Introduction to Philosophy
Introduction to Philosophy PHIL 10100
Popular in Course
Popular in PHIL-Philosophy
This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nico Torp on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHIL 10100 at University of Notre Dame taught by Marian David in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see /class/232730/phil-10100-university-of-notre-dame in PHIL-Philosophy at University of Notre Dame.
Reviews for Introduction to Philosophy
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 11/01/15
Phil 1010001 Introduction to Philosophy Fall 2010 Part II Pro39iegsoi39 Marian David Friday Sections with Teaching Asgisiants Readings for Thursday Sept 26 Plato IVIeno Introduction Margin 7080d Raphael The School ofAthens Plato left Aristotle right Plato 428348 BC Meno Can virtue be taught or is it the result of practice or is it innate What is virtue What is the nature of virtue Socratic method You thought you knew but it turns out you didn t 1 Results in a state of perplexity The question quotWhat is virtuequot asks for a definition of virtue Virtue is just used as an example First part of dialogue margin 7080d isn t really about ethics it s about methodology How to formulate definitions accurately Methodology is concerned with the rightbest way of conducting inquiry Definitions adequacy conditions for A definition ofX should not confuse X with instances of X should state a condition that is necessary and sufficient for X I should be given in terms that are clearer than X should not contain superfluous material should not be circular X should not be used or presupposed in the definition of X Examples MathematicsGeometry others Primacy of Definitions Socrates implies that every inquiry about X ought to begin with the question What is X Every inquiry about X ought to begin with a de nition of X Note A quotWhat is Xquotquestion a definition of X is existence neutral it doesn t presuppose the existence of instances of X Is Socrates thesis about the primacy of definitions plausible Everyday life Science Readings for Tue August 31 Plato Meno Definitions margin 70 80d Suggestedz Rest of lIeno Course Reader From item 2 Glymour CR pp 1526 Plato 428 348 BC Plato s Theory of Forms cf Meno 72 74d Definition of X is about aform eidos idea the form ofX which is common to all and only the things that are X The problem of quotThe one and the manyquot There are many Xs they are all different but in some sense they quotarequot also one each is an X Plato says What makes all the different bees bees is that they participate in the one form of beehood A person is virtuous because she participates in the form of virtue 11 Platonic Forms are abstract objects not in space or time are unchangeable cannot be known through sense perception can only be known through the intellect concrete things are what they are because they participate in forms Platonic forms are modelsideals Are there really such things Debate is still going on Note how Plato makes the intellect special it is the faculty by which we access the realm of forms intellectual intuition 39 Ties in with Greek definition of being human Humans are rational animals Plato s Theory of Forms is a metaphysical doctrine about definitions a metaphysical interpretation of what definitions are about gt contentious Plato s conception of science analyzing the nature ofthe forms finding definitions and investigating the logical relations between the forms Take labels like quotthe form of virtuequot as a raincheck that we have to use until we have an analysisdefinition ofvirtue Metaphysics a subdiscipline of philosophy asks What is the ultimate nature of reality 13 Theory of Forms is heavily influenced by Geometry Geometry is the first rigorous science in history it is crucial to the Greeks one oftheir main claims to fame Geometry is about Geometrical shapes Geometrical shapes are not encountered in the world of sense experience they are perfect 9 Platonic forms Same for Numbers Pythagoras before 500 BC important influence on Plato Throughout history Platonism stands for concern with abstract objects a realm of objects beyond what is accessible through sense perception accessible only through the intellect Early Christian thinkers eg Augustine influenced by Plato reinterpreted Plato s forms as ideas in God s mind 14 Theory of Forms Contentious Consider arguments of this sort Meno 74d x is F y is F 2 is F Therefore there is an object common to x y and z the form of F Worries A quotbigquot conclusion drawn from everyday premises Objects that aren t in space or time Knowledge independent from sense perception A special faculty of intellectual intuition 13 Three layers in Meno Criteria for good definitions 9 common ground Claim about primacy of definitions 9 a bit more problematic Theory of Forms 9 contentious Rationalism vs Empiricism rough An ongoing debate Rationalism There is knowledge that is independent from sense perception there is a priori knowledge Empiricism All knowledge derives fromdepends on sense perception there is no a priori knowledge Rationalists claim that a priori knowledge is the best most certain knowledge we have models Math amp Logic Radical rationalists eg Plato tend to claim that a priori knowledge is the only real knowledge Radical rationalism All knowledge is a priori l7 Rationalists need to give examples of alleged a priori knowledge definitions basic logical amp mathematical principles basic metaphysical andor scientific principles need a story about the origin of a priori knowledge traditionally they turn to l Innatism aka Nativism A priori knowledge is innate Plato s version llleno Slcd 85d86c The soul was in possession of truths before birth What we call quotlearningquot is really recollection anamnesis Other versions Innate endowments come from God at conception or Innate endowments come from evolution at conception Readings for Thur Sept 2 Plato Meno Margin 80d86c geometry exercise Margin 96d98c knowledge Course Reader Reread From item 2 Glymour CR pp 1617 beginning of quotForms of Reasoningquot From item 2 Glymour CR pp 2740 Nativism What sorts of things might be innate Physical features Susceptibility to certain illnesses Character traits sexual orientation Skills Cognitive faculties sense perception memory reasoning Concepts Beliefs Knowledge Traditional philosophical nativismdebate is concerned with innate information 20 Emps and Rats disagree about innate concepts beliefs amp knowledge Distinguish the concepts God and existence at the belief or knowledge that God exists Distinguish belief knowledge a mere belief could be false The latter distinction was often overlooked because it was taken for granted that innate beliefs are automatically knowledge because they come from the Gods or God Theory of evolution makes this assumption problematic Note Cognitive faculties are innate or have an innate basis 9 not contested l Note Rationalists will claim that there is an quotadditionalquot cognitive faculty intellectual intuition 9 contestedll 21 Geometry Exercise Meno 80d86c Starts with quotParadox of the Seekerquot 80de Leads first to state of perplexity 84ac Results in slave quotrecollectingquot a geometrical theoremor so Socrates claims 85c86c According to Socrates Slave already had implicit knowledge of the theorem gt innate Theorem P The base of a square twice the size of a given square is equal in length to a diagonal of the given square Special case of Pythagorean Theorem Very special case Reminds readers of first crisis in science irrational numbers Assume Socrates is not cheating There are two interpretations of the Geom Exercise Socrates Theorem P was already stored within slave gt Exercise made him recollect P Marian Theorem P was not already stored within slave gt Exercise made him acquire P through reasoning Marian s interpretation is more plausible but ultimately it does not refute Plato s main point Socrates is wrong about Theorem P being innate hence wrong if he claims all information is innate But he may still be right about quite a lot very basic and important information being innate 23 Reasoning Reasoning allows us to acquire new knowledge but only on the basis of old knowledge All reasoning relies on antecedent premises hence there must be some premises not arrived at through reasoning first principles Regress Argument Aristotle Met 10063 Anal Post 72b573320 Not all knowledge is demonstrative If we know any things at all then we know some things not by way of demonstration otherwise an infinite regress would result 2 4 Readings for Tue Sept 7 Course Reader Look at item 1 Euclid s Elements of Geometry CR pp 314 39 produce means extend II I ll 39 II 39 39 postulates and common notions are aXIoms 39 propositions are theorems Item 2 Glymour CR pp 2740 23 Aurelius Augustinus 354430 at noble philosopher Plato tried to persuade us that s of men had lived h ey were these was a geo meter light they were created to be receptive of and to On The Trinity 121524 Definition of Knowledge Plato s de nition Meno 98a Knowledge is true opinion with an account of the reason why Classical definition S knows that p if and only if i S believes that p ii it is true that p iii S has adequate justification for believing that p M II quotSquot subject p any declarative sentence For the definition to be correct the conditions must be individually necessary and jointly sufficient for knowledge 27 Foundationalism A body of knowledge can be divided into two parts inferential knowledge basic knowledge Inferential knowledge depends on basic knowledge 1 Three issues 1 How do we get basic knowledge 2 What knowledge is basic What are the first principles 3 What are the rules of inferencereasoning 9 Logic Issue 1 Rationalists vs Empiricists update They agree that new knowledge can be acquired by way of reasoning from antecedent knowledge there is inferential knowledge They disagree about basic knowledge Emps hold that all basic knowledge comes from sense perception Rats hold that there is some quite a bit of basic knowledge that is a priori first principles and basic rules of reasoning There is basic a priori knowledge and demonstrative inferential a priori knowledge Plato can still maintain this form of rationalism Issue 2 First Principles Axioms and Definitions Axioms distinguished from definitions are necessary truths can be known for certain cannot be demonstrated but are not in need of demonstration they are self evident understanding is sufficient for knowing are presupposed in demonstrations of other truths Some Candidates Law of NonContradiction quotThe same attribute cannot at the same time belong and not belong to the same subject Aristotle Met 1005b15 SelfIdentity Everything is identical with itself Transitivity of Identity Euclid For all x y 2 if x y amp y 2 then x z Euclid has 10 axioms 5 quotPostulatesquot and 5 quotCommon Notions 30 Axiomatic Science Standards laid down by Aristotle Posterior Analytics Euclid s Geometry The Elements is designed to conform to these standards It is the first example of an axiomatized science It became the idealmodel for all future sciencesll Axiomatic Science consists of Axioms Definitions and Theorems Axioms and definitions form the basis Theoremsquotpropositionsquot are demonstratedproven by valid and perspicuous logical inferences from axioms and definitions More theorems are proven from already established theorems together with axioms and definitions and so on 31 Readings for Thur Sept 9 Course Reader From item 2 Glymour CR pp 2740 32 Aristotle 38422 BC St Thomas Aquinas 122574 lssue 3 Logic The science of quotgoodquot arguments of deductiver valid arguments An argument is a sequence of propositions it consists of premises and a conclusion A deductive argument aims to show that the premises necessitate the conclusion if the premises are assumed then the conclusion follows necessarily the truth of the premises guarantees the truth of the conclusion Nondeductive arguments 39 Inductive arguments 39 Arguments by analogy 39 Bestexplanation arguments The truth of the premises makes the conclusion probable 34 A deductive argument is valid iff necessarily ifall its premises are true then its conclusion is true amounts to the same as iff it is impossible that all its premises are true but the conclusion is false amounts to the same as iff affirming the premises and denying the conclusion violates the law of noncontradiction A deductive argument is sound iff it is valid and all its premises are true quotif means quotif and only if Aristotle s Logic Syllogistic Glymour Chap 2 Its characteristic arguments are Syllogisms All humans are animals Some humans are angels All animals are mortal All humans are animals All humans are mortal Some angels are animals All humans are animals Some animals are mortal All humans are mortal It is formal capturing syllogism that are valid in virtue of their form AllAareB AllAareB AllBareC NoBareC AllAareC NoAareC Aristotle began to develop Syllogistic as an axiomatic science Premises and conclusions of Syllogisms are simple subjectpredicate propositions Variables stand for subjects and predicates 9 formal logic Syllogistic is limited incomplete there are many valid argument forms it does not capture Such as Arguments with relations Arguments with multiple quantifiers Arguments whose premises or conclusions are complex propositions put together from simpler propositions 9 37 Readings for Tuesday Sept 14 Course Reader From item 4 Aristotle Metaphysics Book I Chaps 13 CR pp 4547 Book IV Chaps 14 CR pp 4851 but skip 1003b20 to 1005317 and stop at 1006312 Friday Sept 10 the first paper will be assigned Start working on it over the weekend Propositional Logic Stoics Modus Ponens If God exists then life has meaning God exists 9 Life has meaning q Don t confuse with If p then q 9 p 6969 Variables stand for whole sentences 0 vaid invalid If p then q Modus Tollens If God exists then life has meaning If p then q Life has no meaning Not g God does not exist Not p Don t confuse with If p then q Not 9 Not q Modus Tollens is presupposed when testing andor refuting theories Modus Ponens is more quotpositivequot for proving things instead of refuting things 40 Watch out Propositions premises conclusions are truefalse not validinvalid or soundunsound Arguments are validinvalid or soundunsound not truefalse If there is a valid argument from x to y one says that x entails y or x implies y y is entailed by or follows from x Arguments can be chained into sequences to make longer arguments We have a demonstration a proof when we know a conclusion by way of a valid argument whose premises are true hence the argument is sound and known to be true 9 demonstrative knowledge All Philosophy Word quotPhilosophyquot allegedly first used by Pythagoras Greek for phi05 friend lover sophia wisdom Logic Epistemology Theory of Knowledge Metaphysics Contains what used to be called quotNatural Philosophyquot 9 Science Ethics Continue with Part 2 43