CHEM 1030 Cagg Chapter 7.1-7.3 Notes
CHEM 1030 Cagg Chapter 7.1-7.3 Notes Chem 1030
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amy Notetaker on Saturday March 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Chem 1030 at Auburn University taught by Brett A Cagg in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see Fundamental Chemistry I in Chemistry at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 03/26/16
Chapter 7—Sections 7.1-7.3 Section 7.1 v The VSPER Model • VSPER model: The electron pairs in a valance shell of the atom repel each other. Since they repel each other, they will also transform into different shapes from doing so. • Electron domain (pair): a lone pair or a bond of electrons (double or single dot on lewis structure). • There are a variety of shapes the molecules can take on. - 2 bonds: linear - 3 bonds: trigonal planar - 4 bonds: tetrahedral or trigonal bipyramidal - 5 bonds: octahedral v Electron Domain Geometry and Molecular Geometry • Electron domain geometry: the way the electron domains are arranged around the central atom. • Bond angle: the angle between 2 adjacent bonds. • Equatorial bond: the bonds that are arranged in a trigonal plane. • Axial bond: two bonds which are formed by an axis that is perpendicular to the trigonal plane. v Deviation from Ideal Bond Angles • Lone pairs take up a lot more space than bonding pairs. • Lone pairs on central atoms are attracted to the nucleus of the atom only. • The bonding pairs on central atoms are attracted by the nuclei of the bonding atoms (both of them). • Multiple bonds repel more strongly that single bonds due to them being more electron dense. Section 7.2 • Molecular geometry helps us understand the physical and chemical behaviors of a substance. Sec tion 7.3 • Intermolecular forces: the attractive forces between molecules that surround each other. • Van der waals forces: the attractive forces in a pure substance that act between atoms or molecules. These include hydrogen bonding, dispersion forces, and dipole-dipole interactions. v Dipole-Dipole Interactions • Dipole-dipole interactions: attractive forces that act between polar molecules. Chapter 7—Sections 7.1-7.3 • The attractive force between polar molecules is coulombic, so the magnitude of the dipole is what determines the magnitude of the attractive forces. v Hydrogen Bonding • Hydrogen bonding: a special kind of dipole-dipole interaction. - Occurs only in molecules in which the hydrogen is bonded to a small and very electronegative atom. v Ion-Dipole Interaction • Ion-diploe interactions: attractions between positive ions, negative ions, and polar molecules. These are coulombic interactions. • The magnitude of an ion-dipole interaction is dependent on the ion size and dipole moment, and the polar molecule size. - Since they are smaller, cations have a stronger interaction with dipoles than anions do.
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