New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Biology 104 - Chapter 9 Notes

by: Olivia Orlando

Biology 104 - Chapter 9 Notes BIO 104

Marketplace > Grand Valley State University > Biology > BIO 104 > Biology 104 Chapter 9 Notes
Olivia Orlando
Biology for the 21st Century

Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These are my notes for Chapter 9 for the course Biology 104. They have content from the book and my professors comments. Hope they help!
Biology for the 21st Century
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Biology for the 21st Century

Popular in Biology

This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Olivia Orlando on Saturday October 31, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 104 at Grand Valley State University taught by in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Biology for the 21st Century in Biology at Grand Valley State University.


Reviews for Biology 104 - Chapter 9 Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/31/15
Biology 104 Chapter 9 Notes Lecture 0 Interphase everything s copied DNA Replication o Mitosis sister Chromatids are separated o Cytokinesis 1 cell split into 2 gt More cytoplasm membranes ribosomes mitochondria ER vacuoles DNA DNA Replication 0 Sister Chromatids identical results of DNA replication during interphase of cell cycle stick together at centromere o Homologous Chromosomes 1 from mom and 1 from dad not identical but carry some genes 0 Cancer Cells Genetic mutations in genes controlling cell cycle ProtoOncogene Tumor Suppressor Gene Result cells divide too often cells accumulate additional mutations in other genes other functions disrupted contract inhibition when a cell senses that there are too many cells it will stop dividing Anchorage Dependence states that cells like to be attached to similar cells skin cells 9 skin cells Book 0 Cancer is a disease of unregulated cell division cells divide inappropriately and accumulate in some instances forming a tumor Pre1945 methods of destroying the cancer was to zap it out with radiation or cut it out in surgery 0 Chemotherapy is the treatment of disease by chemicals specifically treats cancer 0 Cell division is the process by which a cell reproduces itself cell division is important for normal growth development and repair of an organism 0 Certain cells divide more frequently than other To produce new cells cells pass through a series of stages collectively known as the cell cycle during the cell cycle one cell becomes two Stages of the cell cycle interphase the stage of the cell cycle in which cells spend most of their time preparing for cell division There are three distinct subphases G1 S and G2 Mitosis is the segregation and separation of duplicated chromosomes during cell division Cytokinesis is the physical division of a cell into two daughter cells A sister chromatid are two identical DNA molecules that make up a duplicated chromosome following DNA replication The centromere is the specialized region of a chromosome where the sister chromatids are joined critical for proper alignment and separation of sister chromatids during mitosis Microtubules are hollow protein fibers that are key components of the cytoskeleton and make up the fibers of the mitotic spindle Normally during interphase microtubules are present as a vast network of fibers running throughout the cytoplasm of the cell Mitotic Spindle is the structure that separates sister chromatids during mitosis Kinetochore are proteins located at the centromere that provide an attachment point for microtubules of the mitotic spindle occurs during normal mitosis Stages of Mitosis 1Prophase replicated chromosomes begin to coil up nuclear membrane begins to disassemble microtubule fibers begin to form the mitotic spindle 2Metaphase Microtubule spindle fiber s from opposite ends of the cell attach to the sister chromatids of each chromosome replicated chromosomes become aligned along the middle of the cell 3 Anaphase microtubules shorten pulling the sister chromatids to opposite ends of the cell 4 Telophase identical set of chromosomes reach each pole microtubules spindle fibers disassemble nuclear membrane forms around each set of chromosomes forming the daughter cell nuclei Mutations are a change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA Cell Cycle Checkpoint is a cellular mechanism that ensures that each stage of the cell cycle is completed accurately Apoptosis is a programmed cell death often referred to as cellular suicide A tumor is a mass of cells resulting from uncontrolled cell division Metastasis is the spread of cancer cells from one location in the body to another Radiation therapy is the use of ionizing highenergy radiation to treat cancer References Shuster Michele Janet Vigna Matthew Tontonoz and Gunj an SinhaBiology for a Changing World with Physiology New York City WH Freeman 2014 Print


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Anthony Lee UC Santa Barbara

"I bought an awesome study guide, which helped me get an A in my Math 34B class this quarter!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.