Cell Division (2)
Cell Division (2) ANAT-A215
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One Day of Notes
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This 16 page One Day of Notes was uploaded by Cierra Beyers on Thursday January 22, 2015. The One Day of Notes belongs to ANAT-A215 at Indiana University taught by Steve Dougherty in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 156 views. For similar materials see Basic Human Anatomy in Anatomy at Indiana University.
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Date Created: 01/22/15
Memory persistence of learning over time through storage and retrieval 3 memory processes 0 Recall retrieving previously stored info 0 Recognition identifyingmatching stored info 0 Relearning less work to remember previous info Encoding Storage Retrieval Encoding processing info for storage Storage holding info for retrieval Retrieval reactivation and recalling info Information Processing Model Components amp Characteristics Developed by an IU professor AtkinsonShiffrin Model o Sensory memory energy stimuli I Duration less than 1 second I Stability 34 second echo I Echoic what did I just sayquot I Iconic after image I Often unconscious I Can filter into LTM pop out effect at party I Once attended to moves to STMWM 0 Working memoryshort term memory I Duration less than 20 sec I Capacity 7 2 Local phone number are seven digits Stability easily disturbed Don t talk and try to do things I Conscious EffortfulActive I Integrates new info with LTM info 0 Long term memory I Duration infinite I Capacity unlimited I Stability fairly stable I Structure connectionism neural networking Dr Olaf Sporn and Connectome Project I Activation spreading activation Spacing Effect Distributed study better retention than massed cramming Forgetting curve Info lost when no attempt to retain More time passes more info lost Implicit and Explicit Memory 0 Explicit Memory I Facts info experiences I Aka declarative things we can declare I Semantic meanings understandings concept based info I Episodic experiences associated with specific times and places 0 Implicit Memory I Unconscious nonverbalizable effects of experience I Nondelcarative cant declare I Procedural to do things ride bike tie shoelace drive car I Conditioned responses Joy of baseball I Time space frequency place of page read earlier I Cerebellum and basal ganglia Automatic vs Effortful Processing 0 Automatic processing I Implicit memory Unconscious Automatic 0 Effortless Skips info processing stages directly into LTM o Effortful processing I Explicit memory Conscious Not automatic Takes work 0 Stages of info processing 0 Occurs during sleep Rehearsal Spacing Effect Spacing over time Testing effect answering questions about info Testing effect and distributed practice 0 Makes you learn more and retain more I Means less study time Organization Info memorable by giving it structure There was a study with two groups One group was told to remember the info and the other group was told to not remember it just organize it Both groups recalled the same amount of information o Organizing remembering Chunking organizing into manageable units 0 Credit cards numbers are in groups of 4 0 Effective Elaboration Shallow processing encoding on a basic level Deep processing encoding semantically meaningful deeper lever o Longer retention of info o More embedding in memory Selfreference effect how info describes relates to us Elaboration Strategies Mnemonics acronyms and sayings Analogies This is likesomething we already knowquot 0 Anchoring connection new info to something already in memory Massed vs distributed practice Metacognition Knowing about our knowing Knowledge we have about our thinking Selfawareness of our thinking Selfregulation of our thinking Good students good metacognition Emotions and Memory Strong emotions especially stress strengthens memory formation 1 Emotions trigger stress hormones 2 Hormones trigger amygdala 3 Amygdala engages frontal lobe and basal ganglia to quottagquot memory as important Longterm Potentiation More efficient neural synaptic firing due to storage retrieval 5 In uences on Retrieval 1 Cues and Priming Cue utilization Keys Lets see I hooked them on my belt then 0 Thinking about the last things you did Priming 0 Using something associated with info at time of encoding I Smell sight taste sound I When kids are Primed with Santa share candy Primed with Scrooge don t share candy 2 Context What was going on during encoding Memory is more easily retrieved in same context as when formed 0 Go back upstairs to remember what you went down for 3 Emotional and Physiological State Mood congruent retrieve info consistent with current emotional state or physiological state 4 Serial Position 1St and last in a series are more easily retrieved Study frequently 5 Forgetting Not exactly like a computer because we forget Good and bad Good 0 Forgetfulness is a form of freedomquot Gibran 0 We can forget traumatic experiences 0 Highly sensitive people have trouble letting things go 0 Put failures bad experiences behind us 0 Athletes actors politicians good at forgetting Bad 0 Ruminate we think the same negative thoughts 0 Never forget terrible things 0 Fuel from emotional fire 0 Learn from mistakes 6 Reasons Why Forgetting Might Occur 1 Brain Damage Damage to mechanism Encoding Failure Don t do anything with new info Storage Decay LTP in reverse Never retrieved never encoded Use it or lose it Proactive Interference Old info interferes with new info Old info related to new info Retroactive Interference New info interferes with storage and retrieval of old Huber knows new student names but forget old Motivated Forgetting Choosing to forget or change memory Repressing bury hide from conscious awareness Not common 6 In uences on Memory Error 1 2 Misinformation Effect Loftus and Palmer video of accident and asked people to report speed Incorporating misleading info into memory of event at time fo encoding and or time of retrieval Imagination Effect Picturing even can make it seem real More vivid more likely to become memory because it activates similar brain areas 3 Imagination In ation Effect Once we have memories we tend to add imagined details Affects both real and imagined memories 4 Source AmnesiaMisattribution Discuss childhood memories but find out it was from movie picture etc Forgetting where story came from and misattributing source to own experience May explain d j a vu 5 Implanted Memory Effect Loftus experiment lost in a shopping mall but never happened 0 He read a journal about it 6 Current Viewpoint Alter memory to fit current viewpoint How accurate is eyewitness testimony Forming Concepts a Concep mental grouping category of similar objects events ideas and people that most people agree belong together b How do we form concepts 1 Prototypes mental images or best ex Of category 0 Matching new items to prototype is quick easy method for sorting items 0 Match using defining attributes 2 Defining attributes features that make object acceptable member of category 0 Ex concept of a bachelor a Male b Unmarried c Adult 5 Disadvantages of Categorization 1 Categorization ignores important individual differences a Hidden prejudices 2 Defining attributes don t always work a Most categories have members we cant define by any single feature i Dog with two legs is still a dog ii Bird with no wings is still a bird 3 Fuzzy boundaries a Family resemblance members of category share certain core features but not all members have features b There is a fuzzy boundary for race c Can be problematic when people get put into categories 4 No good prototype a Some categories don t have a good prototype i Prototypical art abstract art vs other types of art 5 Categorized in different categories a Is chess a sport 5 Problem Solving Strategies 1 Trial and Error 0 Often tedious time intensive 0 Thomas Edison 2 Representing the Problem 0 Problem Representation using info 3 Developing Strategies 0 Algorithms step by step procedures that guarantee a solution a FOIL Heuristics shortcuts simple thinking strategies that help make judgment 4 Insight 0 Solutions seem to magically pop into mind 0 Consolidation moving info to part of brain for LTM Aha moment 0 Sudden rather than systematic 0 Ex a Chimp video used water to get the peanut b Chimp video using help to move stone to get to food 0 A light bulb really does go off 5 Incubation Effect 0 Take a break 0 Brain keeps working on it 0 Activation of other nodes 4 Obstacles to Solving Problems 1 Functional Fixedness see objects and their functions in fixed and typical ways 0 Duncker s candle mounting problem 2 Fixation Inability to see problem from fresh perspective 0 Arrange 6 matches into 4 equilateral triangles a Arrange into 3D instead of 2D 3 Mental Set 0 Inability to relyapproach problems with mind set of what has worked before 0 Einstein 0 Changing mental set a Analogies i Mutilated checkerboard problem 0 Make it easier by using another similar problem 4 Conformation Bias 0 Seeking only information and evidence confirming our ideas rather than refuting them 0 Confirming evidence is weighted more than contradictory evidence 0 Ex Therapeutic Touch 0 Video a Sir Ken Robinson i Do schools help or hurt creativity Algorithms Methodical logical rule or procedure guaranteeing solution 0 Computers use algorithms humans use heuristics simple strategy for making decisions 6 Heuristics for Making Decisions amp Forming Judgments 1 Availability Heuristic base decision on which alternative most available in mind 0 Words starting with R or with R being the 3rd letter 0 Overconfidence 0 Horses kill people more than sharks Representative Heuristic solution which best represents what I consider ideal prototype solution 0 We tend to ignore statistics 0 Robert wears glasses reads a lot and is quiet Is he more likely to be a librarian or a farmer a Farmer because there are more farmers than librarians in his town Problem Substitution Heuristic substitute easy question for a harder one Quick easy good way to make decisions 0 Lazy system 2 lets system 1 decide Affect Heuristic letting likes and dislikes determine your beliefs and judgments 0 If you don t like tattoos you believe the risks for them are high Mood Heuristic decision based on current mood 0 People were asked about the number of dates that had recently been on and how happy they were When they were asked how happy they were first there was no correlation When they were asked about dates first there was a correlation because the date question caused an emotion trigger Intuitive Prediction make rapid decision with out much conscious thought gut feeling 0 Based on experience 0 Ex Highly intelligent women marry men who are less intelligent a WHY Your intuitive prediction says that women are just looking for someone who isnt as smart as them so they can be the smartest one in the relationship b If you take out the intuitive prediction and look at statistics regression of the mean Statistically the man will be closer to average since the woman is so far from average The Power of Intuition 1 2 HE 7 8 9 Blindsight see but not consciously recognize SplitBrain person corpus callosum point to info but cant realize it verbalize Infants Intuitive Learning language and physics Moral Intuition quick gut feeling Divided Attention and Priming unattended into processed sign along highway Everyday Perception parallel processing of info reading crossing street Implicit Memory automatic processing Heuristics efficient and adaptive Creativity spontaneous novel valuable ideas 10Socia and Emotional Intelligence 11 Body Response before conscious perception 12Thin Slices detect traits from mere seconds of behavior The Perils of Intuition oorv 9051075quot Can be inaccurate which leads to poor decisions and judgments Extremely rare events are vivid in our memory making them easy to recall Fears of flying Muslims swimming in oceans Lack of vivid memory unconcerned about things such as global warming Hindsight Bias Confirmation Bias Illusory Correlation 2 things don t have a correlation but people think they do Perceiving Order in Random Events Memory Construction and Reconstruction Interviewer Illusion overconfident based on interview alone Attribution Effect overlook other factors Mispredicting of our feelings and behaviors 10 Effects that In uence Making Decisions amp Forming Judgments 1 Halo Effect 0 Impression of person biases our feelings thoughts judgments of the person 0 If we like them we give them more positive attributes Overconfidence Effect 0 Overestimate accuracy of our beliefs judgments decisions 0 Good entrepreneurial spirit restaurants 0 Bad 2 opposing generals are overconfident resulting in an unavoidable war Loss Aversion Effect 0 People weigh losses much more than gains twice as much 0 More apt to makes decision that avoid losses 0 Over insured people 0 Athletes perform to not lose 0 David Kahneman video about overconfidence Belief Perseverance Effect 0 Clinging to initial conceptions after discredited 0 Once beliefs form and are justified it takes more evidences to change them than it did to form them TheoryInduced Blindness Effect 0 Inability to see shortcomings of theory once accepted 0 No way sun is the center of the universe Good thing Copernicus didn t think this way Framing Effect 0 Way issue posed and how alternatives are presented affects our choice 0 80 lean looks better than 20 fat even though they mean the same thing 0 Action framed to ensure gain and avoid loss 0 Leads to irrational choices 0 Generals dilemma worksheet question were the same just posed differently which resulted in different answers Anchoring Effect 0 Rely too heavily on 1St piece of information offered 0 Gandhi s age he died when he was 78 Endowment Effect 0 Ascribing more value to something simply because we own it Unwilling to sell a bottle of wine for more than they bought it for 9 Sunk Cost Fallacy Effect 0 Investing additional resources in losing decision when better options available 0 We ve come this far 10 BaseRate Fallacy Effect 0 Ignoring or underusing baserate information and usebe influences by distinctive features of situation We can count on our ability to ignore our own ignorance David Kahneman CELL DIVISION I CELL CYCLE A Cells are divided into two groups 1 Sex cells sperm and ova eggs 2 Somatic cells all other cells body cells B Cell cycle subdivided into 2 phases 1 Interphase cell is not dividing a DNA is replicated during this time b Three different phases DNA replicates during s phase of interphase 2 Mitosis cell division for somatic cells or Meiosis cell division for sex cells II MITOSIS Note DNA was replicated during interphase S phase A Prophase 1 Chromatin 12 DNA and 12 proteins becomes supercoiled to form chromosomes 2 Chromosomes are doublestranded DNA That is 2 chromatids sister chromatids joined by a centromere a chromatid one of the duplicated DNA strands 3 Spindle fibers extend from centrioles to the centromere a Centrioles are also replicated during interphase 4 Nuclear membrane and nucleolus are dismantled Taken down and has the ability to be put together again B Metaphase middle 1 Chromosomes align along center of cell They are pushed by spindle fibers C Anaphase 1 The two chromatids split apart at centromere They are enzymatically broken and the spindle fibers shorten to pull them apart 2 Each chromatid a single strand of DNA is pulled to opposite ends of cell D Telophase 1 Chromosomes uncoil and we go back to chromatin 2 Nuclear envelope and nucleolus reforms 3 Cleavage furrow develops Cytokinesis division of cytoplasm usually occurs Cells now enter interphase III MEIOSIS Def cell division where gametes sex cells sperm cells or eggs are formed A Differences between mitosis and meiosis 1 Mitosis produced 2 cells containing 46 chromosomes 23 pairs of single strands of DNA a The two new cells are identical to original cell 2 Meiosis produces 4 cells containing only 23 single strands of DNA a The four new cells are not identical to each other B Meiosis Starts off with one cell that has 23 pairs of chromosomes One set of chromosomes came from MOTHER and the other from the FATHER During interphase DNA gets duplicated Cell now contains 23 pairs of double stranded chromosomes 92 total strands of DNA There are two consecutive meiotic divisions 1 Meiosis I a Prophasel i The process of synapsis allows for the chromosomes line up in groups of four chromatids tetrads 23 total ii Crossover occurs process by which genetic material is exchanged between nonsister chromatids b Metaphase I Anaphase I Telophase I the cell finishes Meiosis I by separating the tetrads and producing 2 daughter cells with 23 double stranded chromosomes meaning each chromosomes consists of 2 chromatids 2 Meiosis II Each of the 2 cells produced from Meiosis I divide NO DNA REPLICATION BEFORE THIS DIVISION a Prophase II Metaphase II Anaphase II centromeres are separated and individual chromatids singlestranded DNA are pulled to opposite ends of the cell Telophase II b 4 cells gametes produced each with 23 single strands of DNA In which of the following stages of mitosis do the centromeres split and the chromatids begin to separate a Prophase Telophase Metaphase None of the above this only happens in meiosis
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