the Huguenot had to go sort of underground and they are forced to practice under cover but it makes them more prepared and militant and it made them form their own underground armies which were highly organized because religious wars are inevitable They also contributed by monarchs mediating Catholics and Protestants after the wars The peace treaties always failed because it made things worse because a policy of moderation infuriated the Catholics because it meant the Protestants could exist because it places their salvation in jeopardy and also sort of empowers the Protestants Nothing the crowns did helped France had high ranking nobility of both religions and had vassals everyone involved in the family was of the family39s religion When wars broke out there are 3 most important nobilities house of bourbonprotestant house of guise catholic and another that we won39t talk about The house of Guise comes across a village that is protestant and they give the order to kill which ignites the wars Finally may have a treaty that can work in 1572 Charles the IX son is in power and he has a famous mom Catherine de Medici who is very resentful and prior to Charles was another and Mary Stuart dominated his rule Catherine was Henry39s wife and mother of Charles Henry of Navarre protestant marries into the family which is very symbolic and important The wedding takes place and Catherine gets cold feet for Mary and Henry of Navarre because they may have given Protestants the upper hand so she persuades Henry to start a massacre of Protestants in Paris This is a preempted strike to derail Protestants militarily This is Bartholomew39s day of massacre Thousands died in Paris and people thought their behavior was okay because the king wanted it Henry of Navarre was imprisoned and forced to convert and nally escaped and reconverted but the massacre started everything all over 1589 the last of Catherine39s sons to be king have died and the dynasty comes to an end It is passed to the famous next relative and goes to Henry of Navarre and the Bourbon family and reconverts to Catholicism after 3 years The sincerity of his conversion seems very insincere He ends was by Edict of Nantes where in certain areas of France Protestants can work and live there is religious tolerance not freedom Main Point France was mostly Huguenots ProtestantCalvinists Henry II made it policy to kill Huguenots so they prepped underground militaristically to save themselves for inevitable religious war Anything the royals did made things worse 3 main nobilities 2 most important are Bourbon protestant and Guise catholic Catherine of Medici was King Henry39s wife and King Charles IX mother Henry of Navarre protestant was supposed to marry Mary catholic but Catherine ended it and had Henry start a massacre of Protestants in Paris Bartholomew s Day Massacre Ironically once Catherine39s last son dies so does the family heir and it passes to Henry of Navarre Protestants under Henry gain tolerance but not freedom Age of European Exploration and Colonization Mr Baker lecture The Vikings were the beginning a Scandinavian people in Norway They were Europe39s earliest explorers Around 1000 AD they established a colony in Canada Newfoundland The Vikings arrived encountered Native Americans hated them and lots of con ict so the colony failed We know this exists because of archeological evidence and north sagas or epic poems which has the tale of the unsuccessful North American settlement They don39t start settling here why The knowledge was only spread so far because there was no printing press so they didn39t spread their knowledge past their area so most don39t know the Americas were found 3 reasons why Europeans probably wouldn39t have exploited the breakthrough even if they knew it existed 1 the presence of feudalism a system that divided Europe into small states so it kept Europe weak and divided and if you39re like this you dint possess the resources to nance the efforts and settlement kept Europe39s economy backward and selfsuf cient low trade 2 Age of Faith This gave them qualities of being against bold moves like settlement They were obsessed with the afterlife so they only cared about that 3 Technological backwardness Had very little knowledge of science and mathematics Something spurred Europe to change from this and seek colonies beyond their shores there are 6 factors 1 the renaissance This began in 14th cent Italy and opened learning and technology more dynamic and outward looking Rediscovery of Greek works that were applied to mapmaking and so they became more interested in material things learning etc 2 the crusades Started in 1095 with council of Clermont This inspired Europeans to retake Christian holy lands and in the process there were unintended consequences like exotic products spices silks etc so there was an incentive for trade and markets and thus development of commercial capitalism ad trade 3 Technological devices compass printing press 4 Bubonic plague This killed a third of European population and consequence was reduced competition for food and better chances for survivors to get better 5 Creation of Nationstates Developed award achievement so status and reward for explorers 6 Missionary efforts New markets etc Vasco de Gama reaches India to seek Christians and spices Early European exploration The Mediterranean and Atlantic fringe 1 Atlantic Fringes Azores canary39s and Medeiros 2 Sugar Plantations this system carries to Americas aka forced labor In canaries they enslaved the people and they were exhausted and so Africans were imported 3 Vivaldi brothers 1291 Early attempt to move away by discovering a route around Africa to India Their area was where Christopher Columbus was birthed Their idea was implanted into Columbus39s mind He vastly underestimated the distance to India Main Points Vikings began the age of exploration They colonized in Canada but left due to the natives word didn39t spread of the Americas It is thought that even if Europe knew of the new land they wouldn39t have used the information because of faith technologic backwardness and feudalism Europe began to explore nally because of the renaissance crusades technology plague nationstates and missionaries They started by exploring the Mediterranean and Atlantic fringe where plantations came about and the Vivaldi Brothers sparked the idea of discovering a route around Africa to India which later gave that idea to Christopher Columbus Portugal l Structural advantages The one true nationstate of Europe No big frontier so easy to control borders They were already maritime location so shorted distance to travel to new world than others lnitial motivation was a speedy route to the east Persia India and china and they wanted cheaper goods from Africa so they wanted to save money by exploring African coast Early exploration of coast and meeting Africans had consequences 1 Slavery This is most far reaching consequence Slavery had been present in Europe before but by this point slavery died out in Europe and Portuguese reintroduced it 2 Sailing techniques They re ne techniques and learn of 3 Volta do mar which is principle of sailing across the water a straight line isn39t the best route an indirect route will catch following wind so they don39t have to ght the wind 4 Lateen sails Better shape 5 Prince Henry the Navigator He is a great supporter of learning and exploration He launches a research and development effort and brings the best to Portugal to understand what is best to be done Cristopher Columbus marries Henry s niece and bene ts from this Columbus sails under a Spanish ag why Main Points Portugal was a true nationstate and had many advantages of exploration such as location and controlled borders They wanted to nd a quicker route to india Consequences of exploration were slavery sailing techniques Volta do mar lateen sails and Prince Henry the Navigator Columbus and Spain I By 149039s Christopher is accomplished and known There must be a way to west that is quicker and shorter to India With this idea he makes a pitch to Portuguese monarchy to nance his exploration and they are uninterested He goes to royal houses of England and France He then sees Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain and they are new monarchs of Europe They had ambition and reason to want to nance exploration This was low risk and high reward National pride and royal fth 20 pro ts are what is in it for them and for Columbus riches and glory In 1492 he sets out backed by Ferdinand and Isabella They funded 3 ships and a 90 man crew Main Points Christopher Columbus wanted to nd the route to India went to Portugal to be funded as well as others and nally was funded by Spain so sailed under the Spanish ag Columbus and Spain ll October 12 1492 he sights land but doesn39t settle right away until modern day Dominican Republic or Espanola He is convinced he is close to mainland India He calls the natives lndians These are the Tainos people and the end of them At contact there were 300000 12 years later only 1600 left and then 500 etc because of disease and labor Wider Consequences l Columbian exchange a catch all term for exchange of ideas There is a deadly side The taino incident was repeated with others because of nasty diseases and labor The natives have no immunity to these diseases Ecological imperialism allowed them to take over disease There were benign consequences too like Europe gets products like corn or maize and vice versa such as horses are brought and honey bees razorback hogs for example Did Spain have the right to the land Doctrine of Discovery by pope gives Spain control but Treaty of Tordesillas which looks unfair is between Portugal and Spain Portugal gets Brazil and Spain gets Americas The bargain really isn39t unfair Early colonization efforts are by Spain mostly Brazilians speak Portuguese Europe has a greater interest in discovery now Amerigo Vespucci provided name for America Also branched out to Paci c Ocean Europeans Magellan and Cook Ferdinand Magellan is Portuguese but sailed under Spanish ag because Portuguese was uninterested He sails for 4 months after reaching tip of South America and ran out of food 20 members of crew died and eventually Magellan was killed in Philippians Crew presses on and gets to area around India and only 18 left of 280 and one ship of 5 when they reach Europe They circumnavigated They encountered new people bad for inhabitants of paci c islands Cook led 3 expeditions to paci c and was killed by indigenous people of Hawaii but charted New Zealand Australia etc Trade and Southeast Asia In SE Asia Portuguese est trading posts but no permanent colonies English and Dutch build trading posts and displace Portuguese here They have 2 advantages over Portuguese like faster and cheaper ships and jointstock companies Risk is spread out this way and more ef cient way to spread money and won39t lose as much if exploration goes bad British east India Company and Dutch united east lndia company come out of this There is some conquest by European powers like that of Spain who take Philippians manila 1565 and with this the Philippines are more catholic than anywhere else there Consolidation of Russian nation in mid 16th century Russians are concentrated around Moscow During this period they expand and take over Siberian land Russian explorers reach Paci c Ocean they have 11 time zones and with this they discover Alaska and sail as far south as Hawaii A number of consequences that lead to Americas and people who reside the lands Colonial Latin America I Amerindian Society A Population B Labor and taxation i encomienda In the demographic impact of arrival of Europeans on lndians was huge This was a demographic disaster They population of Caribbean39s main islands had been depopulated Mexico was inhabited by Aztecs before Europeans and in 60 years the population went from 25 mil to 25 mil ln peru it went from 10 mil to 15 mil This is a result of disease brutality and over work Arrival of Europeans instantaneously had a demographic effect on the Americas because of disease like small pox u and measles What made this so bad in the Americas is that they lived out there isolated from the rest of the world so they had their own ecosystem and disease system so they had zero immunity to these diseases European diseases were a part of a large grid of the whole world except for Americas Historians think that possibly the Spanish used disease as biological warfare by sending in a sick person before the rest of them highly speculative Brutality and working people to death made a huge impact too especially working them in the mines because there was so much silver as well as some gold Initially they used extracting labor and wealth from the Americas known as encomienda Basically a Spaniard is granted the right to force Indians into labor and they had a number they were allowed to have like Cortez had 20 thousand Initially it was all about working in the mines It was so bad even the Spaniards started backing off because it seemed like an aristocracy was building due to the encomienda system What was left of the native population was still forced to work by the government for projects like mining roads etc and this was still slave labor They also took taxes from the villages This got so bad it led to a demographic shift because a lot left their villages and went to towns and cities to evade the taxation and slave labor Main Points When Europeans came to the Americas the demographic effect was immediate for they decimated populations by disease brutality and over work in mines for gold and silver They also taxed the village people II Spanish America A Aristocracy B Government C Clergy D Ethnicity and hierarchy i Haciendas ii Viceroys iii Castas iv Mestizos v Mulattoes vi Creoles vii peninsulares Aristocracy beyond the governments control did end up being created There is an American aristocracy in the Americas The settlers preferred to focus on land and farming they claimed large chunks of land that were exploited as haciendas which is a large farm like a plantation where the people became very prosperous and wealthy they became a dominant class and aristocracy in the Americas and they controlled a large chunk of the governing of Latin America Spanish government divided the land in Vices lead by viceroys Mexico City and Lima were rst until subdivided into 4 Beneath viceroys were magistrates and judges bureaucrats etc In the 16th18th centuries an elaborate government developed The church in the Americas was a branch of government and the Catholic Church was deeply involved and they sent missionaries to the Americas like Jesuits to convert the natives to Christianity and were successful in doing so It is a branch of government because the pop granted control to the Americas and drew the line so they39re very involved in the colonization In some ways the clergy become agents to the government and sometimes ful lled government functions as well as representing the church They began to organize like they did in Europe like priests etc They built similar churches as they had in Europe and it re ected indigenous tradition There was a society of castas created and this refers to people of mixed heritage As soon as Europeans arrived the mixing of races occurs Europeans forced themselves on Amerindian women and some took Indian women as wives so early on there were children of mixed race known as mestizos which were Indian and European Arrival of Europeans was so devastating that as they dropped in numbers they brought African slaves to America and these European men exploited African women who gave birth to Mulattoes who were African and European Over time the number grew and grew in complexity like mulattoes marrying mestizos which makes it very complex racial heritage Castas was a huge percent of population now Latin America called themselves a society of castas and a hierarchy occurred that put Europeans on top and Africans on the bottom and castas in between A phenomena developed called the castas painting which categorized variation of heritage and were labeled as such this re ects a racially hierarchical society and your color is where you rank and how you live At the top you had white Europeans and even in this there were different groups Over time Spanish families in Americas over generations became known as creoles which meant white families Spanish European families who lived in Americas for generation and never lived in Spain these were the elites in America There were also peninsulares who came from Spanish Iberian peninsula who had just come over to the Americas but grew up and were educated in Spain This created a con ict and the creoles have lived well and were wealthy here and the peninsulares looked down at creoles as pigs less well educated etc Main Points To Spain39s dismay an aristocracy was created because settlers took lots of land and farmed it using slave labor Africans too now because natives were almost used up They used a hacienda system which is like a plantation in South America and become very wealthy and take over the economy and politics To try and control the land Spain split the land into vices controlled by viceroys Under viceroys was a normal bureaucratic chain such as judges etc The church was still deeply involved in politics Mixing of races occurs furthering the split between castas or classes Mestizos were European and Amerindian and mulattoes were African and European There were even casta painting which had pictures and description of the types of mixes Creoles were Spanish who have lived in the Americas for generations Peninsulares are Spaniards from spain who looked down on Creoles for not being educated the same lll Enlightenment and Bourbon Reforms A Restructuring of government B Colonial reactions American enlightenment was an Intellectual movement in west Transatlantic phenomena of North American colonies of Britain and Latin America They wanted to create a better world by applying reason over custom and tradition There was restruction of government and economy these were Bourbon reforms Spain wants to x its government in Latin America to make it and its economy better and more productive which was a problem for people especially creoles who don39t want things to change and that the peninsulares were for reform The creoles were very threatened now and they don39t like this so they started an independence movement because they don39t want the system changed that put them on top So Latin American independence was to keep creoles on top French Haiti starts the major creole led independence slavery here