Unit 7 - Decline of Roman Power, Origins of Islam
Unit 7 - Decline of Roman Power, Origins of Islam Hist 101
Popular in European Civilization from Ancient Times to the Mid-17th Century
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Margot Clary on Saturday October 31, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 101 at University of South Carolina taught by Dr. Schor in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 55 views. For similar materials see European Civilization from Ancient Times to the Mid-17th Century in History at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 10/31/15
Decline of the Roman Empire and the Origins of Islam Key Questions How did the Roman Empire lose its dominance in the Mediterranean What led to the Rise of Islam and the Early Caliphate Podcast 7a Barbarian Raiders and Kings in the W Mediterranean 0 Germanic groups Huns and the Barbarian Invasions o Germanic groups long lived in the N of Roman world I Farmers warriors source of slaves army suppliers and recruits 0 From 360 s to 430 s Huns eXpanded W disrupted Germanic groups I Goths beg to enter Roman lands abused by Romans Goths revolted and defeated Roman army I Some VisiGoths headed West to work for the W Emperor I In 408 W Emperor had his German top general killed 0 Visigothic warriors rebelled with other Germanic troops I When emperor and senate refused to pay them they sacked Rome in 410 CE I VisiGoths granted autonomy in SW France in 413 I Became a mostly loyal Roman ally helping to stop Huns I But VisiGoth s set an example for barbarians to gain 0 Franks moved beyond treaty lands near Rhine delta to take over parts of N Gaul I In 406 while some Goths still worked for Emperor in Italy Vandals started raiding across Rhine I Romans nearly always fought Vandals emperor enlisted Goths to help I In 429 Vandals ed Spain to N Africa with help from Roman rebel I By 440 Vandals had conquered N Africa core roman region I The formation of barbarian kingdoms Visigoths Vandals and Franks o By 450 s barbarian autonomous zones and conquests were becoming regional kingdoms I king lower rank than emperor 0 First big barbarian kingdom VisiGoths I Few migrants continued Roman customs Arian Christianity then late 6th c Nicenes lasting until 710 CE 0 Longest lasting was Franks FranceGermany more German mixed with Romans esp in NE also a Roman ally till 930 CE 0 Richest barbarian kingdom Vandals N Africa fairly centralized control over fertile lands trade I More aggressive in pushing Arian Christianity I Only kingdom still hostile to Empire once the Huns were defeated in 450 s 0 Italy from W Roman emperors to Ostrogothic kings o By 460 s Roman rule pulled back from most of W Europe and N Africa Rest of empire ruled by 2 coemperors in Cple N Italy 0 In 476 a Roman general Odovacer forced last W Emp to retire I He took power in Italy as Roman king Fall of Roman West inaccurate ruler in Italy still calling himself Roman this was just a localized coup o In 491 the E Emperor invited Theodoric the OstroGoth to take Italy I The OstroGothic King then ruled a very Roman kingdom I Roman in uence continued Latin Christianity in w outside Roman rule Roman identity too for a while 0 Limited Impact of Barbarian rule in the W Mediterranean 0 By 500 CE on the map Roman emperors had lost half their territory BUT maps can be deceptive I Direct impact of barbarian raids and kingdoms some added wars with raiders with Huns between kings I Long term damage noticeable but not ruinous o BUT new regional kingdoms taxed and spent less did not drive economic activity as hard less distant trade I Ongoing spread of Christianity church networks as linking force I One key trend continued outside Roman rule the Church with its clergy continued to spread its in uence Served as socially unifying force connecting regions together I Daily life largely went on Most people in these kingdoms still saw themselves as Roman at least for a few generations I State s trade and life in the WMed was now more regionalized Podcast 7b The Eastern Roman Empire through the Era of Justinian 0 Eastern Christian Roman Empire political stability 0 5thearly 6th 0 o Cple had 400000 people army and provinces intact restored authority of city councils o More stable succession of emperors with help from generals imperial women bishops o Thriving E Med economy growing population with 30 million Romans 0 Church organization and late Roman religious diplomacy o In E Med church kept growing more monasteries more in uential bishops 0 Creation of 5 patriarchs overseeing other bishops Rome Cple Alexandria Antioch and Jerusalem o Bishops as key local power supporting state church in E Empire largely worked for emperor o Missionaries to allies W kingdoms Caucasus E Africa S Arabia 0 E Roman empire thus still prime power in a Christian Med commonwealth Deepening religious disputes in the late Roman East 0 New arguments divided Christians worse than earlier disputes 0 Main 56th 0 church dispute 2 natures humandivine in Christ vs 1 nature made esh 0 Failed compromises Council of Chalcedon 451 led to riots murder of bishops 0 Did church disputes lead to collapse Not directly after each feud the empire restored order I BUT emperors had to deal with many religious dissidents alternate Christian churches Jews polytheists I J ustinian s regime legal reforms and religious policies 0 Justinian 526565 sought Christian Roman power unity o Justinian s building boom Hagia Sophia etc 0 Legal reform codifying and Christianizing 1000 years of Roman law 0 Justinian s push for religious unity hunting down pagans strictly limiting Jews forced Christian doctrinal compromises permanent church splits I Backfired inspired serious foes to set up permanent alternative churches I Most Christians accepted ideas but in Syria amp Egypt there were formation of separate churches I J ustinian s wars with Barbarian Kings and Persia 0 Most famous policy persued by J was series of war picked fights With foes allies on all fronts 0 First war against Vandals successful N Africa reconquered by 536 War vs OstroGoths in Italy more destructive than barbarians won by late 550 s 0 High costs of J ustinian s wars raised taxes amp reduced forces on N and E frontiers tried to buy peace With N tribes 0 Same time as 22 yearlong war With Persia involving many allies 0 At one point J was fighting wars on 4 fronts at once 0 Bubonic plague of Justinian and its impact 0 Wars coincided With epidemic disease Bubonic Plague killed 13 of Roman population I Recurred several times until 750 CE I Drop in population amp economy trade farming amp government funding 0 After Justinian Slavs Lombards and other new barbarians 0 After J died in 565 N Frontier weakened 0 Some reconquests were lost 0 New barbarians took advantage I Lombards in N Italy I Avars to C Europe I Slavs migrated into Balkans I When amp How did Rome Fall 0 Answer varies with place and time much still debated by scholars Barbarian raids a factor in some regions W Europe Oppressive Roman government a factor sometimes esp under Justinian Disease a big factor after 542 Perhaps relgiiosu conflit and class con ict contributed BUT in 600 CE Roman empire was still the most powerful state The end of Roman dominance only came in early 7quot c with big wars against Persia and after 636 the rise of Islam OOOOOO Podcast 7c Christian Romans Persians Arabs and the Origins of Islam I PreIslamic Arabian society 0 Mostly dry mountains and deserts some oases and a fertile South Most Arabians were beduin camel herders or tradersraiders some migrated N Except for kingdoms in Yemen Arabian societyindependent tribes Arab tribes deeply patriarchal polygamous men women often treated as property Longrunning shared Arabian traditions language poetry religion pilgrimage near Mecca 0000 0 Impact of Christian Rome and Persia on Arabian society 0 By 6th c Arab society was deeply affected by Romans Persians 0 Roman and Persian state competed for power and in uence seeking allies via religious conversion 0 Christian Jewish Zoroastrian missionaries were sent to Arabia 0 To join a faith was to align politically With Rome or Persia o Religiously motivated was in 6th c I The Great RomanPersian War and the role of allies o Recurring large wars between Rome and Persia and allies 540562 577591 0 BUT largest was the Great RomanPersian War 602628 a brutal religious war With Arabs caught in the middle O 0000 O O Sparked by 3way Roman civil war 602610 Persian king invaded took over Syria Palestine E Anatolia even Egypt Cple was besieged twice Meanwhile Roman forces counterinvaded reached Mesopotamia Rome and Persia s use of religion amp bribes to rally support Both Rome and Persia relied on allies to join fight I Many Arab tribes involved Finally 628 new Persian King made peace I Original borders restored But impact on Romans Persians Arabs and others was immense Arab feuds that spiraled Beginnings of Islam Scholarly debates about the historical Muhammad O O 0 Islam began largely with Muhammad but as with Jesus studying the historical Muhammad is difficult Clashing late sources Quran written down between 650s and 700 biographies of Muhammad written mid 8th9th c Basics of Main Islamic Tales I Muhammad born in 570 to Quraysh tribe which controlled Mecca I After parents died Muhammad was raised by uncle I Muhammad as merchant I Married wealthy woman Khadij a and traveled widely Biographies say Muhammad started receiving prophesy around 610 His prophecies won small following in Mecca but he was harassed by Quraysh leaders By 622 CE Muhammad and followers forced to ee from Quraysh lands 0 Muhammad s prophecy The Qur an and its origins O O O O O Qur an is a record of Muhammad s prophecies Some of it may re ect some of the historical Muahmmad s preaching Main theme of Qur an is strict simple monotheism Islam submission to will of God Qur an poetic arguments references to Biblical stories some laws Women to be treated fairly not equally but polygamy was limited and women guaranteed some inherited property Call for unity of Arabs as the old world was predicted to soon end I Muhammad in Medina An Islamic state and its rst jihad O O O O In 622 CE according to the biographies Muhammad and 100 followers ed to oasis of Medina to escape persecution Medina s tribes were we hear divided Jewish polytheist and feuding asked Muhammad to mediate By 624 Muhammad allied with Jewish tribes converted polytheists created Islamic state Amid 8year war with Quraysh Muhammad called for jihad struggle for pure thoughts for justice and against foes Earliest Islamic relations with Jews and Christians 0 In many sources Muhammad started off seeking alliance with Jews and Christians I At first Muhammad said Jews Christians and Arabs all shared the same heroic ancestor Abraham when he first spoke about believers he was including Jews and Christians In Qur an Muhammad distanced Islam from Jews and Christians I Jews amp Christians are said to have claimed that the age of prophesy was over challenging Muhammad s authenticity In biographies arguments with Jews and Christians in Medina In biographies some Jews and Christians were punished in Medina for disloyalty during war o In Qur an Islam original religion of Abraham I other monotheisms truth mixed with errors useless arguments 0 Hence Jews Christians and Zoroastrians were protected peoples of Book believers in God 2Ild class citizens paid extra tax amp could not hold leadership in the community Islam was called the original religion on Abraham 0 After Muhammad The early caliphs and their conquests o Muhammad died in 632 with 4 living wives but no clear plan for successionheir Council chose Abu Bakr as first caliph successor not prophet First 3 caliphs all early converts companions of prophet religious and political leader Shared raids on empires to keep Arab tribes united Arab troops campaigned to North to keep tribes united Arab victories in 636 against Roman army in 637 against Persian army Some cities resisted and were besieged looted some enslaved Most cities in MidE surrendered with little fight and were spared 0000000 I The New Empire of Islam conquest agreements and garrison cities 0 Garrison Cities I By 650 s Caliph representing 300000 or so Arab Muslims ruled over 30 million Jews Christians Zoroastrians Romans Persians I Early caliphs saw Arab Muslims as a separate warrior class I In MidE 100150000 people from Arab tribes settled in new garrison cities such as Basra old Cairo or in existing Arab communities in Syria and IsraelPalestine o Conquest Agreements I All other subjects were ruled by caliphs regional governors amirs I Governed by conquest agreements I Jews Christians and Zoroastrians were protected if they submitted tofe caliph paid extra tax amp if they followed a few rules not to push their religion on Muslims etc I Polytheists were not as protected but very few remained in Mediterranean I Generally early Caliphs made few changes to subjects lives old local leaders kept even old bureaucracies 0 Alternate accounts of the Rise of Islam and unanswered questions 0 From nonMuslim sources and some random documents I Alliance with Jews to retake Jerusalem then split I Muhammad as a Christian heretic I Muhammad s one of many prophetic movements in Arabia 0 Alternate tales not necessarily more reliable than Islamic stories but may help where they partly agree with Islamic sources 0 What historians mostly agree on about rise of Islam Islam born on fringe of Roman Persian world torn by religious war 0 Islam deeply in uenced by Jews Christians other Arab cultural trends but reacted against Roman power 0 Islam s Early Message Arabs had own prophet close to god deserved power Podcast 7d Fall of Rome and Rise of Islam in Modern Views 0 Popular Modern storylines about the Fall of Rome 0 Bearded barbarian hordes Weak armies Inequality Moral depravity Environmental damage High taxes immigration plagues Christianity climate change I Historians debates about explaining the decline of Roman power 0 Romans more concerned about morality in 5th c than ever before OOOO Christianity probably increased Roman stability Number of immigrants was small by modern standards Lead exposure smeller than we modern people have Some other ideas more probable for some regions at some times like selfinterested armies inequality taxes oppressive laws diseases environmental changes 0 Traditional and modern storylines about the origins of Islam 0 Most Common Islamic Religious Story I Muhammad perfected monotheistic message of Jews and Christians restarted pure monotheism of Abraham I Early Muslim warriors seen as courageous pious leading a swift non destructive conquest from corrupt empires act of God I Nor religious compulsion of Jews Christians or Zoroastrians early on just a demand to accept caliph s authority I Common political sound bites often from those hostile to Islam I Brutal conquest religion spread by sword endless holy war I Historians debates about explaining the Origins of Islam O 0000 00 So much is uncertain about the origins of Islam due to con icting late historical sources Pious tales clearly simplifications of a complicated reality But most antiIslamic tales find little support in evidence Context needed Arabs links to RomanPersian religious con icts Key basic fact Rise of Caliphate to power did NOT lead to instant vast spread of Islamic faith At first the number of Muslims remained small maybe 200000 Most subjects lived on as Jews Christians or Zoroastrians for a while in a new state
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