Biology 104 - Chapter 9 Notes
Biology 104 - Chapter 9 Notes BIO 104
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Olivia Orlando on Saturday October 31, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 104 at Grand Valley State University taught by in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Biology for the 21st Century in Biology at Grand Valley State University.
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Date Created: 10/31/15
Biology 104 Chapter 9 Notes Lecture 0 Interphase everything s copied DNA Replication o Mitosis sister Chromatids are separated o Cytokinesis 1 cell split into 2 gt More cytoplasm membranes ribosomes mitochondria ER vacuoles DNA DNA Replication 0 Sister Chromatids identical results of DNA replication during interphase of cell cycle stick together at centromere o Homologous Chromosomes 1 from mom and 1 from dad not identical but carry some genes 0 Cancer Cells Genetic mutations in genes controlling cell cycle ProtoOncogene Tumor Suppressor Gene Result cells divide too often cells accumulate additional mutations in other genes other functions disrupted contract inhibition when a cell senses that there are too many cells it will stop dividing Anchorage Dependence states that cells like to be attached to similar cells skin cells 9 skin cells Book 0 Cancer is a disease of unregulated cell division cells divide inappropriately and accumulate in some instances forming a tumor Pre1945 methods of destroying the cancer was to zap it out with radiation or cut it out in surgery 0 Chemotherapy is the treatment of disease by chemicals specifically treats cancer 0 Cell division is the process by which a cell reproduces itself cell division is important for normal growth development and repair of an organism 0 Certain cells divide more frequently than other To produce new cells cells pass through a series of stages collectively known as the cell cycle during the cell cycle one cell becomes two Stages of the cell cycle interphase the stage of the cell cycle in which cells spend most of their time preparing for cell division There are three distinct subphases G1 S and G2 Mitosis is the segregation and separation of duplicated chromosomes during cell division Cytokinesis is the physical division of a cell into two daughter cells A sister chromatid are two identical DNA molecules that make up a duplicated chromosome following DNA replication The centromere is the specialized region of a chromosome where the sister chromatids are joined critical for proper alignment and separation of sister chromatids during mitosis Microtubules are hollow protein fibers that are key components of the cytoskeleton and make up the fibers of the mitotic spindle Normally during interphase microtubules are present as a vast network of fibers running throughout the cytoplasm of the cell Mitotic Spindle is the structure that separates sister chromatids during mitosis Kinetochore are proteins located at the centromere that provide an attachment point for microtubules of the mitotic spindle occurs during normal mitosis Stages of Mitosis 1Prophase replicated chromosomes begin to coil up nuclear membrane begins to disassemble microtubule fibers begin to form the mitotic spindle 2Metaphase Microtubule spindle fiber s from opposite ends of the cell attach to the sister chromatids of each chromosome replicated chromosomes become aligned along the middle of the cell 3 Anaphase microtubules shorten pulling the sister chromatids to opposite ends of the cell 4 Telophase identical set of chromosomes reach each pole microtubules spindle fibers disassemble nuclear membrane forms around each set of chromosomes forming the daughter cell nuclei Mutations are a change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA Cell Cycle Checkpoint is a cellular mechanism that ensures that each stage of the cell cycle is completed accurately Apoptosis is a programmed cell death often referred to as cellular suicide A tumor is a mass of cells resulting from uncontrolled cell division Metastasis is the spread of cancer cells from one location in the body to another Radiation therapy is the use of ionizing highenergy radiation to treat cancer References Shuster Michele Janet Vigna Matthew Tontonoz and Gunj an SinhaBiology for a Changing World with Physiology New York City WH Freeman 2014 Print
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