week of October 26th
week of October 26th BIO 106 - M001
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Iliana Elias on Saturday October 31, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 106 - M001 at Syracuse University taught by S. Parks in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 77 views. For similar materials see Ocean Life in Biology at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 10/31/15
MARINE REPTILES Ancient giants of the sea Archelon late cretaceous o 34m in length 0 2 tons sea turtles found back to 200Ma Three Main Orders Squamata snakes and lizards o famin Elapidae Habitats for all sea snakes 57 speCIes Squamata are subfamily hydrophiidae primal Hy tropical none in Atlantic Ocean coastal estuaries can only live in water coral reefs highly venomous some can kill 50 ppl closely related to cobras and kraits feed on sh and sh eggs atten oarlike tail for swimming sea kraits 5 species subfamily Laticaudinae feed on sh and eels and drink fresh water lay eggs on land oviparous resemble land snakes size 05 to 36m 0 family lguanidae marine lizards 1 o lay eggs in terrestrial nests live in coastal areas spend a lot of time on land 0 size up to 27m and 75lbs 0 family Varanidae marine monitors 2 0 found in southeast Asia Marine iguanas 0 Short snout Need fresh water Size 12m in length 13le Herbivores eat algae Lay eggs in sand Only found in Galapagos islands Chelonia turtles and tortoises 0 Sea turtle life A sea turtles lay eggs on land in sand nests MARINE REPTILES Takes them 20 years to sexually mature 0 Sea turtle reproduction No parental care About 100 eggs incubate for 2 months Spend years at sea until need to lay eggs 11000 survive to adulthood head towards brightest light 0 Family Dermochylidae 1 0 Family cheloniidae 7 Hawksbill Shell Pointed edges Loggerhead o EatjeHy sh Green sea 0 Smooth shell Olive ridley Omnivores crabs shrimp lobster jellies algae Kemp s ridley Flatback Omnivores crabs shrimp lobster jellies algae Black Anatomy Carapace top of shell Plastron bottom of shell Flapper like legs Heartshaped shell Shells are from a deeper layer in the dermis than scales found on snakes 0 Family Dermochylidae 1 Leatherback Largest sea turtle size up to 27m 1600 lbs 0 Endothermic able to maintain temp warmer than surrounding water 0 Have rubbery skin that allows them to dive deep 0 migratory 0 Sea turtle conservation Direct hunting in Central America and Asia lllegal seaturtle shell trade instruments made of their sheHs Light pollution Dredging sand replenishment Plastic pollution MARINE REPTILES Crocodilia crocodiles and alligators o Saltwater crocodile Size up to 7m 2200bs Strong swimmer Lay eggs and nests on shore Protective of their young Kill 1000 ppl a year Current population 100000 0 American crocodile Size up to 5m 4001000le Feed on sh when small adults feed on sea turtles Reptile Facts 0 All air breathing o lt100 marine reptile species 0 only about 1 of today s reptile species are marine Clicker questions Marine reptiles alive today 100 Which marine reptile does not lay eggs on land sea snakes Not a conservation concern loss of food availability Marine iguanas only found in Galapagos island Endothermic leatherback turtles SEABIRDS What makes a seabird 0 When any aspect of their biology depend on the marine environment 0 Only 2 are exclusively marine Seabird diversity Penguins 0 Much more aquatic than the other birds Albatrosses petrels storm petrels fulmars shearwaters Pelicans frigate birds gannets cormorants Skuas jaegers gulls terns skimmers auks Sea duck Diversity of marine life 0 Terrestrial link for reproduction Spend less than 80 of time in water or at sea 0 Birds are anywhere that there is an open ocean o Nesting habits 0 Islands 0 Coastal cliffs o Tundra Reproduction Generally species 0 Low annual reproductive rate 0 Few big eggs Biparental care Reproduction every 13 years 0 Longlived Feeding Different bill shapes to enable different feeding methods 0 Pelicans have large bills with large pouches to reach sh and carry them in their pouch o Albatross have hook on the end of their bill to hold sh Flying Some yers albatross fulmars 0 Can y for hours without having to land 0 Others are Auks Puffins Some at all penguins Swimming and diving 0 Great swimmers penguins alcids petrels sea ducks 0 Penguins can dive down to about 300m and stay down less than 20 mins 0 Less efficient albatrosses gulls Bad swimmers frigate birds large wings get in the way of swimming 0 Challenges of diving SEABIRDS 0 Can not obtain oxygen underwater 0 Increasing pressure on gases with depth 1 atmosphere per 10 meters 0 terrestrial appendages not efficient for swimming 0 maintaining oxygen 0 lungs large reservoir for 02 0 muscle myoglobin is 02 transport molecule penguins have 3x more than terrestrial mammals 0 blood hemoglobin is 02 transport molecule penguins have 13x more than humans Penguins 17 species 0 all live in southern hemisphere found from tropics to the poles generally located on remote islands or continental regions with few terrestrial predators 0 size 10quot little blue to 4 emperor characteristics ightless swimmers solid bones not pneumatic or hollow furlike feathers don t have muscles in their feet 0 hydrodynamic shape Albatrosses petrels stormpetrels fulmars and shearwaters diversity 0 21 albatross largest bird on the planet can soar for weeks on end wing span up to 35m breed every other year 0 51 petrel live in different ways smallest one storm petrel feed on zooplankton o 7 fulmar look like seagulls soar like albatross not as grateful long distance migration north hemisphere to southern 21 shearwater o pelicans frigate birds gannets boobies cormorants common in tropical and temperate zones characteristics 00000 O SEABIRDS totipalmate 4 toes connected by webs o skuas gulls terns skimmers auks more live in the northern hemisphere characteristics 0 few anatomic similarities skimmer has a long set of jaws lower jaw drags through water 0 puf n diving bird 0 sea ducks tribe mergini 17 species in the northern hemisphere 20 million individuals breed in tundra andor boreal zones and winters in marine coastal waters Conservation concerns 0 long line sheries o 100k albatrosses killed each year 1 million birds killed annually in bycatch oil spills
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