INTRO TO MUSIC
INTRO TO MUSIC MUSI 2573
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bradford MacGyver DDS on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MUSI 2573 at Oklahoma State University taught by Julia Combs in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see /class/232766/musi-2573-oklahoma-state-university in Music at Oklahoma State University.
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Date Created: 11/01/15
Part IV Chapter1TheClassicalStyle 0 Transition to Period1730177O o CPEandJC Bach wereearlypioneers 0 Music and visual arts stress balance and structure 0 Threemaincomposers I Josethaydn I WolfgangAmadeus Mozart I LudwigvanBeethoven CharacteristicsofThe Classical Style 0 ContrastofMood I Contrastbothbetweenandwithinmovements o Flexibilityofrhythm I Multiplerhythmicpatternsinapiece 0 Texture I Mostly homophonic but with frequent shifts o Melody I Tunefuleasytosingfolkpopularbased 0 Dynamics I Emotionsexpressedinshadesofdynamics El Useofgradualdynamicchanges El Relatedtodevelopmentofthepiano o Endofthe BassoContinuo TheClassical Orchestra 0 Standardizationofinstrumentation o Increaseinsizeoforchestra I Stillsmallerthanthatoftoday o Composersmadeuseofvarioustimbresavailable I Instrumentsnottreatedasallequalasinthe Baroque I Melodies move around between instruments 0 Classical Forms 0 Instrumentalworksusuallyinmultimovementform o Frequentlyfourmovements I FirstFast I SecondSlow I ThirdDancerelated I FourthFast o Multimovementworksforinstrumentalgroups I Symphonyfororchestra I Stringquartettwoviolinsviolaandcelo I Sonatausuallyforoneortwoinstruments Chapter 2 Composer Patron and Public in the Classical Period 0 Changingsociety affected musicians I Breakdown of the patronage system El Related to decline ofaristocracy and rise ofdemocracy I Rise ofthe publicconsumerdriven system El Haydn worked 30 years for aristocraticfami ly El Mozart began at court broke away died broke El Beethovenzsuccessfulasindependentmusician MUSI 2573 Page 1 o Prospering middle class wanted aristocratic pleasures theatre literature music I Public ticketed concerts became common 0 Middleclasschildren received musiclessons I Rise ofinstrument manufacture industry I Composers wrote playable musicthat would sell 0 Serious compositionsflavored by folk and pop music 0 Vienna o Became the musical capitolofEurope o Musicianscame tostudyand seek recognition 0 Aristocratswinteringtherewould bringtheirorchestras 0 Musicians including Mozart and Beethoven who frequently played in wealthy homes 0 Many musicians also worked in serenading street bands Chapter3SonataForm o Oneofifnotthemostcommonclassicalforms I Formcontinuesuptoandincludingthe20thcentury o Alsocalledsonataallegroform I Sonataform referstoasingle movement I Asonataisanentiremultimovementwork o Openingmovementsfrequentlyusesonataform I Commoninsymphonysonataandstringquartet o Thisformalsocommoninsecondand fourthmovements o Sonata form isternary A B A 3 mainsections I ExpositionA El Initialstatementoffirstandsecondthemes El Entiresectionusuallyrepeated I DevelopmentB El Tensionbuildingsection El Themes brokenintofragmentsmotives I RecapitulationA El Resolutionoftension El Restatementoffirstandsecondthemes I Often concludes witha quottagquot ortail coda Chapter4ThemeandVariation 0 Single part form no large contrasting quotBquot section I A A39 AquotAquot39 o Basicidea presented then repeated over and over I Each repeat altersvaries the musical idea I Each variation is about the same length asthe original idea I Variations may alter melody harmony rhythm dynamics timbre or all ofthese Chapter 5 Minuet and Trio o Ternary form based upon stately courtdance of the baroque 0 Each ternary part isitselfternary Minuet Trio Minuet A B A l aba39 rchllzdc39 aba39 o Returnoftheminuetisusuallymarkedonthemusicasdacapo Chapter6 Rondo o Featuresamainthemethatkeepscomingback MUSI 2573 Page 2 0 Main theme section alternates with othercontrastingsections 0 Common rondo patterns A BA C A small rondo A B A CA B A large rondo CI Note the similarity to modern popmusicform 0 Sometimes combined with sonata form to create hybrid sonatarondo form Sonatarondo is a rondo with a development section 0 Chapter 7 The Classical Symphony 0 Extended ambitious work lasting for 2045 minutes 0 Multimovementinstrumentalwork First movement Fast frequently sonata form Second movement Slow often sonata form sometimestheme and variations Third movement Dance usually minuet and trio or scherzo a fast dancelike form Fourth movement Fast frequently sonata or rondo form 0 Themes in one movement rarely appearin another movement Chapter8 The Classical Concerto 0 Work for instrumental soloist and orchestra lasting 2045 minutes 0 Usuallythree movements 00 O FastSlowFast no mi nuet movement Contrasts soloist39s abilities with powerand timbres of orchestra Opens in sonata form with a double exposition Orchestra plays first exposition soloist the second Break near end offirst and sometimes last movement cal led cadenza Solobreakwhereorchestrastopsandwaits Originally39 39 J 39 39 39 I seldom ttr A Chapter9ClassicalChamberMusic o Intended performance in a room not a concert hall 0 Small group offourto nine instrumentalists One playertoa part Often intended for amateur performers o Mostimportant settingisstringquartet Two violins viola cello Fourmovements El Usually FastSlowDanceFast o Other popular settings Sonata for violin and piano Piano trio violin cello and piano String quintet two violins two violas cello Chapter 10 Joseph Haydn 0 17321809 early and midclassical period Austrian composer longlife o Talent recognized early At age eight was sentto Viennato be a choir boy Dismissed from school voice changed Worked in Vienna and continued studies 0 Esterhazy family39s composerfor30years Employmentstatus as skilled servant Became famous in Europe at this time Moved to Vienna at Prince39s death 0 Made concert trips to London MUSI 2573 Page 3 O Hayd O OO O Prolificcomposer n39s Music Pioneer in development of classical forms I Both Mozart and Beethoven were influenced by Haydn Made use of folk music in serious compositions 104 symphonies 68 string quartets I Possiblyinventedthestringquartetform Extensive output in otherforms I Piano sonatas I Piano trios I Divertimentos I Concertos I Operas I Masses Chapter 11 WolfgangAmadeus Mozart O O O O 0 17561791 midclassical composer I Austrian I Son ofa professional musician El Leopold Mozartviolinworked forArchbishopofSalzbury I Child prodigy At 25 freelance musician in Vienna I Partly due to winningthe Emperor39s favor I Initially successful then novelty wore off Final piece was a requiem that was finished by one of his students Very prolific note shortlife span 35 years Wrote in allclassical genres Mozart39s Music 0 O O Masterpiecesinallmusicalformsofhistime I Symphoniesconcertoschambermusicandoperas Compositionssoundeffortless I Composed with extreme rapidity El Almostliketakingdictation Avoided stereotype characters in his operas I Createdoperafigureswhothinkandfeel Chapter 12 Ludwig van Beethoven O O 0000 0 17701827 late classical German Son ofa professional musician I FatherJohann was asingerand abusive alcoholic I Forced the boy to study musicwanted 5 Financially successfulasfreelancemusician Believed in period39s societal changes Wrote final pieces while totally deaf Died in Vienna I 20000 people attended funeral Wrote in allclassical genres I 9 symphonies 16stringquartets 5concertos 1 opera I Manysonatasand otherworks Beethoven39s Music 0 0 Worked sometimes foryears on a single piece I Carried musical sketchbooks with himjotting down ideas Wrote in the classical forms MUSI 2573 Page 4 I Gavethemnewpowerandintensity o Bridged gap between classical and Romantic 0 Used dramaticdynamiccontrasts I Alsoincreased rangeofpitch o Expandeddevelopmentandcodasectionsofsonataform MUSI 2573 Page 5 Partll Chapter 1 Music in the Middle Ages 0 Church dominates musical activity I Most musicians were priests I Women did notsing in mixed church settings 0 Music primarily vocal and sacred I Instruments not used in church Gregorian Chant 0 Was official musicof Roman Catholic Church I No longer common since Second Vatican Council Monophonic melody set to Latin text Flexible rhythm without meterand beat Named for Pope Gregory r 590604 Originally no music notation system I Notation developed overseveral centuries The Church Modes 0 quotOtherworldlyquot sound basis of Gregorian Chant 0 Different 12 and whole steps than modern scales 0 Middle Ages and Renaissance used these scales I Some Western Music uses these scale patterns El WhatDo You Do With a Drunken ailor Dorian mode El When Johnny Comes Marching Home Aeolian mode Secular Musicin the Middle Ages 0 Troubadours southern France and Trouveres northern France I Nobles wrote poemssongs for court use El Performed byjongleursminstrels I Topics courtly love Crusades dancing Estampie o MedievalmiddleAgesdance music 0 Triple meter with strong beat fordanci ng I Notated as chant onlya single melody line El Performers probably improvised accompaniment 0 Listening example Brief Set CD 151 I This performance played on period instruments El Melody played on rebecbowed stringinstrument and pipetubular wind instrument El Drone on psalteryplucked or struck stri ng i nstrument The Development of Polyphony Organum 0 Between 700900 a second line added to chant I Additional partinitially improvised notwritten I Paralleled chant line ata different pitch 0 9001200 added line grew more independent I Contrary motion then latera separate melodic curve I c 1100 noteagainstnote motion abandoned El 2 lines with individual rhythmic and melodiccontent El New part in top voice moved fasterthan the chant line 0 School of Notre Dame Measured Rhythm 0 Parisian composers developed a rhythmic notation I Chant notation developed a rhythmic notation I Notre Dame39s choirmasters Leonin and Perotin were leaders El Writing with notated rhythmcame to be called the Notre Dame style 0 Medieval thought was that interval ofthird dissonant o o o 0000 Intro to Music Page 1 I Modern chords built ofthirds are now considered consonant 14th Century Music quotNew Artquot in France 0 Compose rs wrote music not based on chant I Borrowed secular melodies to put in sacred music 0 New music notation system had developed 39 New quotiulbcucr 39 39 I Syncopation now possible became common 0 The newtype of musicwas called ars nova Guillaume de Machaut o Midtolate14thcenturycomposer13001377 I Also famous asa poet I Thought a priest spent most oflife worki ngat court 0 Wrote both sacred and secular music 0 Best known for his Notre DameMass Chapter 2 Musicin the Renaissance 0 Church choirs grew in size all male 0 Rise ofthe individual patron I Musical centershifted from church to courts I Court composers wrote secularand sacred music I Women did notsing in mixed church settings 0 Musicians higherstatus and paythan before I Composers became known for theirwork 0 Many composers were FrancoFlemish I Worked throughout Europe especially in Italy 0 Italy became music capital in 16th century I Other important centers Germany England Spain Characteristics of Renaissance Music Words and Music 0 Vocal music more important than instrumental 0 Word paintingtext painting Texture o Polyphonic o Primarily vocal a cappella I Instruments if present doubled the vocal parts Rhythmand Melody o Rhythmquotflowsquotandoverlaps I Composers less concerned with metrical accents O mnnth I 39 39 J39 r J 39 I Melodies overlap rhythmically between voices Sacred Musicin the Renaissance 0 Two main forms I Motet El Short polyphonic choral work El Latin text usually overlaid with vernaculartext El Often borrows lowest voice part from a chant I Mass the Catholicworshipservice El Longwork that includes five main parts of service 0 x lt 2 m 0000 Agnus Dei Josquin Desprez o 14401521contemporaryofColumbus ampda Vinci Intro to Music Page 2 O O Wrote both sacred and secular music I Worked with the Papal Choirin Rome I Workedfor King LouisXIIof France J39 U ufliistimefauus quot39 I His workinfluenced othercomposers I Washighlypraised by Martin Luther Palestrina O O O Culmination ofthe Renaissance 15251594 Worked primarily in Rome I Musicdirectorat St Peter39s Worked duringand afterCouncil ofTrent I CouncilofTrent1545 1563 addressed El Abuses and malpractice within church El Emerging Protestantism El Role of musicin worship 0 Some advocated a return to monophonic music 0 Finally decided on nontheatrical worship music I Wrote music meetingdemands of Trent El His work became the model for mass composers Secular Musicin the Renaissance O Madrigal I Intended foramateur performers after dinner music I Extensive use oftext painting I Printed in partbook or opposingsheet format I Originated in Italy El English madrigal lighter and simpler Instrumental Music 0 O 00 Still subordinate to vocal music I I I in quotquotm mquot I JVUlLCD I Sometimes played adapted vocal musicalone Published music stated that various parts of the music could be sung or played Purely instrumental music existed almost exclusive ly fordancing I Dancing became evermore popularduringthe Renaissance Distinction between loud outdoor instruments and softer indoor ones Compose rs did not specify instrumentation Intro to Music Page 3 Partlll Chapter 1 Baroque Music 0 Period beginswith rise ofopera I Opera a play with speaking parts sung o PeriodendswithdeathofJSBach o The two giants Bach and Handel o Otherimportantcomposers I CIaudioMonteverdi I HenryPurcell I ArcangeloCorelli I AntonioVivaldi o Perioddividedinto3phases I Early 16001640 Cl Rise ofopera El Textwith extreme emotion El Homophonicto projectwords I Middle 16401680 Cl New musical style spreads from Italy throughout Europe El Use ofthe church modes gives way to major and minor scales El Rise ofimportance ofinstrumental music I Late 16801750 Cl Instrumental music becomesasimportantas vocal music El Elaborate polyphonydominates El Most baroque music we hearcomes from the Late Baroque Characteristics of Baroque Music 0 Unityof Mood I Expressesone mood per piece 0 Rhythm I Rhythmicpatternsarerepeatedthroughout o Melody I Openingmelodyheardagainandagain 0 Dynamics I Volumesconstantwithabruptchanges 0 Texture I Late baroque mostly polyphonic I Extensive useofimitation o Chordsandthe Basso Continuo I Emphasisonwaychordsfolloweachother El Basspartconsideredfoundationofthe harmony I BassoContinuobasspartwithnumberstorepresentchordtones El Similartomodernjazzandpopquotfakebookquotnotation o WordsandMusic I Textpaintingwordpaintingcontinues I Wordsfrequentlyemphasizedbyextensionthroughmanyrapidnotes The Baroque Orchestra 0 Basedonviolinfamilyofinstruments o Smallbymodernstandards o Varyinginstrumentation I Combinationsofstringswoodwindsbrassamppercussiontympani o Nucleuswasbassocontinuounit Intro to Music Page 1 o Composersspecifiedinstrumentation I Timbrewassubordinatetomelodyrhythmandharmony BaroqueForms o Instrumentalmusicfrequentlymadeupofcontrastingmovemenis I Movementzapiececompleteinitselfalsopartofalargerwhole I Performed with pause between movements I Unityofmoodwithinindividual movements I Movementsoftencontrastwitheachother o Commonbasicforms I Ternary El ABA I Binary El AB El AAB El ABB El AABB Chapter 2 Musicin Baroque Society 0 Musicwrittentoorder I Newmusicnotoldfashionedwasdesired o Courts I Musicand musical resources indicated affluence CourtMusicDirector I Good prestige pay and otherbenefits El Stillconsideredaskilledservant Some aristocrats were musicians Church musicwas very elaborate I Mostpeopleheardmusiconlyinchurch Somethoughfewpubicoperahouses Musiccareerstaughtbyapprenticeship I Orphanagestaughtmusicasatrade O O OO 0 Chapter 3 The Concerto Grosso and Ritornello Form 0 Concerto Grosso I For small group of soloists and orchestra I Multimovement work I Usually 3 movements El Fast El Slow usuallyquieter El Fastsometimesdancelike o Ritornello I Frequently used in fi rst and last movements of concerto grosso I Theme repeatedly presented in fragments I Contrast between solosections and tutti Chapter4TheFugue o Polyphoniccomposition o Writtenforgroupsofvoicesorinstruments 0 Subject I Maintheme I Presentedinitiallyinimitation I Eachvoiceentersafterpreviousvoicehascompletedpresentingthesubject Intro to Music Page 2 Chapter 5 The Elements of Opera 0 O OO 0 00000 Drama sung to orchestral accompaniment Text in opera is called libretto I Music is written by a composer I Libretto is written by a Iibrettist Opera can be serious comic or both Two primary types ofsolo songs I Recitative presents plot material I Aria expresses emotion usuallya quotshowoffquot vehicleforthe singer Other types of songs in opera I Duet I Trio I Quartet I Quintet etc El Allows for conversation between characters El Three or more singers make up an ensemble Chorus groups of actors playing crowd parts The prompterand the prompter39s box The orchestra pit Preludes Instrumentals that open opera acts Modern questions concerningtextin opera I Translation of text and effects upon text painting I Supertitles projection oftext above the stage Chapter 6 Opera in the Baroque Era O O O O O O OO Resultofmusical discussions ofthe Camerata in Florence First known opera EuridicePeri1600 Orfeo Monteverdi1607 I Firstlargescalegreatopera Opera composed forcourtceremonies I Display of magnificence and grandeur I Patrons compared to ancient heroes First public opera house 1637 in Venice Rise ofvirtuoso singer I Chiefwas castrato Secco vs accompanied recitative Dacapoaria A B Aembellished Chapter 7 Claudio Monteverdi O O O 0 Italian early baroque composer Wrote first great operaticwork Orfeo Worked last 30 years at St Mark39s in Venice I Composed both sacred music and secular musicforthe aristocracy Only three of his twelve operas still exist Chapter8 Henry Purcell O 0000 English composer16591695 Highly regarded held severalcourt positions Buried beneaththe organ inWestminsterAbbey Wrote sacred and secularmusicin manystyles Only one operaDido andAeneas I Considered by some to be best English opera ever Ground Bass Intro to Music Page 3 0 Repeated musical ideain bass I Variationform El Melodiesabove basschange o Alsocalledbassoostinato Chapter 10 Antonio Vivaldi Late baroque Italian composer Ilprete rosso the red priest Taughtmusicat girls39orphanage in Venice I Girls performed at mass hidden behind screen Wrote sacred and secularvocal and instrumental music I Bestknown forconcerti grossi amp solo concertos forviolin El Solo concerto piece for single soloist amporchestra o Famousasavirtuosoviolinistampcomposer 000 0 Chapter 11 Johann Sebastian Bach o Germanate baroquecomposer o Organistandviolinist I DeeplyreligiousLutheran I Workedinsacredandsecularpositions El WeimarCothenLeipzig o Largefamily o Knownduringlifetimeaskeyboardistnotcomposer I Masterofimprovisation o AlmostunknownoutsideGermany o Baroquestylegoingoutoffashionduringhislifetime I Bach39smusicfellfromusefollowinghisdeath Bach39sMusic o Wroteineveryformexceptopera I Compositionsrecognized fortechnical mastery El Highpointofpolyphonycombinedwithharmony El AllmusicmajorsstudyBach39scompositions o Hisextensiveinstrumental works indicatethe new importance ofinstrumental music 0 Wrotemusicexploringmusicalconcepts I Artofthe Fuguedemonstratespotentialofthisform I Sixsuitesfors ell 39 39 I WellTemperedClavierexploresnewmethodoftuning Chapter 13 The Chorale and Church Cantata o Lutheranchurchservicewassocialeventoftheweek I Lastedfourhoursonehoursermon I Musicwasmajorpartofworshipservice I Congregation participatedinsingingchorales o ChoralehymntunewithGermantext o Cantata I Multimovementchurchworkforchorussooistsandorchestra I Vernacularreligioustext I Resembledoperainitsuseofchorusesrecitativesariasandduets Chapter 14 The Oratorio 0 Like opera I Largescale work for chorus soloists and orchestra I Contains arias recitatives ensembles Intro to Music Page 4 0 Unlike opera I No actingsceneryorcostumes I Based upon biblical stories 0 Notintendedforreligiousservices I Commonly performed todayin both churches and concert halls Chapter 15 George Frederic Handel 0 Born in Germany same yearas Bach I Not from musicalfamily El Fatherwanted him to be a lawyer o Studied music in Germany then to Italy to study opera finally England to work I Became England39s most importantcomposer I Wrote many operas in London I Had own opera company El Worked as composer performer and impresario I BuriedinWestminsterAbbey Handel39s Music 0 Wrote in every baroque form I Bulk of hisworkin oratorios and operas El Favored OldTestamentstoriesastopicsfororatorios 0 His musichas more changesin texturethan Bach39s 0 Extensive use of changing moods I Shifts between major and minor keys I Hisariasshowcasevirtuososingers39abilities o TheMessiah 1741 George Frederic Handel 212 hours ofmusic written overa period of 24 days Premiered to wide acclaim duringa tripto Ireland Poorly received in England untila performance to benefit an orphanage Topic Prophesies aboutChrist his birth and death Textdrawn from Biblical passages Intro to Music Page 5
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