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Physical Methods in Art and Archaeology

by: Brett Swift

Physical Methods in Art and Archaeology PHYS 10262

Marketplace > University of Notre Dame > Physics 2 > PHYS 10262 > Physical Methods in Art and Archaeology
Brett Swift
GPA 3.92


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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brett Swift on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHYS 10262 at University of Notre Dame taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see /class/232726/phys-10262-university-of-notre-dame in Physics 2 at University of Notre Dame.

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Date Created: 11/01/15
The discovery of Cherchen man Q 39 Bunnie 11 y RUSSIA if r quot I5 quot in HIE J 5 17 anemia he quotM qum 7 I J 7 4 t a 555 Guammuscust n 391 a f quotHggun Makan D Yquot IBuans nquot a W o i 71 nquot 5 3 My Tarim 3 1quot I 392 LL V v 39 E Ii 39 i i I V 39 a a J my 1 V x 39 7V m V lt in 1 f 39539 ilk road trading between east and west mm took place for thousands of years discovery of scripts in Buddhist monasteries gt IndoEuropean languageTochanan discovery of mummified people with Caucasian features What is the origin V of theTakIaMakan mummies Dried and preserved by the ari climate ofthe Takla Makan De sanuA n zsun39l39 M 39 A 9 Ancient trading 2a route between China and Rome through desert A and mountains Are mummies 6 perished traders Sir Aurel Stein Sven Hedin Tarim Basin in Takla Makan Desert m 3 39 an Desert Tarim Basin Cherc f wk Eoulai39n 39 39 Map N 1 About 3000 ft Basin in Takla Makan was location of extensive lake during last ice age The lake evaporated within the subsequent 10000 years The early discoverer Marco Polo reported on the existence of a large 39 lake 19th century travelers Sven w Hedin could only confirm a saline lake y swamp in the desert It is gone now I Lop Nor in Tkla Makan Lop Nor is on the east edge of s y I the Tarim Basin in China s Zinjiang Province The present structure was created by water level changes within the former lake Concentric rings formed as water evaporated from the lake and left mineral deposits including highly reflective salts along the new shoreline The former lake now resembles a giant ear Visible are a small plateau 3000 ft above the terrain south of Lop Nor and extensive sand dunes and sand ridges to the southeast Existence of Tarim basin lake civilization confirmed by 2001 Chinese expedition i edge cf Lop39Nor Dozens of mummified bodies discovered to from different sites Location LaioNo Material DataBP CaiBC i d Location LatNo Motoriai DotaBP Coi BC Radiooarbon o ot m 39 M W 1H 2mm M M M Ma 3M 0 7 ll g 3 8 8 5 5 0 PET 0 Ii 9 8 8 I 7 3 Alllr 2 3 0 0 U 0 0 0 0 U 039 0 0 0 AU E 5 0 8 El 1 0 0 5 1 9 8 5 All 6 IL 5 3 nJaJA 1 AU 0 8 K it 43 81 3 2 I 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 U H om U L Nan anr do m m OCR ER m m m m m m m M NO R 0 I in II C 00 AU nuHU 8 GNU 8 8 8 Q V I4 w I w alo B B B B B B B B n m K7 W 2K ZK U W W W W W W W W M N Hwy W HG M i Illl M M Y M VM M M M M M M I U 4 5 a min Wt 00 10 oi 1 1 3 II II 4 4 E IIIquot 19 0 5 1H If not a m Nh m m Anon 7 13 7 2 d d d t L U 0 B M uh In 0 flu 1nu 6 quotQ m On all ll ii xi 7 HIW 3 a DD ni u Ii 1 9 1m Atuit W M a i ainn m N U WW K M Mlllmn Hmm U MI 6 0 ll II M F nil W 3 0 Hu U 2 4 2 M M S M M M M M S M M T M M Evidence for ancient Caucasian Tribe in Tarim Basin Radiocarbon dating gives age for Cherchen man to 1900 BC other mummies have been dated back to 3000 BC Between 100 1 000 mummy sites found but man have not been anal Evidence of Caucasian origin Outer appea Weaving pattern a o linguistic patterns To F2 DNA analysis 1 sample 39 quotwill ruling Comparative analysis of weaving pattern and technique showed close relation to Celtic techniques in Europe ii i39 C39 39 I V Weaving Analysis twill and tartan S m H e 1 3 I B m H Celtic population other local textiles plain weave twill weave radiocarbon Biology Techniques Guten a a Ur L39Lm t l 39 H I 39 11m T39rlhf 395 E 2mcf TO M bT uyoq J Tmym Becken V um FEEL J F 39 E Qmw m x k A h a ma w R e gtnu fFaquotquotH nquotquot quot quotJ I nfuence gg gtsw L gagggfg2 9 39 fm 39 3 ifg JW3quot g ggggmggi E39squot ge m gfgg ja39 Grif n e 1 39 f gangl IndoEuropean language patterns the centum satem division IOU Oid English an twa ihrie feowre treis snares hex osiem dziewiec dziesiec sto Latin unus duo tree quauuor quinque cenium Russxan odin dva tri chetyre Malian due quatlro cinq ue sei sette ono nove dieci cenio Spanish uno French un deux trois quatre cinq six sept huil neuf dlx cent Lithuanian vienas du trys ketun simias German Dutch Swedish een twee iva drie re Vier iyra viji fem 225 sex zeven sju achl alta negen nio Hen no honderd hundra Armenian Tocharian A mi erku erek39 cork hing vec ewt39n ut inn tasn harlwr lndoEur pean language tree if 6 inguistic analysis 1 of language patterr and core words to identify similarities 13 in languages 4 Tocharian related 7 a to Celtic branch 5 con rmed with 39 weaving pattern analysis DNAAnalysis as new Technique DNA testing DNA samples were 3 taken from 11 mummies 51 sample only received export permission 3973 Result DNA type of sick Haplogroup HI which 39is a largely assocrated With Europeans 40 and quotonly slightly with near 39 East pop 15 More v 1quot y 1 data were needed gquot 3 V A 6 0 NA testing allowed for political reasons due to Chinese fear of x njindepe ndence movement New DNA results from 53 samples are no available Comparison with surrounding populations indicate eastward migration of people 01 Euro ean ori in Gao ShiZhu et al Mitochondrial DNA analysis of human remains from the p g 39 Yuansha site in Xinjiang China Science in China C 51 2008 18622798 397quot T 1quot Tocharians disappeared with sinking water level moved into the northern water rich mountain regions mixed with the later Uygur tribe Remaining are burial places monstery ruins amp bronze statues V in the Takla ngaMakan desert Summary for Tutorial 1 QL Dated September 137 2008 Keep in mind You still need to read the lecture notes My summary can7t have everything in it If there7s an error7 please email me Three tips 1 Don7t memorize the equations Un derstand them7 and know how to use them 2 Pay attention to the units 3 Wikipedia I ENERGY LEVELS IN ATOMS Z is the proton number in an atom While N is the neu tron number A photon Energy of a photon With frequency 1 EV hl l V X 2 z 1 3 1 En 7135 6V 4 C Multi electron Atom En 7Z 712 13 26eV 5 TL TABLE I Physical Constants Quantity SymeI Value Unit Planck constant h 5525 X 104 1 J 5 Speed of light 0 2937 X 108 ms Avogadro s number NA 5022 X 1023 lmol II RADIOACTIVE DECAY LAWS Nt N0 a 5 in Which N0 is the initial number of radioactive atoms Nt is the number of radioactive atoms left after time t A is the decay constant A half life T1 2 Zn x 7 7 Tm B Dose Amount of energy deposited into body per unit mass D 5 lt8 The units for dose are l Rad7 Which is 100 ergg 2 Gray or Gy7 Which is Jkg C Activity Alttgt w wt lt9 At A0 6 10 Summary for Tutorial 5 QL Dated November 18 2008 Keep in mind You still need to read the lecture notes My summary can7t have everything in it If there7s an error please email me I RADIOCARBON DATINGACTIVITY MEASUREMENT How many decays we have per unit time At Countsunit time 1 At A X Nt 2 Nt NO X a 3 For 14C half life Tlg 5730y decay constant 1 l 7 7 TIL22 7121 X 10 4y Statistical uncertainty V Counts II RADIOCARBON DATIN GAMS How many 14C are there in the sample A Tandem accelerator Energy of the particle after pass through the accelera tor E1qV 4 with q the charge of the particle V the terminal potential of the accelerator The radius of the trajectory is given by 2mE qB 5 with m the mass of the particle B the magnet eld Example Given V QMV q 3 B 01T what s the radius of 12C V2MV2gtlt105V mA X167 gtlt 10 27169 g X 16 X 10190 E 1 3 X16 X10490 X 2 X105V 128 X10 12J6 2 12 167 104 128 10712 T X X X 9X X 472m7 3 X16 gtlt 10 190 gtlt 01T Thus the radius of 12C in the magnetic eld is 472m B E iciency of AMS Example If the measured counts for 14C is NM 100 i 10 and the ef ciency is 60 1 what is the size of the sample Number of 14C in the sample is N14C1001 104 8 Number of 12C in the sample is N12010413 X 10 769 X1015 9 Mass of the sample 769 X 1015 m X129 15 X1049 10 m 111 POTASSIUM ARGON DATING 40K can decay to two different nuclei 11 40K decays to 40147quot N4 K N05 11 N40AT N017 a X 011 12 Thus the ration is given by N 40AT 7 M m 711 Nlt4OK 011x 6 1 5 82 X 10 t 13 Thus we can infer the age of the sample by measuring the ratio AMS is a method which counts radioactive particles 14C rather than measuring the characteristic decay activity Comparison Traditional 1 C dating and AMS In 140 dating you With AMS you count 1 C activity count 140 number Al4c2Nl4c N14C5 A14C 1H2 MMC g z 001 01 5730y Decay constant A versus efficiency a of device including ionization in sources and transmission in accelerator Comparison with traditional technique AMS is technically more demanding than a radiocarbon dating experiment with LSC but it is more accurate and requires smaller samples 6105 14C particles in original sample AMS L30 1000 cts2min 1000 CtS14y 500 ctsmin 14104 ctsmin approximately 4 orders of magnitude improvement 0030wx I A w x OWOWS 0 V O mimnjum I I Im 30 0C mw hum Inna quotlllm H 1rum1m r qur w Tana mu cnu m I nw I l 52m JaIJ IhIhanm EFLmam m uIdlm WPnm w l a m n ILFmlhlm a I In M I rll UuL fanru Il Im ml HJHW mIm udlcllln wIIIlI Iu FRI Jam I rpm Km IIIIII IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIiII IIIIIIIIIIuFIII LEI l I III I IIIIIIIIIIIIIII IE III mm IIllI mfnUIm I garbNil mmgamm71H Inw 13 de Lnr t M nr4 fm U nm Il hum HJIwm Uuu r 1 Summary Cbeam production The carbon in the sample is converted to nearly pure carbon in the laboratory The prepared sample is placed in an evacuated chamber where it is bombarded with positive cesium ions Cst Cesium lowers the work function of the material allowing the release of negative carbon ions 0 Because the N39 ion is unstable 14N does not interfere with 1 C measurements However the molecular ions izCHz39 and 13CH39 are produced and are accelerated with the 14C The accelerated ions encounter a position defining slit which causes only a fine beam of ions to pass through entering the accelerator Mechanical methods to pulverize material to form a carbon pellet suitable for use in sputter source Alternative method is chemically separating and oxydizing carbon to use CO2 with subsequent Cs charge exchange in ion source sample preparation needs experience Cs sputter ion source crvoir R ENlCE ll ECHBMZUC Diagram Bombardment of sample pellet with Cs beam causes carbon atom or molecule release with charge exchange by pick up of electrons from cesium atoms which can easily be ionized simulation1 sputter source Eaeslm ml Elam quot Li39 251th 53 m p II120 130 14C 0 Carbon molecules 0 Heavierjunk particles magnetic separation system Bfield radius r accelerating potential V x x L V centripetal force m q v B Lorenz force r 2 electrostatic energy qV mv kinetic energy to NIH rnr2 2 2 E i 132qu4093134 q 2 V 12 r12 14 Injector magnet H 2 l3C mo39z F 39ZCH axio392 The ion beam from the source ou enters an injector magnet which bends the beam Heavier ions 6 72 2 are bent less than lighter ones xd CH C H because of higher momentum 6 I The second slit is calibrated to only allow ions of a certain mass to pass BCH 3x10 39 39ZCH axlo 4 l3 H SHE a MAGNETIC ANALYSIS ION CURRENT MA 5 I 1039 CAESIUM SPUTTERED C IONS 1007 gt IO d39z CONTEMPORARY IQ 6393 ISOOO YEARS gt Al 0 I L MS 019 020 02K 0 INJECTOR MAGNETIC FIELD TESLA simulation 2 injector magnet nalw mg FilliEEE iEllitt II120 130 14C 0 Carbon molecules 0 Heavierjunk particles The accelerator The ions then enter the accelerator and are attracted to the high voltage in the terminal gt2 MV The ions are accelerated to a sufficient velocity As they traverse a gas canal they are stripped of some of their electrons If the ion is a mOIeCUIe it Acceleration breaks apart TUbe Stripping Canal Insulation eliminating a h a Tank background J interference Negative Positive ons Ions If It IS an atom z it becomes positively 71 charged and g is accelerated column Structure Charging belt towards the WM VOH OQe High Voltage D39 39d ground potential 39V39 er Terminal InSide the tank v m The charging and acceleration system l GAS INLET Ar or 02 ELECTROMAGNETIC VALVE PRESSURE GAUGE The stripper gas stripper or foil stripper most likely charge state between q2 and 3 Total energy Eq1V Fraction l i will i ll ill39 1H H ll 20 50 40 50 60 70 80 90 ENERGY MeV simulation 3 tandem accelerator A Accelerator Aquot rnl Canal II120 130114C 0 Carbon molecules Molecule fragments will be separated out by next dipole magnet detection system The ion beam now i positively charged iGas Countel39ifoiQEg ajd 26A 3 passes through i 26A l counter pha a position defining 6 39 slit to obtain a concentrated beam containing minimal impurity interference The beam then is subjected to a final magnet separating the isotopes of carbon from the previously uniform beam Two Faraday Cups and one 14C detector then measure the current of each of the separate beams This provides information which can be utilized to obtain the amount of 14C and its ratio in comparison to 12C and 13C simulation 4 analyzing system Ann lysing Filil39Er liillre iie inr r1 4C r1zc I l sf V 39 i is KFH raviiiel39Ir Cups II120 13C 14C Example Magnetic Separation Assume a V2 MV tandem What is the separation of 12C 130 and 1 C in the charge state q3 expressed in terms of radius r for a fixed magnetic field of 81 Tesla Er232 E q2Bz q 7 km 2omoEkin I qu Ekm with mA1671027kg qq1610790 1 eV 161049 J A mass number q3 charge V2 terminal voltage in MV Separation in magnetic field Ekm 42106 1610 19J 212810 12J 2A16710 3927 kg 128 10 12J 739 31610 19C01 T 1 1AV r0144 q 136JZ qB terminal voltage in MV f0r120 r12471 m magnetic field in T for 130 r 4 90 m electrical charge 14 mass number for 0 r14 509m P9W AEE gascounter system is based on measurement of energy loss and total energy of incoming ions in gas Frischgrid detector chamber 0 5 lo insulation C m 39 electrodes separation and identification I05 r1 4C I04 r13C 103 gt r1 ZC lo2 1039 10 Two dimensional gas counter spectrum for COUNTS radiocarbon 14C analysis With good separation and particle identification a nearly background free spectrum can be achieved Potential background sources are room background radiation cosmic rays leakage of molecules TOTAL ENERGY ET Counting efficiency and sample size counting efficiency is the fraction of 1 C ions detected in the final detector from a sample put in the ion source For14C sc1 Ndet S CON sample Assume the previous 1 9 piece of wood with 15101014C atoms this translates into a total number of counts Ndet151O8 of14C It takes about a week to sputter the sample completely away Minimum sample size with 10 statistics Ndet1021r10 cts of 14C Nsampe14C 104 atoms of 14C Nsampe1ZCNsample14C133910391277391018 atoms of 120 129 has 60231023 part min sample needs to be 015 mg Comparison again How long does the traditional LSC technique take to analyze the same sample size with equally good statistics of 10 1n2 NLSC A Nsample 14C 2 Nsample 14C 12 N 1n 2104 2210 zctsweek of 14C C 573056 39 to accumulate 10 statistics with the same sample size requires 104 times longer counting time E 180 years As claimed before 4 orders of magnitude improvement for 2 orders of magnitude increase in costs 100k gt1OM Applications of AMS There is a rich field of applications for AMS due to the increased efficiency and accuracy of radiocarbon dating t ranges from geology hydrology oceanology climatology and environmental studies to history and archaeology AMS is now also being used for a number of other radioisotopes to enhance the sensitivity of corresponding dating methods The limitations are the possible background counts from isotopes in the same mass range which cannot be separated 42 Tracing populations with Haplogroups The definition of a haplogroup is the group of all the paternal descendants of the single person who first showed that SNP mutation ll Example for mutation creating Y Haplogroup H which characterizes Scandinavian populations daughter 5 son Ychromosome DNA daughter son XY inheritance females carry XX chromosome pair males carry XY chromosome pair Females get X from mother and the X from father Males get x from mother and Y from father Ychromosome is exclusively passed on along male line from father to son 39 Y HaPIOQrOUps 51 a flu F5 V 1 V r v I 5 gm V V a h w v 539 inhumane arm Wm PM A Lug In Um jExE hlith SIG JH II IJ In L M IN IJD DH its lmmlmnl mug rum IJ LM N QLST NOQR Neolithic Farmers Y Haplogroups E1b1b yellow formerly 3b and G green are common among Neolithic farmers from the Middle East who brought agriculture into Europe about 9000 years ago The date of the most recent ancestor of E3b haplogroups is estimated to 2427 thousand years ago The most likely origin is eastern Africa Haplogroup G originates in Iran Caucasus region 60 in North Ossetians 30 in Georgians Bantu Migration Bantu migration was reflected in the spread of iron smelting Confirmed by genetic tracing of techniques from WestAfrica haplogroup E1a1b formerly E3a to East and SouthAfrica my a U 151 Fon Benin Bamileke I 3 Cameroon Rwanda S Cameroon The Haplogroup R1 From Western Europe to Central Asia Reflection ofthe Tarim Mummies NE SL 15 05 O O 135 SC W Owe AL 0 GM KT R1b red 67 K2 a o O C W m m 1 B 39139 MA R1a pur e D 0 Origin of R about 30000 years ago i Distributed by ice age and resettlement The Mitochondrial Eve When sperm and ovum fuse nuclear DNA is distributed in equal amounts Mitochondrial DNA is only passed on by ovum from mother to daughter Mitochondrion Nuclear DNA Sperm A A B B39 C C D D Great gtandparcnls Grandparents Parents A Children A Mule I IL39IHLIIC Tho Hounlnnmonf n39F noun Io c African Eve Mitochundrial EVE The meshin of Nail39fnggngraphj 39ELS39ES nwa atimwf charges 271233 in EJz a Hams timid11 iszzewfas39 mui remrzsmxct migration and dilJCBi39z i dif 2TH am icm Africa npzs a mm This diagram 39 dianisc mh Miaquot maps my 39N39YIDAMLI r rzehiafzbalwfi s East Asian 0f gi39mzps z39n39391r 3 ia mad MUSE O Eumpean and if 1 er r533 Q ingquot tL390 d Levan m Chronological development of mtDNA haplogroups I U gt 50000 to 60000 years ago arose in Western Asia I H gt 30000 to 50000 years ago in the Near East associated with CroMagnon in Europe I J gt 45000 years ago in the Near East I X gt over 30000 years ago in Caucasus Neanderthal I l gt 30000 years ago origin unknown probably in Europe I W gt 25000 years ago in northeast Europe or northwest Asia I K gt 15000 years ago in the Near East Oetzi I T gt 10000 years ago in Mesopotamia I V gt 10000 years ago arose in Iberia and moved to Scandinavia Mitochondrial Haplogroups mitochondrial DNA haplogroup is defined by differences in human mitochondrial DNA This allows to trace the matrilineal inheritance of modern humans back to human origins in Africa and the spread across the globe WI l l39 n39F Afrinn anam Am no mo 9 so 70 50 Austraha 0 New Europe Cumea 150 30 Arm 150 20 170 10 A Ausnaha and New Cumea D Europe Anccslmn g o man mm m DNASequann Rise Fall of Neanderthals am of territory than 1 ViDUSIy 39 39 a hum n r m r I Neanderth range a Neanderthal sue a Neanderthal and w 400 gt y Modem human range 0 Modern human sue m e u u m ma man Slle vacuumed independen y Hogan 45000 years ago Neanderthals belore me amva r oi modern humans m Euraswa j Kabul Q lrhcudo m C Roam A F R c A Tm 45uao2scoo yeavs ago Famed of Neanderma and madam human overlap m Eurasia AS IA SVHERVA a 55325 E u R D P E 0mman Swap 7 v AxcyvsuxCuze e 39 s F a LC aixe G g Le L3 V ndi h sxsxz grmm aMmmn E1315117 n5394 yea Pe zez2 42mm u canse 1 7 J mme Muttemrm an mwr mumJr a 32 Q Gen sequence om bone material I Mezmaiskaya 1 1 l L 1 1 1 1 1 5 E G 39 39 1 1 1 1 1 V 1 1 2 5 5 F III E 3 1 E 39 G 3 El 3 El 4 e 1 1 r3 3 T G T T C h C T G C C J C I 7 I A P LT quot T 39139 F1 Pt quotI 1 A quot T 39139 A J T A T 2 C P A T T H A T A T P 392 It A A T 39139 A J T A T T T A 3 t T 1 1 T G C T T t 39 39 A A I 39l39 A l39 12 L 391 39I39 I39 T 139 A T A T A T 3 C T 391 39 39l FK A 39I39 A I I L 39139 39I39 T T 2 EL A T A T G C T T T P T 31 T I i T G 39139 a A T A 1 G C T T 39 39l39 39 I A 39I39 39 39 L I 39I I 3939 IL A 391 39l39 R 39I tquot L39 39139 LI Id 11 I 39 I 39 Molecular analysis of Neanderthal DNA from the northern Caucasus l V Ovohinnikov A Gotherstrorn G P Romanova V M Kharitonov KLid n and W Goodwin Nature 404 4902000 Separation and Difference Rig22 39Tl39s sdzmzatic tiagmm a V2mzdm39 mi and to lmr39 aquot lismrzms Milly but Huff thy papriialiam repmvem disfi39m39f Image rim may an gun to Mamcm the Wail1W6 Ham Ee manoryam age Hummer genetz r separation would haw begun LEM1i z summon maz mlpo m afwn 5L7 rfz w s rzcmtiun would 1er2 marred after this dam humanNeanderthal human human humanchimp D 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 SO 55 60 65 number of differences Distinct differences in human genetic structure compared to Neanderthal and Chimpanzee Chm 39 u m u 1 4 y m n r r z r r r v V 379 y r l 1 x 2 in u w lldhlulufuigm alum nu magquot lusgLuunivzuruLngu42LngeLe quotif t cm gt a 7 W294 39EIQ E J 5mg asquot w uu a5 II J wmu I 39 1 Human red minNeanderthal blue IIAJLIIIIMJIJJLIAJHI L quot 39 quot 39 gig 39 25 megmbnses I i cm 12 943 Norrtnquy mm My u I Gap quot3 max4y Inqu M 3 WWW musm 2 dt mg 393 h 5quot Cling density 339quot pct 050 531 mg mam h n emsin Emma hand Hangman m umlr Is there indication for genetic linkage Based on lack of identification of any Neanderthal genes in human DNA and on results of theoretical population models the maximum initial input of Neanderthal genes into the Paleolithic European gene pool has been estimated to lie between 002 and 009 Population genetics simulation showing the percentage of Neanderthal genes red of the total number of genes in European population if free interbreeding would have occurred in areas of contact Modern Humans Did Not Admx With Neanderthals during Their Range Expansion into Europe M Curratand L Excoffier PLoS Biol 212 9421 doi10137140urnapbio0020421


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