Week 10 of Philosophy Notes
Week 10 of Philosophy Notes PHIL 1000 - 01
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by William Bartek on Saturday October 31, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHIL 1000 - 01 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Matthew McGrath in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see General Introduction to Philosophy in PHIL-Philosophy at University of Missouri - Columbia.
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Date Created: 10/31/15
Philosophy 1000 William James Will to Believe 0 James assumes there s no decisive proof either that God does or doesn t exist Clifford It s morally wrong to believe something without sufficient evidence Terminology o Hypothesis any proposition 0 Live vs Dead hypothesis I Live hypothesis is a real possibility I Dead hypothesis is ruled out as impossible 0 Option A choice between hypotheses An option may be 1 Living or dead a Living option is when both hypothesis living b Dead option is when one out of two hypothesis are dead 2 Forced or avoidable a Can you avoid taking either option 3 Momentous or trivial a Can you resist taking either option 0 Genuine Option A live forced and momentous option James Laws of Belief 0 We can t believe at will 0 Reason doesn t always determine belief Passion s Role Believe the truth and shun error Genuine Options 0 Morality Either some things are right and others wrong vs believe nothing is right or wrong 0 Personal Relationships Either believe you like me vs believe you don t 0 Social Actions Either believe others will do their parts in our joint action vs believe they won t Religious Option 0 Hypothesis The best things are the most eternal things We ll be better off now if we just believe this 0 James claims the religious option is genuine Skepticism Decartes Meditation Dreaming Argument 1 Ican t be certain I m not dreaming 2 If I can t be certain I m not dreaming I can t be certain of anything I believe through the senses 3 So I can t be certain of anything I believe through the senses o This argument creates skepticism through the senses but what about basic knowledge 0 To reformulate for knowing instead of certainty replace quotbe certain with know Demon Argument 1 Ican t be certain I m not being deceived by an evil demon even in simple math 2 If I can t be certain I m not being deceived by such a demon I can t be certain even in my beliefs in simple math 3 So I can t be certain even in my beliefs in simple math 0 Conclusion All beliefs can be doubted 0 Knowledge doesn t require certainty however so he isn t saying we don t know anything Countera rguments 0 You can know you aren t dreaming 1 1 Dreams are disjointed and fantastical 2 My current experience isn t disjointed or fantastical 3 So my current experience isn t a dream 0 Claim you don t need to know you aren t dreaming to have knowledge through the senses 0 Do the GE Moore shift Vogel on Skepticism Deceiver Argument 1 Your sensory experiences could have arisen either from normal perception of the world as it is or by being caused deceptively 2 You have no reason at all to believe that your sensory experiences arise in one way rather than the other 3 So you have no knowledge of the external world 0 Undetermination Principle If your available info doesn t give you reason to believe one rather than another of two mutually exclusive hypotheses you don t know either hypothesis is true Three Ways to Defend Premise 2 o Moerean Approach see a tree so there s a tree there so I m not being deceived o A Priori Approach Pure reason apart from experience tells us H1 more likely than H2 0 Explanationism The Real World Hypothesis is a better explanation than any SH therefore more reason to believe it Roger Example 0 Roger is sneezing has moist eyes and recurring seasonal symptoms 0 Series of colds allergies periodically dormant chronic respiratory infection are all legitimate answers 0 quotSomething other than an allergy is not a legitimate answer because it doesn t explain in detail like the others do