Week 5 Classics 20 notes
Week 5 Classics 20 notes Classics 20
Popular in Discovering Romans
Popular in Classical Studies
verified elite notetaker
This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jenna Kovsky on Friday October 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Classics 20 at University of California - Los Angeles taught by Dr. Gurval in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Discovering Romans in Classical Studies at University of California - Los Angeles.
Reviews for Week 5 Classics 20 notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 10/30/15
102615 Lecture 13 Reading Virqil 0 Reading Aeneid 0 Book 6 66639 10141222 0 Book 8t 847928 0 Focus on books 12 and 4 for discussion section 0 Hints for Reading I Use Fitzgerald translation I Names don t be ovenNhelmed or intimidated 0 Glossary of Names 0 Be aware of Epithets o Vergil refers to same character in various ways I Characterization observe how characters are introduced I Imagery manners of comparison similes and Metaphors I Speeches By gods and by named characters 0 Prologue I arma virumque cano Of arms and the man singl sing of warfare and a man at war I Arms and a Man 0 comic play by George Bernard Shaw 0 questioning of conventional values I Poem is about war and a man I ArmsHomer s Iliad wrath of Achillesbattle of Troy I ManHomer s Odyssey wanderings of Odysseus o Prominent themes I des ny I power of the gods sometimes anger of the gods punishing the Trojans and Aeneas I suffering of Aeneas o Invocation of the Muse from Greek epic I doesn t want to be told the story but wants to know the causes 0 GOdS I in Virgil like Homeric gods gods in Aeneid play active roles 0 define goodness but evil as well 0 Juno symbol of evil and destruction patron goddess of Carthage and Dido enemy of omnipotent Fate and Rome she cannot change the outcome but she will make it difficult o Jupiter less defined role representative of omnipotent Fate also an agent of Fate s decree o Aeneas does what a man must hero of the Aeneid whines hesitates endures o Dido enemy of the Aeneid the one with real passion loves acts suffers and dies o Publius Vergilius Maro VergilNirgil born in Manta in northern italy Rome s greatest and most influential poet wealthy family but suffered from the civil wars Italian wars wars between Marius and Sulla wars between Caesar and Pompey seemed to be affected deeply by the atrocity of Romans killing Romans lived in the point of transition between the Republic and the Empire A literary poet imitating the features of oral poetry meant to be read aloud but still more literary than oral intense sensitivity to order and number Homer had 24 books of Iliad and 24 of Odyssey 0 Aeneid12 books 16Odyssey 712 Iliad Obstacles facing Virgil 0 multiple and conflicting myths of Trojan Hero Aeneas o allusions to Caesar Augustus descendant of Aeneas ruler of Rome I at the time he was writing Aeneas was associated with the Caesars Myths of Aeneas 0 begins with Homer prominent fighter of the Trojans but Hector is defender of the city beloved by the gods destined to survive not until late 4th century BCE Romans speak of Aeneas as founder myth may be inspired by Greeks o Trojan past was really extinct and Romans identified as opposing the Greeks Introduction of Aeneas o we is quaking with fear not a very grand entrance 0 wishing he was dead 0 about to be drowned in shipwreck caused by Juno New kind of Hero 0 NOT a Homeric hero who fights for personal glory o clash between different value systems of ancient Greek world and Roman world 0 Homeric value exalts individual 0 Roman value exalts family gods 0000 000000 00000 Book 2 amp 3 o flashback of what happened at Troy Dido 0 beautiful Carthaginian queen o legendary founder o exile of her city 0 from Tyre Phoenicia 0 also lost her spouse and is a refugee in search of a new home 0 Introduction I queen in full command of her city her people and her life compared to goddess Dana I city compared to hive of bees to Virgl mst orderly and civilized of all creatures I description of the founding of Carthage sounds more like Rome than Carthage statement that Carthage is a sophisticated society and not a group of barbarians not primitive c at the time Virgil was writing Carthage was being rebuilt by the Caesars o Aeneas and Dido o a love story and tragedy o Juno wants to keep Aeneas in Carthage so he never makes it to Italy wants to thwart fate Venus loves Aeneas and wants Dido to be a puppet Aeneas leaves Carthage to protect the interests of his son Leads to the destruction of Dido Aeneas first learned of Dido from Venus who is pretending not to be his mother Temple of Juno I Aeneas is fixated at looking at scenes of the Trojan war that Dido had on the Temple walls when he meets Dido the scenes are not heroic to a Trojan images of violence and cruelty Aeneas sees himself portrayed in the fight Penthesilea queen of the Amazons came to help Troy successful but then killed by Achilles o Virgil wants us to associate her with Dido o associating Aeneas with Achilles 0 according to poets Achilles falls in love with Penthesilea as he kills her 0 Wound of Dido I love affair describes as a wound I her sister Anna responds with reason practical considerations 0 Dido compared to a Doe and often called unlucky by Virgil 0 they hook up in a cave during a storm to Dido this is essentially a marriage 00000 102815 Lecture 14 Becoming Augustus 0 Death of Julius Caesar 0 At the time of his death Julius Caesar had been planning to lead troops into the east to avenge Crassus and emulate Alexander the Great 0 enemies conspired in the city before Julius Caesar left Rome for fear that if he was successful in the east and returned there would be no stopping him 23 stab wounds only one probably fatal we don t know which one mixed motives and goals of the group of 60 senators Warnings and Omens O O O O Calpurnia his wife had a nightmare that he died and she begged him not to attend the senate meeting which was the meeting where he was assassinated eagle with warning twig flew towards senate but the eagle was killed by another flock of birds the soothsayer Spurinna warned Caesar to Beware of the Ides of March 0 Caesar the Ides of March have come 0 Spurinna but they have not yet gone Brutus descended from the first Brutus who also overthrewkilled a tyrant his mother was Caesar s mistress Caesar was very fond of him Caesar acted like a father to him his actual father was killed by Pompey on the side of Cato the Younger ended up marrying his daughter Caesar pardoned Brutus and Cassius after they fought against him Caesar s final words in Greek and you too my son issued some coins with his face on them associated himself with lictors Porcia wife of Marcus Brutus daughter of Cato the Younger divorced his first wife to marry her in 45 BCE committed suicide when she learned her husband was dead by swallowing live coals Cassius the mastermind of the plot student of Greek philosophy legate with Crassus was with him when he died governed province of Syria chose side of Pompey and Cato in the civil war cassius chose liberty for his image on his coins lunia Tertia wife daughter of Servillia Brutus s halfsister Mark Antony noble plebeian family Antonii Cassius recommended he be killed with Caesar but Brutus objected claimed descent from Anton son of Hercules tribune that was publicly thrown from senate offered crown to Caesar at Lupercalia as though he was king good friend of Caesar consul with him was the legal and only consul when Caesar died had a lot of power that the conspirators feared compromised with assassins agreed not to pursue them as long as Caesar s judgements remained law demanded a public funeral for Caesar in the forum he was cremated on a spot that became sacred ground 0 led to riot and conspirators saw that the public had seen Caesar as a benevolent leader he left the people his stuff in the will Cicero not in Rome at time of assassination conspirators didn t want him involved I called it the thinking of a man but the planning of a child 0 Gaius Octavius not in Rome during assassination I wealthy equestrian family I father praetor governor of Macedon died at Nola as candidate for the consulship Mother Atia maternal niece of Julius Caesar I Caesar was very fond of him posthumously adopted him in his will became legally Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus but only let people call him Caesar became Caesar s political heir o Cicero and the Philippics 14 speeches Cicero saw Mark Antony as the main enemy wanted to destroy him inspired by speeches of famous Greek orator demosthenes which were against Philip ll of Macedon Philippics named for Philip ll convinced the senate to name Mark Antony the enemy of the state and drive him out o Cicero and Octavian used Octavian as an ally the young man must be praised must be outfitted with honors must be exalted done away with 0 Second Triumvirate Roman coup d etat political alliance decreed by law 3 men created a law that made them dictators for the sake of reestablishing the state Octavian Lepidus and Antony law says Caesar is a god Antony becomes flamen Proscriptions list of men that could be killed for a reward o Cicero killed head brought back and hands nailed to Rostra o Cicero s son escaped o Cicero s nephew killed 0 uncle of Anthony spared o brother of Lepidus spared Battles of Philippi 0 end of the Republic 0 first battle 0 Brutus defeated Octavian o ANtony defeated Cassius Cassius commits suicide 0 second battle 0 Brutus defeated commits suicide split up the land 0 Antony takes east o Octavian takes west and Italy 0 Lepidus takes Africa 0 Cleopatra I in Rome at assassination I returns to Egypt I coruler and brother Ptolemy XIV dies probably killed I rules with her son Caesarion Ptolemy XV he was a babytoddler I son is the Pharaoh but she is the one ruling I both sides wanted her to support them at battles of Philippi I doesn t send any fleet waits to learn of winner then lies and says that she had sent the fleet but it got lost in a storm I Antony and Cleopatra o Gives birth to twins 9 months after meeting Mark Antony 0 called the sun and the moon 0 Mark Antony doesn t acknowledge them 0 he abandoned his other wife to return to her and they had another son 0 ruled together in an uneasy alliance with Octavian o issued coins with both him and Cleopatra as equals 0 Battle of Actium I Antony and Cleopatra s fleet besieged by Octavian when trying to get out to fight land battle I Antony s legions surrendered Cleopatra s escaped with the treasury I Antony and Cleopatra killed themselves one year later Antony by sword Cleopatra by asp venomous snake o A New Settlement I Octavian abolishes office of dictator refuse to claim being king I took authority of consul and tribune I Princeps First Citizen Leader of the Senate 0 favored name Romulus but didn t want associations of civil war I chose new name Augustus o from poem AftenNards by an august solemn revered augury formally said he gave up the power back over to the people of Rome protested by senate I as long as he controlled military and treasury he controlled the legislature I ended wars and proscriptions 10302015 Lecture 15 Auqus n Rome 0 Gaius Octavius Caesar Augustus o defeated Mark Anthony when he was 32 years old 0 died at almost 76 years old ruled for 44 years 0 in statues etc he is always depicted as a young man 0 Prima Porta First Port where Augustus s most famous statue was found in Livia s villa O I marble statues were sometimes painted in antiquity I The Prima Porta statue has a breastplate with an image of an Augustan victory although it was a victory through diplomacy not through battle He negotiated the return of Roman standards lost by Crassus when he was defeated in battle I the Prima Porta statue also includes cupid showing Augustus s desire to be associated with Aeneas cupid s half brother and Venus cupid and Aeneas s mother Apollo and Diana are two of the most important gods associated with Augustus Architecture in Augustan Rome 0 The Achievements of Augustus 82 shrines or temples to gods restored and rebuilt Roads bridges and aqueducts repaired I found Rome a city built of bricks I leave her clothed in white marble beginning with the late republic people started making buildings out of marble instead of wood and other materials Cult of Divine Julius 0 Julius Caesar was declared a god legally by the triumvirs of the second triumvirate made up of a cult a priest and a temple paying respects and worshipping were important but actual belief didn t really matter that much Myth at Julius s funeral games a comet went by in daylight this was taken as a sign confirming that he should be deified temple built where he had been cremated in the Roman Forum Augustus postponed the dedication until after he defeated Mark Antony because Mark Anthony was flamen and he supported Cleopatra s son Caesarion as Julius39s heir Temple to Apollo 0000 Forum on Palatine hill next to Augustus39s house Augustus s favorite god large complex temple with one of the first libraries in Rome portico has 100 statues 5O sons of Danaus and 50 sons of Aegyptus site chosen because lightning struck the ground there centerpiece of Rome political commercial social Julius had made plans to expand it centerpiece of the forum was the Temple of Venus Genetrix Genetrixmother referencing her motherhood of Aeneas and therefore of the Julii family I had a gilded statue of Cleopatra which may have been a statue of Venus but just happened to look like Cleopatra Temple of Mars Ultor centerpiece of the forum when Augustus expanded the forum even further planned by the triumvirate UltorAvenger Avenger of Julius Caesar against the conspirators who assassinated him by the time it was dedicated the association was with the foreign conquest of Augustus and the returning of the standards Greatest men of rome statues o Romulus Numa Brutus the first not the one that killed Caesar Aemilius Paulus Regulus Camillus Sulla Cato the Elder Pompey the Great Scipio Africanus Marius Campus Martius public field campus originally consecrated to Mars expansion during Augustus s time was outside the city limits originally developed by Augustus Pantheon best preserved Roman temple dedicated in 28 BCE 0 00000 O destroyed by fire and later built by the emperor Hadrian survived because it became a church to the Virgin Mary dedicated by Agrippa and Hadrian kept his inscription Oculus of Pantheon opening for light air water 0 perfect sphere largest concrete domed span until the 20th century why 2 pediments 0 largest known columns of the era would have been a perfect fit for the second higher planned columns 0 hard to get the larger columns from Egypt so they may have just given up and used shorter columns Ara Pacis altar of Augustan Peace vowed in 13 dedicated in 9 on Augustus s wife s birthday altar given to Augustus by the senate now inside a modern building emperor would pay worship to the personification of the goddess peace East facade woman Mother EarthPeaceCeresVenus holding twins Romulus and Remus o Augustus s daughter had just had two sons and he adopted them as sons since he had only had daughters animals in the acanthus leaves design o eg snake and nest of birds with one chick escaping o snakeGreeks nestTroy chick escapingAeneas I there are also panels representing Augustus and his family 0 Mausoleum of Augustus 0 now next to the Ara Pacis in Campus Martius built while Augustus was still alive as a statement that Augustus was loyal to Rome in response to Mark Anthony s will which was stolen from the Vestal Virgins and read to the public it said that he wanted to be buried in Egypt with Cleopatra mausoleum was propaganda as was the reading of the will 0 Theater of Marcellus O O O 0 3rd stone theater in Rome next to Tiber held 10k14k people named after Augustus s nephew who was originally going to be his heir
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'