Week 2 Notes
Week 2 Notes Anthropology 1010
Popular in Introduction to Cultural Anthropology
verified elite notetaker
Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaylee Powers on Thursday January 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Anthropology 1010 at Ohio University taught by Diane Ciekawy in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 174 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Cultural Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Ohio University.
Reviews for Week 2 Notes
Loved these! I'm a horrible notetaker so I'll be your #1 fan this semester
-Dr. Claude Renner
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 01/22/15
Anthropology 1010 Introduction to Cultural Anthropology Dr Ciekawy Week 2 Notes Big Ideas and Common MisconceptionsControversies in Biological Anthropology 1 Primates An order of Mammalia consists of humans apes monkeys and prosimians 2 Many animals use tools not just humans 3 Symbol a thing that stands for another thing 1 As humans our lives are centered around symbolic interactions with the world around us 4 The nature vs nurture controversy 1 Explanations for human behavior people tend to favor one or the other 2 Nature holds that individual behavior is determined by their biology Abilities and tendencies are rooted in how they are physically made and predetermined 3 Nurture Enculturation and how an individual was raised or taught 4 Ex A murderer Nature says His violence is rooted in his genetics that39s just how his brain was made Nurture says He was raised to solve problems violently and if he had been raised differently he wouldn39t be a murderer 5 Margaret Mead quotbiology is not destinyquot 1 She observed that a lot of people thought there were natural differences in the mental capabilities of men versus women 2 Holds that it39s both nature AND nurture Linguistics Language and culture main questions What does speech revealshow about a person How do people quotperformquot language in order to manage impressions How is this like other behavioral performances in life We all change our behavior and language based on social situations EX You talk to your parents differently than your friends or a professor Morpheme smallest unit in a language that carries a meaning it can be a word OR part of a word Ex Cat 1 morpheme S to signify plural 1 morpheme So cats 2 morphemes Phoneme smallest sound unit in a language Over time people get so tuned in to the sounds of their own language it39s hard to hear the sounds of others So children are better at language It can be so hard for people to hear new phonemes that they replace those in other languages Accents People39s mouths sometimes get so used to the sounds of their native language that they literally cannot say phonemes without their own native spin Language Challenges Why is it so hard to learn another language 1 Phonemes are easily misheard by people who are not nai39ve speakers 2 Some phonemes in one language do not appear on other languages and are not recognized as speech sounds Agriculture Domestication of plants and animals Domestication selectively altering the evolution of species to be more beneficialeasily raised by humans Near East Mediterranean Barley wheat goats pigs sheep Central America Mexico Oxaca and Tehucan Corn maize beans squash Diffusion vs Independent Invention Diffusion is when an idea spreads by other people adopting it Independent Invention is when people think of the same thing but aren39t influenced by each other When human beings are faced with the same challenges they often come up with the same solutions Ex Corn domestication diffused upwards from South America but Mediterranean and Central America in general learning domestication were independent events About 14000 years ago the effects of domestication started to become apparent Reliable source of foodgt Increased fertility of women gt Increased population gtSocia organization changes gt infrastructurearchitecture changes 1 Centralization The process of concentrating something rather than allowing it to be dispersed throughout a system or evenly distributed among people Commonly Refers to the concentration of wealth or power 2 Hierarchy a way of dividing society which consists of a series of ranks organized according to correspondingly increasing and decreasing amounts of a valued recourse commonly refers to wealth and power Specialization of labor when you can specialize your skill it makes you better at it Farming blacksmithing etc Rather than everyone knowing how to do everything people became specialized and improved civilization In summary the switch from huntinggathering to agriculture drastically changed the way society works Anthropology39s Philosophical Goals 1 2 To make the strange familiar and the familiar strange Increase awareness of the foundations and assumptions underlying one39s own cultural patterns become more conscious of them Increase ability to understand why others think and act the way they do Increase tolerance for difference Increase ability to work with others who are different and live in less familiar environments Decrease tendency to create polarizations between that which familiar and not familiar Theoretical guides Theory Guiding set of ideas that can be used to explain phenomena in the world General theories 1 Functionalism Assumes that if you take a society and think about it as component parts education law agriculture etc all parts are interrelated Changes in one part of society will affect the whole Materialism When the material conditions of life in a society change there will be very strong repercussions in the rest of society Basically material conditions dictate the way society will work because they provide possibilities or set up barriers to them Modes of Subsistence Hunting and Gathering Agriculture Pastoralism Wage Labor These can be combined Sedentism vs Nomadism Sedentism Stay in the same place don t move often Nomadism Groups of people who move all the time especially in pastoralism or huntinggathering
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'