Chapter 12 Notes
Chapter 12 Notes HNRS 2010
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Clark on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HNRS 2010 at Bowling Green State University taught by Dawn Shinew in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Critical Thinking in OTHER at Bowling Green State University.
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Date Created: 11/01/15
Asking the Right Questions Chapter 12 What Signi cant Information is Omitted While critical thinkers are seeking the strength of autonomy they cannot do so if they are making decisions on the basis of highly limited information Those who have an interest in telling us only the information they want us to know will tell us all the positive characteristics in great and vivid detail They will hide the negative aspects though Ask yourself What significant information is omitted Remember that almost any information you encounter has a purpose Its organization was selected and presented in a certain way to affect your thinking People trying to persuade you will always try to present their position in the strongest possible light Stop and think about what the author might not have told you Some information left out can affect whether you should be in uenced by an argument Incomplete reasoning is inevitable There are limitations imposed by time and space People have limited attention spans People are always lacking all of the information Many people try to deceive others When trying to persuade others their values beliefs and attitudes often differ from your own Remind yourself that regardless of how attractive the reasons may seem you need to look for any information that was omitted Ask What additional information do I need to decide Always ask questions designed to reveal that information Remember that to make sense of certain comparisons we must understand the range and possible proportions of possible values When we see information that has a numerical dimension associated with it we need to ask for specific numbers p x When a word or phrase is measurable in specific units ask for the specifics of those units before making a decision Concepts like greater than more than faster thinner after and other concepts that talks about sizes and scopes The words are clues that you need more information I Common counterarguments I What reasons would someone who disagrees offer I Are there research studies that contradict the studies presented I Are there missing examples testimonials or analogies that support the other side of the argument I Missing definitions I How would the arguments differ if key terms were defined in other ways I Missing value preferences or perspectives I Would different values create a different approach to this issue I What arguments would ow from values different from those of the speaker or writer I Origins of quotfactsquot referred to in the argument I What is the source for the quotfactsquot I Are the factual claims supported by competent research or by reliable sources I Details of procedures used for gathering facts I How many people completed the questionnaire I How were the survey questions worded I Did respondents have ample opportunity to provide answers different from those reported by the person using the responses I Alternative techniques for gathering or organizing the evidence I How might the results from an interview study differ from written questionnaire results I Would a laboratory experiment have created more reliable and informative results I Missing or incomplete figures graphs tables or data I Would the data look different if it included evidence from earlier or later years I Has the author quotstretchedquot the figure to make the differences look larger I Omitted effects both positive and negative and both short and longterm of what is advocated and what is opposed I Has the argument left out important positive or negative consequences of a proposed action I Do we need to know the impact of the action on any of the following areas political social economic biological spiritual health or environmental I Omission of prediction failures or misses when arguing for special prediction skills I When psychics or intuitionists promote their special abilities we need to ask how often their predictions have proven to be untrue I We need to know the frequency of prediction failures as well of successes of economists financial advisors sports gamblers and political pundits before concluding that they have special expertise There is one type that is so important to identify and so often overlooked The potential negative effects of actions being advocated Usually proposals for such action occur in the context of backers heralding their benefits Because most actions have such widespread positive and negative impacts we need to ask many questions Which segments of society do not benefit from a proposed action Who loses What do the losers have to say about it How does the proposed action affect the distribution of power What are the action39s effects on our health How does the action in uence our relationships with one another With the natural environment Always ask What are the potential longterm negative effects of the action Just because you are able to request important missing information does not guarantee a satisfactory response You have to decide if it is possible to arrive at a conclusion without the missing information You will encounter resistance m
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