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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caoimhe Notetaker on Saturday October 31, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc3200 at Tulane University taught by Sarah Grey in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Educational psychology in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 10/31/15
Chapter 11 Motivation and Affect 10292015 VOCAB Motivation inner state that energizes directs and sustains behavior Time on task amount of time that students are both physically and cognitively engaged in a learning activity Situated motivation phenomenon in which aspects of the immediate environment enhance motivation to learn particular things or behave in particular ways Extrinsic motivation motivation resulting from factors external to the individual and unrelated to the task being performed Intrinsic motivation motivation resulting from internal person characteristic or inherent in the task being performed Flow intense form of intrinsic motivation involving complete absorption and concentration on a challenging activity Need for arousal ongoing need for either psychical or cognitive stimulation Need for competence basic need to believe that one can deal effectively with ones overall environment Self worth General belief about the extent to which one is a good capable individual Self handicapping behavior that undermines ones own success as a way of protecting selfworth during potentially difficult tasks Need for selfdetermination basic need to believe that one has some autonomy and control regarding the course of ones life Need for relatedness basic need to feel socially connected to others and to secure other love and respect Interest perception that an activity is intriguing and enticing typically accompanied by both cognitive engagement and positive affect Situational interest interest evoked temporarily by something in the environment Personal interest long term relatively stable interest in a particular topic or activity Expectancy belief about the likelihood of success in an activity given present ability levels and external circumstances that may either help or hinder performance Value belief regarding the extent to which an activity has direct or indirect bene ts lnternalized motivation adoption of other peoples priorities and values as ones own Mastery goal desire to acquire new knowledge or master new skills Performance goals desire to demonstrate high ability and make a good impression Performanceapproach goals desire to look good and receive favorable judgments from others Performanceavoidance goals desire no to look bad or receive unfavorable judgments from others Proximal goal concrete goal that can be accomplished within a short time period may be a stepping stone toward along term goal Work avoidance goal desire either to avoid classroom task or to complete them with minimal effort often because of low selfefficacy for the task Doingjustenough goal desire to get reasonably good grades through the easiest possible routes routes that may or may not involve actually learning classroom material Attribution self constructed causal explanation for a personally experienced or observed event such as ones own or another persons success or failure Incremental view of intelligence belief that intelligence can improve with effort and practice Entity view of intelligence belief that intelligence is a distinct ability that is relatively permanent and unchangeable Mastery orientation general fairly pervasive belief that one is capable of accomplishing challenging tasks Learned helplessness generally fairly pervasive belief that one is incapable of accomplishing tasks and has little or no control of the environment Affect feelings emotions and moods that a learners brings to bear on a task Selfconscious emotion affective state based in self evaluations regarding the extent to which ones actions meet society s standards for appropriate and desirable behavior examples are pride guilt and shame Hot cognition learning or cognitive processing that is emotionally charged Cognitive dissonance feeling of mental discomfort cause by new information that con icts with current knowledge or beliefs Anxiety feeling of uneasiness and apprehension concerning a situation with an uncertain outcome State anxiety temporary feeling of anxiety elicited by a threatening situation Trait anxiety general pattern of responding with anxiety even in nonthreatening situations Facilitating anxiety level of anxiety usually relatively low that enhances performance Debilitating anxiety anxiety of sufficient intensity that it interferes with performance Threat situation in which a learner believes there is little or no change ofsuccess Challenge situation in which a learner believes that success is possible with sufficient effort 0 How likely are people to do what they are capable of 0 We see motivation re ected in personal investment and in cognitive emotional and behavioral engagement 0 General principles of motivation o All children and adolescents are motivated in one way or another 0 Motivation to do well in school is grounded in a variety of cognitive and sociocultural factors that evolve over time o Conditioned in the classroom play a major role in students motivation to learn and achieve Learners are most likely to show bene cial effects of motivation when they re intrinsically motivated do assignment learn material effectively process info high achievement Extrinsically motivated may need to be enticed and likely to perform minimum required 0 Between grade 39 intrinsic motivation decreases o Emphasis on good grades for external reasons 0 More able to set long term goals Human needs key ingredients to intrinsic motivation Arousal o A need for stimulation 0 Different people have different optimal levels 0 Student more likely to stay on task when classroom activities keep them sufficiently aroused Competence and self worth 0 Need to believe they can deal with their environment protecting selfworth avoid failure self handicapping 0 Ways to enhance self worth Help students achieve Give concrete mechanisms to track progress Decrease competition 0 Effected by more than academic success Self determination o quotI want to do thisquot Enhancing n Provide opportunities for independent workdecision making a Present rules instruction informationally rather than controlling I Give choice in how to achieve goals a Evaluate performances in more controlling ways I Be selective about whenhow you use extrinsic reinforcers Relatedness 0 Feel socially connected 0 Interaction is more important than school work project favorable image betterment of others Group work Express interest in students extracurricular Provide extra help Be a friends Different cultures emphasize these needs differently Maslow s hierarchy of needs lower basic needs must be reached before higher needs If a lower need is not meant students will lack motivation to achieve higher needs 5 Self actualization 4 Esteem 3 Love and belongingness 2 Safety 1physiological 54 growth needs 321 de ciency needs Met by external sources Interest is a form of intrinsic motivation accompanied by cognitive arousal enjoyment and excitement Learners who are interested in what they re studying More likely to undergo conceptual change 0 Situation v personal interest Personal is more bene cial because it sustains engagement processing and improvement over long run Expectancies and values 0 High expectations of successfulness Self efficacy Perceived difficulty of task Availability of resources and support Quality of instruction Amount of effort needed 0 Most believe there are direct or indirect bene ts in performing a task Importance desirable personal quality Utility means to a desired goal Interesting enjoyable Cost factor require more effort than they re worth People begin to devalue things they do poorly 0 As children grow older they tend to adopt many of the priorities and values of the people around them 0 lnternalized motivation is a product of ongoing socialcultural forces and eventually becomes an integral part of learners sense of self 0 The more students have internalized the value of learning and academic success the more cognitively engaged they become in school subject matter 0 o Fostering expectancies and values Identify what students will gain from lesson Convey how concept can help make sense of world Help relate info to present and long term goals Model how you value activities Refrain from asking students to engage in tasks with limited long term benefits Goals Achievement motivation speci c to particular task occasion Mastery goas optimal engage in activities that increase learning 0 In early years children are focused on mastery with age increase focus on performance 0 Many classroom principles encourage demonstrating competence over acquiring competence Workavoidance goal associated with low selfefficacy 0 Strategy give them guidance and support to increase performance 0 Just doing enough to get by associated with disinterest 0 Strategy entice student prove relevance 0 Carrier choice adolescence based on strong sense of competence in domain and personalcultural values Scaffold self regulation 0 Students are unlikely to strive for mastery when 0 Assignments ask little of them 0 We insist they compete for resources of high test scores 0 When any single failure has signi cant impact on nal grade Attributions Leaners are often eager to identify the cause of things that happen to them 0 Especially when unexpected o Locus of control internal v External 0 Stability stable v unstable will cause likely change or is it long term 0 Controllability controllable v uncontrollable can you in uence change outcome Generally attribute success to internal causes and failures to external causes Attributions in uence emotional reaction to successfailure o Expectation for future successfailure o Effortpersistence 0 Learning strategies classroom performance 0 At around 9 years begin to understand effort and ability compensate one another 0 Teachers attributions for students current behaviors effect their expectations for students future performances cycle 0 Teachers communicate their attributions for students success failure in subtly ways emotions they convey 0 Students pick up on these 0 Enhancing motivation TARGET 0 Task Autonomy Recognition Grouping Evaluation 0 Time Affect and its effects Affect play role in playful goaldirected aspects of human motivation 0 People act in a way they think will make them feel happy and comfortable 0 Affectintrinsic motivation because its enjoyable o Learners are especially likely to be excited by success if they didn t expect to be successful more intensive negative emotions if they weren t successful when they thought they would be 0 Learners who are bored in environment will either seek to escape it or create their own stimulation OOOO Anxiety Small amounts increase performance Anxiety is especially likely to interfere with cognitive processes when task paces heavy demands on working memory or Long Term Memory 0 Transition from elementary middle school or HS new building Multiple whammy a New building a New teachers a New style of teaching a New people Differs culturally Low SES more prone to anxiety Girls more anxious Keep anxiety levels down Clear concrete realistic expectations Match instruction to cognitive level Structure Teach explicit strategy Allow for corrections no FATAL errors Provide feedback OOOOOO
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