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Chapter 37: Plant Nutrition - Week 1

by: Shreya Umredkar

Chapter 37: Plant Nutrition - Week 1 Biology 240W

Marketplace > Pennsylvania State University > Biology > Biology 240W > Chapter 37 Plant Nutrition Week 1
Shreya Umredkar
Penn State
GPA 3.6
Biology 240W
Dr. Dann and Dr. Waters

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About this Document

These are the Chapter 37 notes and the extra notes that Dr. Dann went over specifically for the exam! Hopefully this helps you!
Biology 240W
Dr. Dann and Dr. Waters
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shreya Umredkar on Thursday January 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Biology 240W at Pennsylvania State University taught by Dr. Dann and Dr. Waters in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 95 views. For similar materials see Biology 240W in Biology at Pennsylvania State University.

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Date Created: 01/22/15
Chapter 37 Plant Nutrition Bi0240W Plants obtain nutrients from both the atmosphere and soil Use sunlight as energy source produce organic nutrients by photosynthesis reducing C02 Chapter will explain why certain nutrients are essential and relationships with other organisms 371 Soil contains a living complex ecosystem Upper layers of the soil contain variety of organisms that interact w each other and environment Plants absorb nearly all water and minerals from upper layers of soil Basic physical properties of soil are its texture and composition Soil Texture Texture of soil depends on size of particles Particles can range from coarse sand 02 2mm to silt 002 002mm to microscopic clay particles less than 0002mm in diameter Different sized particles come from weathering of rock Mineral particles released mix w living organisms and humus and other organic matter Forms topsoil o remains of dead organisms Topsoil and other layers are called soil horizons Topsoil can range form mm to meters most important layer for plant growth Topsoil contains water and dissolved minerals in pores between soil particles Pores contain air pockets after rains water drains from larger spaces but stays in smaller spaces because water molecules are attracted to negatively charged surfaces of clay and other particles topsoil that is the most fertile contain about equal amts Sand silt and clay Loamy soils have enough small particles to provide enough surface area for adhesion and retention of minerals and water Large spaces bw particles allow for diffusion of oxygen to the roots Sandy soils don t retain enough water to support vigorous plant growth and clay retains too much water lf soil doesn t drain the air is replaced by water and roots suffocate Most fertile topsoil have pores that are half water half air Physical properties of soil can be adjusted by adding amendments like moss compost sand ect Topsoil Composition Soil composition includes organic and inorganic compounds Inorganic Components The surface charges of the soil particles determine their ability to bind many nutrients Most soil particles are negatively charged Cations Kt Ca239 and Mg are less easily lost because they are attached to anions Roots absorb mineral cations from soil solution Mineral cations enter soil by cation exchange 0 Cation exchange process where cations are displaced from soil particles by other cations particularly H Soils capacity to exchange cations is determined by number of cation adhesion sites and pH of soil The more clay and organic material the higher cation exchange Clay is important because small particles have high ration of surface area volume Anions are easily lost because they do not bind to other anions and are lost by leaching Organic Components Major organic component of topsoil is humus Humus prevents clay particles from packing together and forms crumbly soil This soil retains water but still porous Humus increases soils capacity to exchange cations and is a reservoir of minerals Roots affect soil texture and composition reduce erosion lower soil pH Chapter 37 Plant Nutrition Bi0240W Soil Conservation and Sustainable Agriculture Fertilization can make soil a renewable resource The goal is a commitment embracing a variety of farming methods Irrigation Irrigation is a huge drain on freshwater resources Source of irrigation are underwater reserves called aquifers Land subsidence occurs when drainage of aquifers happens faster than it is refilled Irrigation of groundwater can lead to soil salinization addition of salts to the soil that make it too salty for cultivation plants Fertilization Used to reverse nutrient depletion Fertilizers usually enriched in nitrogen phosphorus and potassium These nutrients are the most commonly deficient in soils Fertilizers labeled with a three number code called Organic fertilizers because they are biological origin and contain decomposing organic materials Before plants can use organic material it must be decomposed into inorganic nutrients that roots can absorb Minerals not absorbed by root are often leached from the soil by rainwater or irrigation Adjusting Soil pH Soil pH influences mineral availability by its effect on cation exchange and chemical form of minerals Depending on the soil pH a particular mineral may be bound too tightly to particles or may be in a chemical from that the plant cannot absorb Most plants prefer slightly more acidic soil because of the high H concentrations can displace positively charged minerals from soil particles making them more available for absorption Chapter 372 Plants require essential elements to complete their life cycle Components of carbohydrates carbon oxygen and hydrogen are the most abundant elements in dried plant residue Essential Elements Inorganic substances in plants contain more than 50 chemical elements An element is only considered an only if it is required for a plant to complete its life cycle There are 17 essential elements that have been identified 9 of the essential elements are because plants require them in relatively large amounts Six elements are major components of organic compounds forming a plants structure carbon oxygen hydrogen nitrogen phosphorus and sulfur The other three are potassium calcium and magnesium Nitrogen contributes the most to plant growth and crop yields Micronutrients are only needed in tiny quantities 8 micronutrients are chlorine iron manganese boron zinc copper nickel and molybdenum Symptoms of Mineral Deficiency Symptoms of a deficiency depends partly on minerals function as a nutrient Example deficiency of Mg can cause chlorosis Deficiency also depends on mobility of mineral If a nutrient moves about feely symptoms appear first in older parts of the plants Deficiencies of phosphorus potassium and especially nitrogen are the most common Chapter 37 Plant Nutrition Bi0240W Micronutrient shortages are less common and tend to occur in varying regions Chapter 373 Plant nutrition often involves relationship with other organisms Plants and soil actually have a two way relationship These are mutualistic relationships Bacteria and Plant Nutrition live in the rhizophere the soil closely surrounding the plants roots are nonpathogenic bacteria that live between cells within the plant itself but do not alter morphology Both endophyte and rhizobacteria depend on sugars and amino acids that are secreted by plant cells In turn bacteria enhance plant growth and protect them from disease Bacteria in the Nitrogen Cycle Plants have a mutualistic relationship with several groups of bacteria that help make nitrogen more available Ammonium ions and nitrate ions are the forms of nitrogen that plants can use The describes the transformations of nitrogen and nitrogenous compounds in nature When a plant or animal dies the initial form of nitrogen is organic Decomposers convert the organic nitrogen within the remains back into ammonium Another source of NH4 are that convert gaseous nitrogen N2 to NH3 which then picks up another H in the soil solution forming NH4 In addition to NH4 soil can acquire nitrogen in forms of nitrate Soil nitrate is formed by a two step process consists of the oxidation of ammonia NH3 to nitrite N02 followed by oxidation of N02 to N03 Different types of nitrifying bacteria mediate each step Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria Plants cannot use free gaseous nitrogen N2 because there is a triple bond between the two nitrogen atoms reduces N2 to NH3 All nitrogen fixing organisms are bacteria Some are free living in soil endophytic and others have a mutualistic with the roots of legumes The relationship between the bacteria and legume roots causes dramatic changes in the structure of roots nodules are formed Rhizobium bacteria assume a form called bateroids which are contained within vesicles formed in the root cells Each legume species is associated with a particular strain of rhizobim Fungi and Plant Nutrition Some soil fungi also form mutualistic relationship with roots and play a major role in plant nutrition So fungi are endophytic but most important are mycorrhize The host plant provides the fungus with a steady supply of sugar and fungi increases surface area for water uptake and nutrients The Two Main Types of Mycorrhizae The form a dense sheath of mycelia mass of branching hyphae over the surface of the root Hyphae facilitates nutrient exchange between the fungus and the plant do not form a dense sheath surrounding the roots Arbuscular are much more common than ectomycorrhizae and are found in 85 of plant species Chapter 37 Plant Nutrition Bi0240W Epiphyfes Parasitic Plants and Carnivorous Plants Almost all plants species have a mutualistic relationship with bacteria or fungi or both Some plant species including epiphytes parasitic and carnivorous plants have adaptations that exploit other organisms Review from Class Macronutrients Plant will be most needful of C and 02 and get from c02 90 of plant mass is water NP and K is what is most needed and what farmers add to soil Know deficiencies of NPK Mg Micronutrients Know why iron is important don t need to worry about rest Nutritional deficiencies Think about what mobility of nutrients means don t need to know what is more mobile than another Immobile nutrients will stay in older tissues where they will be used symptoms will appear in newer parts Fe More mobile will mean deficiencies will be in older tissues Mg Soil Properties Most of roots will be in topsoil means horizon a is most important layer because it provides nutrients Know soil texture sand silt and clay Mixture of all particle Loams 0 Have fine particles to provide large surface area and enough coarse particles for air spaces for 02 Cation Exchange Will displace cations so they can be taken up by the plant Know reaction H20C02H2CO3HCO3 Soil pH affects cation exchange and the chemical form of minerals Most plants do better in slightly more acidic because of high H ions 0 H displaces positively charged minerals form soil particles making them more available for absorptions Plant Nutrition Anions N03 SO42 PO4 Aluminum Toxicity At pHlt5 Al becomes soluble Worlds soil is acidic and causes Al causes drastic effects on plants by damaging roots Mutualistic Relationships Microorganisms in topsoil dead humus Majority of atmosphere is N2 0 Biggest problem because don t get this from rocks weathering only in air 0 Limiting factor for plant growth Need nitrate or ammonium for plant root to be taken up but ammonium will be the only one it will be able to use Rely mostly on nitrogen fixing bacteria 0 Know the two different species of bacteria 0 Chemosynthetic bacteria 0 Know which one uses nitrate and nitrite As an anion it is it is easily leached from the soil Use enzyme nitrogenase very sensitive to oxygen 0 Bacteria deals with this by Chapter 37 Plant Nutrition Bi0240W o Rhizobium gets sugars and protects environment and host plants gets sources of ammonium 0 Get nodules on roots as a result 0 Nodules make a permeability barrier with surrounds infected cells and oxygen transit is regulated tightly Infected cells in nodules produce leghemoglobin with scavenges free 02 and prevents it from de activating nitrogenase Fungi form symbiotic associations with plant root The majority of plant roots are associated with mycorrhizal fungi Fungi are especially important form PO42 o Ectomycorrhizae and Arbuscular two types of fungi o Ecto stay on outside of roots 0 Arbuscular penetrate of hyphae directly into cells of roots


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