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Week 8 Notes

by: Chasia Notetaker

Week 8 Notes BIOL 12000

Chasia Notetaker
GPA 3.56

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These notes cover what was taught the week of March 21, 2016.
Fundamentals of Biology II: Ecology and E
Nancy L Jacobson
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chasia Notetaker on Saturday March 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 12000 at Ithaca College taught by Nancy L Jacobson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Biology II: Ecology and E in Biology at Ithaca College.


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Date Created: 03/26/16
Transitional forms are not just found in fossils but in living species  ­in the evolution of the lungs  ­in the evolution of the heart    Respiration  Organs of gas exchange (O​ 2​n, CO​2​out)  1. Gills­water  a. All fish  b. Amphibians immatures as well as a few adult salamanders  2. Lungs­air  a. Primitive ray finned fish  b. Lungfish  i. Supplement gills in oxygen poor water  c. Most amphibian adults  d. All reptiles (including birds) and mammals   3. Thin skin­water  a. Many amphibians  b. 100% of gas exchange in a few    Gills  ­most are very efficient at extracting dissolved O​2​from water  ­extract 80­90%  ­water has less oxygen than air  ­use countercurrent flow  ­blood (in capillaries) flows in opposite direction to the water (over gills)  ­oxygen concentration is always higher in the water than in the blood  ­diffusion occurs along entire length of gas exchange surface    Lungs  ­lungs are internally moistened sacs used for gas exchange, highly vascularized  ­allows gas exchange with air (gills wouldn’t work, they would dry out and stick  together)  ­lungs evolved from evagination of the gut  ­lungs are lined by endoderm  ­you can choke if food goes down your trachea instead of your esophagus  ­in ray finned fish, lungs evolved into the swim bladder (used for buoyancy)  ­primitive ray finned fish can still use it as lungs  ­swim bladder in the rest of the ray finned fish get gas from blood so it can no longer act as the  lungs  ­lung fish use lungs solely as lungs  ­supplement gills in low oxygen water  ­can breathe air if ponds dry out  ­most tetrapod adults rely entirely on lungs  ­lungs became more and more finely divided  ­mammals have alveoli  ­the lungs of birds are different  ­have air sacs attached which allow one way flow through the lungs  ­into nares > trachea > bronchi > posterior air sacs > lungs > anterior air sacs > bronchi >  trachea > out nares  ­no gas exchange in air sacs  ­bird lungs are very efficient at extracting oxygen from the air  ­similar to countercurrent flow across gills    Ventilation of lungs  Inhalation­ lungs are internal, so gases must be actively inhaled, this can happen 2 ways  ­fish with lungs and amphibians use positive pressure  ­gulp air, contract, force air into lungs  ­reptiles and mammals use negative pressure (allows for larger lungs)  ­all use intercostal rib muscles to expand rib cage  ­mammals also use a diaphragm    Circulation  ­circulatory system takes oxygen to the tissues, removes CO​ 2​from the tissues  ­takes nutrients to the tissues and removes waste from the tissues    Evolution of circulatory system   ­in most fish   ­2 chambered heart (atrium and ventricle)  ­single circulation (heart > gills > body > heart)   ­blood going to the body is highly oxygenated but is slowed by resistance in gill  capillaries  ­when a fish swims it helps move the blood through its body  ­in lungfish  ­2 chambered heart with a partial septum in the atrium (and small partial septum in  ventricle)   ­single circulation (when only using gills)  ­double circulation (when breathing air)  ­pulmonary ( heart > gills and lungs > heart)  ­systemic ( heart > skips gills > body > heart)  ­stronger flow to the body, but some mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated  blood  ­spiral valve separates deoxygenated and oxygenated blood to some extent    ­in amphibians  ­3 chambered heart  ­2 atria and 1 ventricle  ­double circulation   ­pulmocutaneous and systemic circuits  ­important for animals that live on land, need more pressure to move the blood  ­some mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood in the ventricle  ­can shut off pulmonary artery when under water; cutaneous artery > skin  capillaries where gas exchange occurs through the skin    ­in most reptiles  ­3 chambered heart with a partial septum in the ventricle  ­double circulation  ­less mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood in the ventricle    ­in crocodilians, birds, and in mammals  ­4 chambered hearts (2 atria, 2 ventricles)  ­double circulation  ­oxygenated and deoxygenated blood is kept completely separate   ­efficient respiration and circulation allows endothermy (“heat from within”) to evolve in  birds and mammals   ­generate through high metabolism  ­need to eat a lot  ­need to transport lots of oxygen to their cells (for aerobic cellular respiration)  ­can remain active even in cold temperatures   ­fish are most efficient at breathing, in water  ­birds have a cross­current system, less efficient than fish but more efficient than other  tetrapods   ­no residual volume  ­cross current flow of blood and air in birds  ­exchange of oxygen in alveoli of mammals    Animal behavior­ foraging    Feeding­have to find, recognize, capture, eat, and digest food   Foraging­food obtaining behavior   ­including all of the above except digestion  ­animals often find and recognize find efficiently using a search image     Optimal foraging theory  ­feeding behavior should be efficient  ­maximum energy obtained  ­minimize energy expended and risk of predation   ­when we were hunters and gatherers  ­sweet taste associated with fruit ­ vitamins   ­fats were high in calories which was good at the time  ­individually, we can now get many more calories than we expend, we are too efficient  ­those people actually getting our food for us are often too efficient as well   ­fish are caught faster than they can reproduce    Generalists versus Specialists  Generalists­ eat many types of food vs. eating few  ­actually a continuum  ­they can live anywhere there is acceptable food  Specialists­ can eat (or find) food that most other can’t  ­ex. Koalas only eat eucalyptus leaves   ­if food source is scarce then you are too  ­many herbivores have an enlarged cecum with cellulose­digesting bacteria and protists  ­ways to divide food resources  ­territories  ­defended area   ­foraging is one reason for setting up a territory  ­exclusive access to food for self and offspring  ­familiarities with area helps forage efficiently and or avoid predators   ­others, usually of the same species, are kept out  ­song in birds  ­urine scenting in some mammals  ­sometimes physical attacks  ­”pecking order”  ­alpha male or female is at the top  ­in social groups , a dominance hierarchy can determine  ­who can has access to the food first   ­who gets the best food  ­so in times of scarcity, the more dominant individuals survive     


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