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Chapter 11

by: Caoimhe Notetaker

Chapter 11 Psyc3200

Caoimhe Notetaker
GPA 3.7
Educational psychology
Sarah Grey

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Chapter 11 textbook notes
Educational psychology
Sarah Grey
Class Notes
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caoimhe Notetaker on Saturday October 31, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc3200 at Tulane University taught by Sarah Grey in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Educational psychology in Psychlogy at Tulane University.


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Date Created: 10/31/15
Study Guide exam 2 Theories of learning cognitive behavioral social cognitive contextual Cognitive general theoretical perspective that focuses on the mental processes underlying learning and behavior Behavioral theoretical perspective in which learning and behavior are descried and explained in terms of stimulus response relationships Social cognitive theoretical perspective that focuses on how people learn by observing others and how they eventually assume control over their Own behavior Contextual theory of learning that focuses on how peoples general physical social and or cultural surroundings support their learning development and behavior Learning longterm change in mental representation or associations as a result of experience Information Processing Theory theoretical perspective that focuses on the speci c ways in which learners mentally think about or process new information and events Sensory Memory component of memory that holds incoming information in an unanalyzed form for a very brief period of time Short Term Working memory component of memory that holds and actively thinks about and processes a limited amount of information for a short time Executive Functioning guides how you allocate your processing power Determine what we attend to and what we encode Cognitive Load cognitive burden that a particular learning activity places on working memory at any onetime includes both the amount of information students must simultaneously think about and the speci c cognitive processes students must engage in to understand what they re studying Long Term Memorycomponent of memory that holds knowledge and skills for a relatively long time Declarative memory knowledge concerning that nature of how things are was or will be Procedural memory knowledge concerning how to do something Rote learning learning information in a relatively uninterpreted form without making sense of it or attaching much meaning to it Meaningful learning Cognitive process in which learners relate new information to things they already know Elaboration cognitive process in which learners embellish 0 new information based on what they already know Organization cognitive process in which learners make connections among various pieces on information they need to learn Previewing aka prior knowledge activation process of reminding learners of what they already know relative to a new topic Schemas in memory tightly organized set of facts about a speci c topic Ability to mentally save something that has been previously learned also the mental location where such information is saved Retrieval amp Retrieval cuesstimulus that provides guidance about where to look for a piece of information in longterm memory Situated learning knowledge behaviors and thinking skills acquired and used primarily within certain contexts with limited or no retrieval and use in other contexts Automaticity ability to respond quickly and efficiently while mentally processing or physically performing a task Consolidation neurological process in which newly acquired knowledge is firmed up in the brain often takes several hours Decay gradual weakening of information stored in longterm memory especially if the info is used infrequently Hot cognition learning or cognitive processing that is emotionally charged Metacognition knowledge and beliefs about the nature of human cognitive processes including ones own as well as conscious attempts to engage in behaviors and thought processes that increase learning and memory Components of metacognition developing maintainingmonitoring evaluating Developing a plan of action Maintainingmonitoring the plan Evaluating the pan Learning strategies one or more cognitive processes used intentionally for a particular learning task Overt strategies learning strategy that is at least partially evident in a learner s behavior taking notes during a lecture Covert strategies learning strategy that is strictly mental rather than behavioral in nature and thus cannot be directly observed by others Self explanation process of occasionally stopping to verbalize to oneself and hence to better understand material being read or studied Selfquestioning process of asking oneself as away of checking understanding of a topic Epistemic beliefs belief about the nature of knowledge or knowledge acquisition Developmental in uences on metacognition what children understand and believe about learning changes Extraneous cognitive load imposed by the manner in which information is presented lntrinsic cognitive load imposed by the learning task Germane cognitive load devoted to processing information constructing and automating schemas Sustained attention for sustained period of time Selective attention focus on a speci c aspect while ignoring others Divided attention focusing on more than one input at a time Critical thinking evaluating he accuracy credibility and worth of information and lines of reasoning Divided attention and classroom learning divided attention tanks your performance on both tasks Behaviorist view of learning focused on the observable and objectively measurable Assumed people were born a blank slate Classical conditioning form of learning in which a new involuntary response is acquired as a result of two stimuli being presented close together in time Unconditioned stimulus stimulus that elicits a particular response without prior learning Unconditioned Response response that is elicited by a particular stimulus without prior learning Neutral stimulus stimulus that does not elicit any particular response Conditioned stimulus stimulus that beings to elicit a particular response through classical conditioning Conditioned response response that begins to be elicited by a particular stimulus through classical conditioning Generalization phenomenon in which a person learns a response to a particular stimulus and then makes the same response to a similar stimulus Extinction gradual disappearance of an acquired response in CC result from repeated presentation of a conditioned stimulus in the absence of the unconditioned stimulus Response burst immediate increase behavior to try to gain attention Differential reinforcement what s effective will differ for every student Monitor results of reinforcement to make sure it is working Instrumental conditioning vs classica learning process in which a response either increases or decreases as a result of being followed by either a reinforcement or punishment Effective reinforcerswhat s effective changes with development Extrinsic reinforcement reinforcers that comes from the outside environment rather than from within the learner lntrinsic reinforcement reinforcer that is provided by the learner or inherent in the task being performed Positive punishment aka presentation punishment punishment involving presentation of a new stimulus presumable one a learner nds unpleasant Negative punishment aka removal punishment punishment involving removal of an existing stimulus presumably one a learners doesn t want to lose Contingencypossible outcomes Should be made explicit Positive reinforcement consequence that brings about the increase of a behavior through the presentation of a stimulus Negative reinforcement consequence that brings about the increase of a behavior through the removal of a stimulus Delay of grati cation and rewards ability to forego small immediate reinforcers in order to obtain larger ones later on Continuous reinforcement reinforcement of a response every time it occurs Using reinforcement effectively regularly reinforce desirable behavior Use extrinsic motivation only when absolutely necessary Antecedent stimuli stimulus that in uences the probability that a particular response will follow Antecedent response response that in uences the probability that a certain other response will follow Cueing use of a verbal or nonverbal signal to indicate that a certain behavior is desired or that a certain behavior should stop Using punishment only if absolutely ncesarry Should be overly severe and make sure students understand why the behavior is punished Use punishment privately When punishing provide examples of preferable behavior Basic principles of social learning theory interdependence of environmental behavioral and personal variables in in uencing learning and development Modeling demonstrating a behavior for another person or observing and imitating another person s behavior Live models a person Symbolic models a character Verbal instruction listening Conditions for modeling attention retention reproduction motivation most successful modeling when child is paying attention and remembering model behavior when they are phsyclly able to reproduce behavior and when they want to Most effective model will be someone with whom the student can connect with Vicarious reinforcement amp punishment phenomenon in which a response decreases or increases in frequency when another person is observed being punished or reinforced for that response Nonoccurrence the non occurrence of an expected consequence can have a reinforcingpunishing effect in and of itself Selfefficacy belief that you will be successful effects motivation Pygmalion effect high expectation high success Teachers expectation indicate student outcomes Selfregulation regulation of ones own cognitive processes and studying behaviors in order to learn successfully Social Construction of Knowledge Learning and development are inextricably dependent on and bound to various physical social and cultural contexts Constructivist teaching teachers should make use of authentic activities to prepare students Learning fueled by student interest Role of social interactions and culture in contextual constructivist theories of learning interactions facilitates organization of thought exposure to different views discovery of inconsistencies in your own thoughts and practice in learning Role of schema in contextual theories schemas are the starting point for new learning Worldviews general culturally based set of assumptions about reality that in uence understanding of a wide variety of phenomena Constructivist vs Traditional classrooms constructivist is drive by student interest students are seen as thinkers with emerging theories teacher behaves interactively assessment occurs through observation and students work primarily in groups Over justi cation effect extrinsic reinforcement of an activity that students already nd intrinsically reinforcing may undermine student interest in the task Expectancy times value theory amount of effort is determined by the degree of expectation of success in interaction with the degree to which the reward is valued Extrinsic motivation motivation resulting from factors external to the individual And unrelated to the task being performed Intrinsic motivation motivation resulting from internal person characteristic or inherent in the task being performed Entity belief that intelligence is a distinct ability that is relatively permanent and unchangeable Vs incremental view of intelligence belief that intelligence can improve with effort and practice Effective praise praise effort not innate ability you worked so hard vs you re so smart Attributions for success and failure learner are eager to identify cause of things that happen to them Generally attribute success to internal causes and failure to external causes Internal vs external locus of control whowhat is in control of the outcome of a situation Stable vs unstable attribution will the cause be likely to change or is it long term Controllable vs uncontrollable can you in uence or change outcome Anxiety feeling of uneasiness and apprehension concerning a situation with an uncertain outcome Optimal arousal different people have different optimal arousals students more likely to stay on task when activites keep them sufficiently aroused Mastery orientation desire to acquire new knowledge or master new skills vs performance orientation desire to demonstrate high ability and make a good impression Learned helplessness generally fairly pervasive belief that one is incapable of accomplishing tasks and has little or no control of the environment


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