Emotion and motivation (lecture notes)
Emotion and motivation (lecture notes) PSY 2012
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madison Woy on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 2012 at University of Florida taught by TBH in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Florida.
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Date Created: 11/01/15
Chapter 11 Emotion and Motivation lecture notes Motivationpsychological drives that propel us in a specific direction Homeostasis biological equilibrium YerkesDodson law 0 Inverted U shape relation between arousal on the one hand and moodperformance on the other Stimulus hunger 0 When they are under aroused we seek out novel stimuli 0 Related to ADHD and treatment with stimulant medication Approach and avoidance o Approach a predisposition toward a certain stimuli o Avoidance a disposition away from certain stimuli Approach and avoidance over time o The closer we get to our goals the more we want to avoid them Incentive theories therioes proposing that we often are motivated by positive goals Intrinsic motivationwanting to do something because it is important to us Extrinsic motivationwanting to do something for a reward Maslow39s hierarchy of needs sea triangle 0 We must achieve each goal represented in each level of the pyramid level of the pyramid before we can move onto achieving the next Hunger and eating 0 Hunger is more than just an empty stomach 0 Patient to have the stomachs removed can still feel hunger o Hunger is in the brain hypothalamus and middle Brain Leptin o Signals hypothalamus and brainstem reduce appetite and increase the amount of energy used Genetics and obesity 0 Obesity may be caused by a genetic mutation gt However this is only true in 6 of obese people 0 Set point the Value that establishes a range of body and muscle mass we tend to maintain gt When we eat too little and drop below our set point regulatory mechanisms kick into increased or appetite or decrease our metabolism Internal external theorytheory holding that obese people are motivated to eat more by external cues then internal cues 0 Examples of external cues are large portion sizes and bottomless bowlsDeIay gratification 0 children who can delay gratification longer have lower BMI scores as adults Bulimia Nervosa 0 Eating disorder associated with a pattern of binging and purging an effort to lose or maintain weight 0 Examples include gt purging self induced vomiting laxative use excessive exercising and periods of starvation SON Mutilation 0 Negative reinforcement maintains purging behaviors 0 People who have this eating disorder tend to be normal weight 0 Very dangerous Anorexia nervosa 0 Eating disorder associated with excessive weight loss and the rational perception that one is overweight 0 Most deadly Binge eating disorder 0 Eating disorder characterized by large binges but no purging Sexual Desire 0 Testosterone related to sexual interest 0 High levels of serotonin is related to low sex drive Physiology of human sexual response 0 Excitement phasegt Plateau phasegt resolution Can sexual orientation be changes 0 Probably not 0 Genetic component to sexuality 0 Hormones during pregnancy may influence brain development Interpersonal attraction 0 Proximity physical nearness o Similarities extent to which we have things in common Social role and mate selection 0 Men looking for healthy Fertility and ability to have children 0 Women look for ability to provide and support of family Types of love 0 Passionate love powerful even overwhelming longing for one39s partner 0 Companionate love senses of deep friendship and fondness for one department Three sides of love intimacy passion commitment Hate o Negation of intimacy quotI never want to get close to these peoplequot 0 Passion quotI absolutely and positively despised these peoplequot 0 Commitment quotI am determined to stop or Harm these peoplequot Emotion mental state or feelings associated with are evaluations of our experience 0 Discreet emotions theory theory that humans experience a small number of distinct emotions that are rooted in their biology gt Evolutionary benefit disgust Culture and emotion 0 Primary emotions small number of emotions believed by some theorists to be cross culturally universal Display rulescross culture guidelines for how and when to express emotions 0 Example Japanese participants are more likely to smile when they39re stressed if they are in a social situation Physiology and emotions 0 Fear and anger both make our heart rate gt Fear makes our digestive system shut down gt Anger makes our digestive system work harder gt Fear is in the amydgala gt Anger is in the frontal lobes gt Digest is in insula 0 Real smileDuchenne smile gt Smile with turning up of the lips and dropping of eyelids and crinkling of the corners of the eyes 0 Fake smilePan Am smile gt Turning up of the lips only Cognitive theories of emotions there is proposing that emotions are Products of our interpretation lkun l mlmnal Pctlungs l i 1 u I x I IMu I ANS amuul Behavin quotum I 3 momma fnIlngs 1km Farm rum u n i ANS m and lk avu mm fmiunul kvlings will Uhrltxl l39ll391 nth1nr Alum pk Md 1 am alum 39I l dl Mun1 1IlnA I39l39fildlnhllllll HuhII IIllil39l1n39fl39a pm Hi lmxxrul mlmg L than WWI mum I 1 Hr allmll Me I39 lhr mannl N presses or by another part of the body James Lange theory of emotion 0 Theory proposing that emotions results from our interpretations of a bodily reactions Two factor theory of emotion theory proposing that emotions are produced by undifferentiated state of arousal all along with and attribution explanation of that arousal Facial feedback hypothesis theory that blood vessels in face feedback temperature information in the brain altering our experience of emotion 0 Example when we smile we feel happier and think things are funnier Mere exposure effect phenomenon in which the repeated exposure to a stimulus that makes you more likely to feel favorably towards it Nonverbal expression of emotion o Nonverbal leakagg unconscious deliver of emotions into nonverbal behavior gt Facial expressions body posture tone Body language and gestures o lllustrators highlight or accentuate speech gt examplemoving our hands 0 Manipulators one body part strokes o Emblems convey conventional meaning recognized by members of the culture Personal space 0 Proxemics Study of personal space 0 Public distance 12 feet or more 0 Social distance 4 to 12 feet 0 Personal distance one of a half to 4 feet 0 Intimate distance zero 15 feet Humans as lie detectors 0 Most people are only correct 50 of the time 0 Little relations between peoples confidence to detect lies and their actual abilities Polygraph test 0 Pinocchio response people assuming lying has a physiological response Poly graph 0 Biased against the innocent tends to label innocent people as built lnadmissible in the US courts 0 Can be useful as an interrogation technique 0 Voice stress analysis based on the finding that peoples voices increase in pitch when they why 0 Countermeasures ways to fake physiological responses to trick the test Other lie detection techniques 0 Guilty knowledge test alternative to the polygraph test that relies on the premise that criminals Harbor concealed knowledge about the crime that innocent people don39t Integrity tests questionnaire that presumably assesses workers tendency to cheat or steal o Tests history of stealing attitudes towards stealing Perception of others honesty Happiness o Happier people live longer and are more creative 0 Braden and build theory Proposing that happiness predisposes us to think more openly Forecasting happiness 0 Affective forecasting ability to predict our own and others39 happiness 0 Durabiity bias Belief that both are good and bad moods will last longer than they do