Developmental Psychology Week 3 Notes
Developmental Psychology Week 3 Notes PSY 0310
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shannon Kiss on Thursday January 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 0310 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Jennifer Ganger in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 212 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Pittsburgh.
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Date Created: 01/22/15
Chapter 2 Developmental Psychology Notes Week 3 Prematurity blanket term for LBW or preterm 0 Causes teratogens multiple births twinstripletsetc viruses LBW Low birth weight 0 2500 grams 55 lbs or less Preterm O O 0 Birth before beginning of 36th week newer medical information says 35 but we will go with 36 for this class 3640 weeks considered quotfull termquot If the baby makes it to 35 weeks it is signi cantly better than 34 Fewer illnesses Fewer medical procedures Shorter hospital stay 34 week babies will be more likely to have Less physical growth Mild to moderate cognitive delays in early and middle childhood Immediate Issues for premature either LBW or preterm infants 0 Compared to fullterm normal weight infants preterm infants tend to be More passive less responsive Fussier harder to soothe More trouble falling asleep rousing staying alert Less regular schedule sleepwakeeatingetc Delayed motor and cognitive milestones At risk for abuse and attachment difficulties 0 Because parents will be grouchier and may get rougher with a more frustrating infant Longterm consequences for premature infants 0 The majority of babies will catch up to their peers eventually in mental and physical development and lead normal lives However there is a greater chance of Frequent illness Attention problems Hyperactivity Sensory hearingvision impairments Poor motor coordination Language delays Low intelligence scores low achievement Poorer peer and parent relationships 0 Most cognitive and social effects dissipate later in childhood unless severe o In general the lower the birth weight the worse the outcome For babies under 22 lbs 50 will have some sort of disability For babies 2233 lbs roughly 33 will have a disability For babies 3455 lbs roughly 22 will have a disability 0 Interventions for children and their parents 0 Infants Motion sights sounds touch recent revelations Touch is most useful Field and colleagues massage therapy intervention 0 Research shows that training parents leads to a better mental development in both short and long term 0 Parents Can experience guilt fear stress Misunderstanding can lead to inappropriate stimulation yelling aggression and loss of emotional bonding Training 0 Hot to interact with fragile babyappropriate stimulation 0 Characteristics of premature babies to set expectations 0 Even right after conception touch is good 0 Effects are greater for heavier over 2 lb babies Interventions after they go home 0 In Infant Health and Development Project BrooksGunn medical and training interventions for parents at home early childhood education from 13 years of age At 3 years 39 of intervention group in normal range 9 of control group 14 pt difference in IQ At 5 amp 8 years high preschool attendance during 1 3 year age period predicts higher gains 4 pt IQ difference Effects do interact with birth weight 0 Multiple risk issue 0 Risks tend to cooccur Multiple teratogens Hazards that continue after birth Poor health care 0 As number of risks increase risk of psychiatric disorder increases nonadditiver Chapter 3 Genetics 0 Nature and Nurture Complex relationship 0 Genotype the genetic material an individual inherits speci cally which alleles of each gene A particular gene could contain 2 alleles to dozens Only a few genes of the human body hair color how much body hair you have ability to roll your tongue are only decided by two alleles o Phenotype observable expression of the genotype body and behavior Measurable product color of eyes IQ score etc 0 Environment every aspect of an individual and his or her surroundings other than genes 1 EENDTYPEIPETBM if EEN TYlPEthlilld V PHElNlD39II39YPEIParenlt PlHlEN TYPEI39GhliId 1 Parent s Genotype Child39s Genotype lENVlIRU NMENTI Elli 2 l C h i id 3 Ge notype C h i Id 3 Phenotype Child s Environment Child39s Phenotype Child s Phenotype Child s Environment 5 Child s EnvironmentChild s Genotype From diagram above 1 Parent s Genotype gt Child s Genotype Long strand of DNA breaks up into 23 pairs of chromosomes 0 One of each pair gets passes on to gametes o Gamete gets one from each parent 0 Genes make proteins or regulate other genes 0 Can be chromosomal abnormalities or mutation through this process 0 Creates diversity 2 Child s Genotype gt Child s Phenotype All cells have the same genes 0 Different cell fatesdifferentiation 0 Regulation varies traits Genes interact with each other 0 Dominant and recessive alleles 0 Most traits are polygenic more than one gene affects a particular trait 3 Child s Environment gt Child s Phenotype Can be biological teratogens illness physical broken leg psychological or physiological o GeneEnvironment Interaction the environment can determine which phenotypes are expressed Ex Gene for tall gene may not be recognized because of lack of nutrition hormones sleep etc Caspi et al 2002 Experiment 0 Compared those who have genes that have MAOA increases antisocial characteristic to childhood maltreatment 0 Those that had low MAOA compared to high MAOA had an overall increased index of antisocial behavior 0 Proved that environment of childhood maltreatment affects how the gene will affect you 4 Child s Phenotype gt Child s Enrionment o The child affects its own environment 0 Evocative usually baby evokes something from around him Child because of genetic dispositions changes environment in ways that affect expression of those very genes Ex Child shows musical promise so parents get him piano lessons Ex Cute babies treated better than ugly babies 0 Active quotNichePicking Usually around middle childhood when they can choose their environments Chose their friends which sports they play etc 5 Child s Environment gt Child s Genotype Does not affect the genotype directly Affects which genes are transcribes o Impacts of the environment on gene regulation 0 Can be toxins psychological factor from stress cortisol etc GeneEnvironment Interaction genetic potential is realized 0 Arrows 23 0 Norm of reaction genetic potential environment GeneEnvironment Correlation o Arrows 76 3 1 2 0 Parents genes are in the child s life and environment child didn t do anything for correlation Ex Parents with musical talentlove of music tend to engage in music in the home providing both genes and environment for musical success Behavioral Genetics Estimating genetic and environmental contributions Teasing apart effects of genes and environment 0 Two major designs 0 Adoption studies similarities among population of adopted siblings Correlation with genetic relatives Harder to do have to track down biological siblings or parents 0 Can determine that any similarities are due 100 to genetics Correlation with environmental relatives adopted house 0 Pure estimate of environment 0 Any similarities among house siblings are due 100 to environment 0 Classic Twin Studies Identical 100 and fraternal 50 Equal environments because there is no separation lf identical twins are more highly correlated than fraternal twins then it can only be genetic