Week 10 Lecture Notes
Week 10 Lecture Notes BIOL 3020-001
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maria Martinez on Friday October 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 3020-001 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Dr. Miller in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Comparative Anatomy of the Vertebrates in Biology at Middle Tennessee State University.
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Date Created: 10/30/15
Week 10 Lecture Notes Biology 3020 Respiratory System Gills o Gill Arch Coverings o In lampreys I Have a branchial pouch I No cover protects the lateral opening of the gill chamber 0 In sharks I they have septal gills connecting the dorsal and ventral surface I Individual ap valves are formed from individual gill septa guard each gill chamber I Have lamellae but the gills are exposed o In most fish I Gills are covered by the operculum o Hemibranch I only one gill side has primary lamellae o Homobranch I Each gill has primary lamellae 0 Have a spiracle that develops as a branchial pouch highly vascularized gill blood vessels go from the spiracle directly to the brain 0 Auxiliary Respiratory Structures 0 Fish gill I Is efficient extracts about 8095 of oxygen from water except in water with low concentration 0 To modify bimodal breathing I Super branchial air chambers develop above gills and the lamellae grow into pouches this allows them to go to the surface 0 The air that is sucked in goes to highly vascularized lamallae to extract the oxygen 0 an example of this are betta fish 0 Extension in gut tube allows for the modified mucosal lining to increase the surface area in the lining to absorb oxygen Gas bladder o If the gas bladder is used for respiration it is referred to as lungs if used for buoyancy control then it is referred to as a swim bladder o Lungs Evolve from tetrapods and develop embryonically Usually paired In small vertebrates it is not uncommon for the animal to only have one lung due to the small body area such is the case of snakes lungfish lung 0 is a bilobial structure 0 have faveoli like structures 0 Swim Bladder A balloon like structure developed under the vertebral column Most fish use lungs as a swim bladder to develop a neutral buoyancy in the water they are in Fish esh is more dense than skin making them sink A swim bladder filled with gas reduces fish density helping them oat By adjusting the pressure in the swim bladder the fish can oat without expanding energy 0 2 types of swim bladders 1 Physostomous Swim bladder o in Gars Bowfins and lungfish 0 have a pneumatic duct connection between the bladder and the digestive tract 0 Can rise to surface of water suck in air and use it the swim bladder as a lung to absorb oxygen 0 because the swim bladder is filled with gas the fish39s density is decreased allowing it to oat 2 Physoclistous o in bass and catfish 0 do not have the connection between the bladder and the gut closed bag of gases 0 cannot suck in air Both will adjust the buoyancy of the fish because the addition and release of gasses is needed for the fish to raise or lower itself in the water Some have a gas gland that creates a capillary bed referred to as a red body The gas gland secretes lactic acid lowers the pH lowers the ability for hemoglobin to hold on to oxygen and are stored in the red body Lactic acid creates gases that collect in the lumen to sink the gases must be released and to rise gases must be added Red body 0 Impermeable gases can39t pass through Ovule o Permeable releases gases to blood to go to gills to allow the fish to sink Lizards and Snakes 0 use aspiration pump to fill lungs expanding the cavity around the lung to press air into the lungs using the ribs 0 rely on faveoli to breathe 0 have circular smooth muscles surrounding to help pump Crocodilians 0 Have prominent transverse septum portion developed to serpentine lungs from the abdominal cavity and becomes invaded With in creating the diaphragm In mammals 0 there are distinct muscles Which contract to create negative pressure to breathe 0 Also the diaphragmatic muscle pushes down on the lungs to expire contracting the muscles forces air out Tetrapods Air ow to lungs leads from the pharynx to the glottis opening of the respiratory tree to the larynx to the trachea to the bronchi Efficiency of the lung depends on the amount of respiratory membrane Lungfish and amphibian lungs have little subdivision Which results in decreased efficiency Amphibians they are endotherms so they have a low metabolic rate and in turn require low amounts oxygen o Turtles Breathe by a buccal pump In order to get air into the lungs they will push air into them with circulatory muscles that are associated with the nostrils When the nostrils open the oor of the oral cavity drops It opens the glottis brings up the oral cavity pushing the air into the lungs It does the opposite when exhaling uses transcutaneous respiration under water have modified aspiration pumps Can39t expand or contract the thoracic cage Ribs are immobile impeding body expansion Muscles alter body pressure to shift organs allowing for the area around the lungs to expand to absorb oxygen Use aspiration pumps are isotherms so they require high metabolic rates and more oxygen needs to the enter the body but ventilation rates are 25 lower than mammals of comparable size Their respiratory system is more efficient than that of a mammal They can be in areas of low oxygen because of their one way air ow When air from the bronchi goes into the lungs it bypasses the air into sacs large bones in birds have airsacs Anterior and posterior air sacs but they have multiple in the body ranging from 612sacs present in the average bird Complex ventilation System 2 step cycle for complete ventilation 0 1st Inhalation 0 air enters into the respiratory tree by passing lungs 0 Most of the air enters the posterior air sacs 0 1st Exhalation 0 Air from the posterior air sac is pushed into lungs themselves 0 2nd Inhalation 0 air is brought in and the precious air moves through the lung tissue where gas exchange takes place and is pushed into anterior air sacs 0 2nd Exhalation 0 Air from anterior air sacs is pushed out of the body 0 Mammals Breathe via aspiration pumps Will use the diaphragm and the intercostal muscles Respiratory tree air enters the glottis then goes down the larynx the trachea then bronchus Can constrict bronchial tree to limit air to lung tissues have mucus lining and Will have alveoli The diaphragm 0 assists With breathing o Evolutionarily it serves different functions on other mammals o Evolves to allow a front cage to help stop abdominal oxygen from pushing up against the heart and lungs in cats
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