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Chapter 12: Developmental Psychology

by: Gigi

Chapter 12: Developmental Psychology PSY150A1

Marketplace > University of Arizona > Psychlogy > PSY150A1 > Chapter 12 Developmental Psychology
GPA 4.0
Psychology 150A: Structure of Mind and Behavior (PSY 150A1)
Adam Lazarewicz

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About this Document

These are the lecture notes over chapter 12, Developmental Psychology.
Psychology 150A: Structure of Mind and Behavior (PSY 150A1)
Adam Lazarewicz
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gigi on Friday October 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY150A1 at University of Arizona taught by Adam Lazarewicz in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see Psychology 150A: Structure of Mind and Behavior (PSY 150A1) in Psychlogy at University of Arizona.


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Date Created: 10/30/15
Developmental Psychology Chapter 12 Developmental Psychology Stages of Prenatal Development DeCasper amp Fifer 1980 Environment amp Genetics Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Branch of Psychology that studies physical cognitive emotional amp social gchange across the life span 1 Zygote fertilized egg 23 pairs of chromosomes 12 of each pair from egg x 12 from sperm x or y XXfemale XYmale 39 y by week 1 100 cell zygote then cell differentiation begins by 1014 days zygote attaches to uterine wall outer layerplacenta innergembryop 2 Embryo weeks 28 major axis of body forms start of organ development heartbeat 3 Fetus 9 weeks through birth 6 month developed enough to survive premature birth sensitive to light amp sound Read cat amp the hat aloud 2x daily for 6 weeks before giving birth few hours after birth babies fitted with headphones pacifier like device speed of pacifier sucking hearing mother39s voice vs another woman chose speed that produced mom reading Cat in the Hat vs another story Teratogen chemical virus or radiation that causes damage to the zygote embryo fetus Cortisol stress hormone causes slower operating growth genes HIV virus Drug UseNicotine lower birth weight greater risk of SIDS Alcohol Physical amp cognitive abnormalities caused by mother39s heavy drinking Intellectual disability Social deficits Poor memory attention deficits Stunted growth Epileptic seizures Down Syndrome Newborn Preference for Social Connectedness Prenatal Brain Development Newborns amp Children Brain Development Adolescence Brain Development Iean Piget Schema Development 2 Processes Facial abnormalities Creative amp artistic skills often intact Trisomy 21 3rd copy of 21st chromosome prevents neuronal development Age of mother critical 2039s 1 in 1490 chance49 yrs old 1 in 11 chance Symptoms heart eye ear defects sleep apnea life expectancy 50 no treatment Far less competent than many other species Traditional view incompetent confused passive beings Modern view active engaged beings from birth Turn toward human voices Gaze longer at facelike patterns Neuron Development Neural Connections networks Pruning process of neural connections Children as active thinkers 39 Struggle to understand experiences develop schemas Schemas concept or framework that organizes amp interprets info Assimilation amp accommodations is schema development Drives children through 4 stages of cognitive development simple amp tangible to abstract amp conceptual Maybe even Piaget underestimated infants39 cognitive competence car hitting blockboring car going through interesting 1 Assimilation Interpreting new experiences in terms of existing schemas ex furry 4 legs tail schema dog 2 Accommodation adapting schemas to incorporate new info ex furry 4 legs tail paws short nose dogs furry 4 legs 1 Sensorimotor Stage 2 Preoperational Stage Theory of Mind Autism Spectrum Disorder Autism Symptoms Causes of Autism tail hooves long noise horse Birth until age 2 World knowledge sensory info motor activities Development of Object Permanence awareness that objects continue to exist when not perceived around 8 months old ex peek a boo so fun for young kids Age 27 p Ability to create mental representations Conservation principle that quantity remains the same despite changes in shape Egocentrisml difficulty taking another39s point of view Ability to attribute mental states to yourself amp others which allows us to infer feelings perceptions amp thoughts Brain development disorder usually diagnosed in infancy based on behaviors No babbling gesturing by 12 mo No single words by 16 mo No twoword phrases by 24 mo 12 per 1000 births 45x as common in men Social Interaction Impaired theory of mind Impairments Little eye contact smiling Less social interactions Does not mean a preference for solitude Communication Delayed onset of babbling Impairments Decreased responsiveness Echolalia echo Difficulty understanding pointing Repetitive Useless movements Behaviors Selfinjury 30 Compulsive behaviors patterns repetitive organization We don39t know NOT VACCINES Maybe autism is not one thing a collection of aspects with independent causes genetics Concrete Operational Stage Formal Operational Stage Concrete vs Formal Operational Stages Assessing Piaget39s Theory Attachment Social development Harry Harlow Strong negative correlation between mirror neuron activity and severity of autism symptoms 39 Va 39gendered39 brain BaronCohen said autism quotextreme male brainquot Females empathizers Males systemizers Ages 712 V Ability to engage in concrete operations manipulating mental representations of concrete objects 12 until adulthood Expansion of logical capabilities Concrete actual experience formal abstract imagined realities amp symbols What is vs What could be Sha er tested Asked kids to draw where they would put a third eye Concrete 910 year old 4th graders all put third eye on forehead concrete experience grounded in the reality they know felt it was uninteresting Formal 11amp 12 year old 6th graders wide variety of responses think abstractly enjoyed the assignment creative thought Good cross cultural evidence of how human cognition develops through childhood Criticism We have a continuous development Emotional tie with another person attachment figure af seek closeness to af distress upon separation 39 attached to those around during critical period especially strong in some species imprinting fami1iarity 195039s research on learning in monkeys attachment to blankets in cages 2 artificial mothers bare wire cylinder amp wooden head vs cylinder wrapped in terry cloth food from wire cloth quotmotherquot strong preference for cloth mother both groups cling when anxious base for exploring similar importance for humans touch therapy for premature births Konrad Lorenz What if he was the first thing ducklings saw They followed him imprinting Imprinting Human children don39t imprint like ducklings but still attachment to the familiar Mere Exposure Effect 4AttachmentSters 1 Secure Attachment 2 Resistant attachment 3 Avoidant attachment 4 Disorganized disoriented attachment Why different attachment styles Repeated exposure to something increases liking 65 of 1 year olds active exploration when af present separation may be upset securely attached kids are outgoing with strangers especially when af present 10 of 1 year olds stay close to af little exploration separationdistress 720 of 1 year olds separation little distress often ignore amp avoid strangers 5 of 1 year olds most insecure style combination of resistant amp avoidant confusion about whether to approach avoid af least common style but most common among abused kids Caregiving hypothesis attachment style depends on type of care received Secure sensitive reliable parenting Resistant inconsistent parenting leads child to seek attention Avoidant overzealous parenting helicopter parents Disorganized disoriented often a result of abuse neglect cycles of acceptance amp abuse Adolescence Neural Development in Adolescence Moral Development Kohlberg39s 3 Stage Model Moral Feelings Life Expectancy Dementia Alzheimer39s Disease Transition from childhood to adulthood Puberty to independent adult status Tension biological maturity vs social dependence 1 Pruning of neural connections 2 Myelin Growth Limbic system emotion before frontal lobe control judgment impulsiveness risky behaviors brain matures until age 25 Lawrence Kohlberg 3 Stages of moral development Responses to moral dilemmas Built on Piaget39s ideas moral thinking stagesdepends on stage of cognitive development 1 Preconventional Stage morality of self interest what is best for self V 2 Conventional Stage care for others follow rules because they are rules 3 Postconventional Stage broad abstract ethical principles of right vs wrong Haidt 2001moral feeling comes before moral reasoning Emotion instantaneous Reasoning convince self amp others of what you intuitively feel Gut level reaction first then brain develops justification that goes along with your reaction 195039s 49 years old vs 2013 71 years old 80 in some developed countries Males more prone to dying more alcohol nicotine suicide military risky driving Decline of cognitive functioning beyond normal aging disorientation in time place amp person Old age 39 6070 of cases of dementia are due to Alzheimer39s disease Progressive brain disorder Deterioration of memory reasoning language amp physical functioning Confusion irritability mood swings No cure treat symptoms Causes Genetic Loss of brain tissue Deterioration of neurons that produce lacetylcholini memorythinking deficits Alzheimer39s aql block signals from coming in amp out build up of neuronsbrain decay Adulthood amp Well lMidlife Crisisl Being Alleged time of emotional regret amp attempts to reclaim youth 405 Studied amp found No changes in emotional instability 25 of adults report having one always triggered by event such as illness or divorce


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