Chapter 8 Judaism Book Notes
Chapter 8 Judaism Book Notes RELSTDS 102
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amanda Bronge on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to RELSTDS 102 at University of Wisconsin - Oshkosh taught by Dr. Jeffrey Kaplan in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 65 views. For similar materials see World Religions in Religious Studies at University of Wisconsin - Oshkosh.
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Judiasm Book Notes Western Wall- now used for contemplation and prayer An Overview of Jewish History Historical Event The destruction of the second temple of Jerusalem by the Romans in 70 CE, which brought about the end of the temple ceremonial religion of that region and the widespread dispersion of its people lands far away from Israel. The earlier religion had to solve survival after this issue. A distinction is often made between biblical Judaism and rabbinical (1st period) Judaism. The movement, called reform, questioned and modernized traditional Judaism and helped produce the diverse branches within Judaism that exist today. The Hebrew Bible record that the roots of Judaism go far back into the past to a landless people sometimes called Hebrews. The Hebrew Bible Ancient writings that have been combined into a book. Composed of three sections: The Torah (The teaching), Nevi’im (The Prophets), and Ketuvim (The writings). As a whole is considered the Tanakh. Torah Sacred Core of Hebrew Bible, stories of Adam and Eve and early ancestors of Hebrew People. Includes laws about daily conduct and religious ritual. Nevi’im Named for those individuals who spoke in God’s name to the Jewish People. Ketuvim Closer to imaginative literature. Short stories, poetry, etc. No dates are fully accurate for these writings. Biblical History In the Beginning: Stories of Origins The earliest stories of the Hebrew Bible, given in Genesis 1-11, have a mythic quality that is universally appealing. God separates lightness and darkness, land and water, and completes in 6 days. Stories of Adam and Eve, after that is stories of their children Cain and Abel. The World of Patriarchs and Matriarchs Abraham is the first Hebrew Patriarch. He is introduced in chapter 12 of Genesis, the point at which the book becomes more seemingly historical. God enters into a solemn covenant, a contract with Abraham. In return for God’s promise to provide land, protection, and descendants, Abraham and his male descendants must be circumcised as a sign of their exclusive relationship with God. The stories in Genesis also tell of mysterious contacts with God- called theophanies- which are sometimes friendly in nature but at other times fierce and frightening. Joseph, Jacob’s next to last son is the focus of the final section of Genesis, ends with Jacob’s death. No existence has been proven that the existence of Abraham was once real, but they do somewhat seem to prove historical truths. Moses and the Law All boys were deemed to be killed, but Moses was spared by being hidden. An Egyptian princess discovers his and raises him as her own. God speaks to him when he sees a burning bush and demanding he go save the Hebrews in Egypt. No one is sure whether this time was truly Monotheistic or Polytheistic. The Judges and Kings After Moses’s death, The Israelites were led by men and women who has both military and legal power, called judges. Books of Joshua and Judges describe this period. People of Israel soon after declared a King. First King Saul and then King David, he oversaw the buildup of the kingdom. David and his son Solomon built the First Temple in Jerusalem. Prophets were important- human beings who spoke in God’s name, both as groups and individuals. Exile and Captivity Monumental turning point, Babylonia (586-539 BCE). Sabbath Service of Worship developed. Return to Jerusalem and the Second Temple A final edition of the Torah was made, the prophetic books were compiled, and new books were written as well. Cultural Conflict during the Second Temple Era Because of the geographic location of Israel, it seemed the Jews would have to deal with continuous invasions and conquests. The Seleucid Period New rulers changed the rulings, such as forbidding circumcision. Pork was not allowed. Hellenistic Culture was hugely attractive to educated people. Responses to Outside Influences Several factions were formed due to opposing tensions: 1. Sadducees- first of factions to emerge. They were members of priestly families, in charge of temples and activities. 2. Pharisees- second faction, Focus was preserving Hebrew Piety through careful observation of religious laws and traditions. 3. Zealots- Opposed to foreign influences and after 6 CE was bitterly opposed to Roman rule of Israel, “Robbers” 4. Essences- Not much is known about them except they lived a communal, celibate life, primarily in the desert area near the Dead Sea; rejected animal sacrifice and avoided meat and wine. Fought against the darkness. Development of Rabbinical Judaism The end of the Second Temple was a turning point for the Jewish Faith, producing two major effects. Moving Judaism toward a central focus on scripture and scriptural interpretation. The Canon of Scripture and the Talmud Another revolt began in Israel 132 CE, leader was known to be Messiah, the long awaited savior sent by God to the Jews. After the Hebrew Bible itself, the Babylonian Talmud became the second-most important body of Jewish literature, and it continued to be commented on over the centuries by rabbinical specialists. Islam and Medieval Judaism Moses Maimonides, medieval thinker of Judaism. “The Guide of the Perplexed”. Argued that Judaism was a rational religion and that faith and reason were complementary. The Kabbalah The whole body of Jewish Mystical literature is called Kabbalah. The most famous book of the Kabbalah is the Zohar, it sees the universe as having emerged from a pure, boundless, spiritual reality. Christianity and Medieval Judaism Christians put on an anti-Jew perception and were seen as loyal citizens, where Jews were seen as suspicious. Jews were forced to wear a special cap or display some sort of identification of religion. They were deprived and often prosecuted for unknowing crimes. Questioning and Reform After the Renaissance, Judaism began to move in two directions. One direction cherished traditional ways; the other saw a need for modernization. Judaism and the Modern World Jews still continuously struggled, but as soon as they started to make some sort of progress, Hitler shot those opportunities right down. Hitlers plan was to exterminate all Jews, about 12 million had been exterminated and a million and a half were children. This immense loss is called the Holocaust. The development of the state of Israel was formed after the Holocaust and was known as Zionism. After Mount Zion, the mountain on which Jerusalem was built. Jewish Belief No official Jewish creed, but there is a set of central beliefs. Belief in God. God is creator of the universe Belief in the words of the prophets Belief that God gave the law to Moses Believe that Messiah, the savior to be sent by God, will come someday Belief that there will be a resurrection of the good “in the world to come” Jews believe that among human beings, the Jewish people have a special role- a role that some believe is to witness to the one God and to do his will in the world. Religious Practice Judaism is less interested in orthodoxy and is far more interested in orthopraxy. The Ten Commandments, of course, are the heart of Jewish morality. The Jewish Sabbath Central to all forms of Judaism is keeping the Sabbath, the seventh day of the week, as a special day. The Sabbath, when kept properly, is felt to sanctify the entire week. The Sabbath is a day of special prayer and relaxation. Holy Days The Jewish religious calendar is lunar, meaning that each month begins with the new moon. Therefore, in the Jewish religious calendar an extra month is added approximately every three years. New Year’s day is Rosh Hashanah. Occurs in the fall. Yom Kippur is the most solemn day of the year. The New Year period ends with his day. Following soon after the High Holy days comes the late-harvest festival of Sukkot. The festival recalls the wandering of the early Hebrews. In February Jews celebrate Purim, the festival that recalls the divine protection given to Jews at the time of Esther and her uncle, Mordecai. In the springtime “pass over” is celebrated. This recalls The Hebrews departure from Egypt. Tradition meals (Seder) are served. Jewish Dietary Practices They follow the term Kosher and this particularly applies to food preparation and consumption. Pork and shellfish are forbidden. Other Religious Practices Devout Jews practice regular daily prayer at dawn, noon, and dusk and often at bedtime. The tallit- usually white, with dark stripes and fringe- covers a man’s head and body during prayer and signifies humility in the sight of God. Men wear the skullcap. Remembrance of God is also assisted by the presence of a mezuzah, which is placed on the doorpost of the entrance to a home and sometimes on the doorposts of interior rooms. Like the tefillin, the mezuzah is a small container that hold scriptural words; it can be touched upon entering the house or room. Males mark puberty with a coming age ceremony at age 13; Bar Mitzvah. Divisions within Contemporary Judaism Sephardic Jews, Ashkenazic Jews Observance-Based Divisions Orthodox Judaism (Pg. 322-323) lots of bullet points Conservative Judaism Traces its origins back to Germany, but it took strong root In the United States among Jews who desired moderate change that was coupled with a protection of beloved traditions, such as the use of Hebrew in services. Reform Judaism Desire of some Jews to leave ghetto life completely and enter the mainstream of European Culture. Reconstructionist Judaism Newest and smallest branch of Judaism grew out of the thought of its founder, Mordecai Kaplan. Future of Judaism- 2 Great Questions. What is essential to being a Jew? Will Judaism Survive?