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by: Dovie Turcotte


Dovie Turcotte
OK State
GPA 3.58

Gary Webb

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Gary Webb
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dovie Turcotte on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 4333 at Oklahoma State University taught by Gary Webb in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see /class/232780/soc-4333-oklahoma-state-university in Sociology at Oklahoma State University.




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Date Created: 11/01/15
Criminology soc 4333 S rinv 2011 Dr Ga1y Webb DepaItment ofSociology Oklahoma State University The Nature and Extent of Crime in the US I How much crime is there It depends on whoyou ask The dark figure ofcrime Is there o crime problem I Who are the criminals Who sLota crlmmd Om Image afcrtmmals is shaped by ow perception ofcrlmerr ley re an the streets and In the Suitesl I What are the costs of crime m do we measure costs It depends on the type afcrtmereltte crime Costmore than quotstreetcrtmes The greatestcast KS fearand the erosion ofcommmlty Explanations of Crime What role do individual factors play in causing crime What role do social factors play in causing crime Are some communities disorganized Do our responses to crime octuatt create more crime Does we crimina law promote and protect particular Interests The Criminal Justice System What are some current controversies in the system How do we explain the racial bias in the system I Whatis the future ofcriminaljustice in the U S 7 What is Criminology I Scienti c multidisciplinaIy approach to understanding crime including 7 1 the development ofcriminal law and its use to de ne crime 7 2 the cause oflaw violations and e 3 methods used to control criminal behavior I Methods include largescale smveys interviews observations cohOIt studies etc I Criminology is not the same as criminal justice Historical Roots of Criminology I Classical criminology late 18 Century 7 Rationality of crime I Positivism 19th Century 7 Inheritance of criminal traits I Sociology late 19th and early 20th Centuries 7 Crime and system disruptions irictzoriotism 7 Law as a tool ofthe ruling class conflict theory 7 Consequences ofcriminal labels symbolic lnteractmnzsm Crime and Deviance Areri t T hey the Same Crime any actthatviolates written criminal law Deviance behavior lifestyles or characteristics of people or organizations that violate social norms Not every deviant act is criminal and not every criminal act is deviantl Deviance Whatls tend Why Isltlmportarit Deviance varies in terms of severity ltfolhwayr 7morer aboorgt Devianceisrelative Deviance canbe JHCTJDHZl Deviance is controlled by sanctions Typology of Sanctions Infomial Femm Positive Praise Diplomas Negauv e imam Prison iscip lirie How Much Crime Is There Three Major Measures Federal Bureau oflnvestigation sUnifonn Crime Reports 7 Crimes reportedto police 7 Misses the dark gurequot only the most smsus sifmse is recorded potential political in uence 39 7 Householdsurveys 7 ilteiies on respunuemmemury misses Vimms39 own criminal ammy Self Report Surveys 7 Typically administeredto youth 7 Assumerespondmttrulhfulness FF CRIME CLOCK J J Every 224 seconds One Violent Crime Every 310 minutes One Murder Every 58 minutes One Forcible Rape Every 12 minutes One Robbery Every 368 seconds One Aggravated Assault Every 32 seconds One Property Crime Every 145 seconds One Burglary Every 48 seconds One Larcenytheft mmEnvery 288 seconds One Motor Vehicle Theft So How Much Crime 15 There CR 2007 CVS 2007 11251818 crimes 7 22879700 crirnes reported 10 police reported by respondents 7 88 were property to the survey crimes 7 77 were property crimes 7 12 were violent crimes 7 23 were violent crimes Some Trends in Crime Most arrests 95 are for nonViolent crimes Violent crimes have ahigher clearance rates Crime especially violent crime peaks in the summer months Violent crime rates are highest in the South Victim and selfrepoit surveys revealmore crime than UCR Selfreport surveys reveal less ofa class difference in crime a t or i s ofcrime Wolfgang s chronic 6 Crime Victimization and Crime Myths I We re all equally Vulnerable to crime Middle and upper classes are most Vulnerable to property crime Violent crime is rampant I Most violence involves strangers Most violence is interracial I Criminals prey on the elderly Sources and Consequences ofthe Crime Myths I Sources 7 Media 7 Politicians 7 Private molustry 7 Crime measurement techniques I Consequences 7 Culture offear 7 Reduced social interaction and erosion ofpublic trust 7 Harsh penalties for minor offenses e stereotyping e Vast expenses for C system Who s V ictimized by Violent Crime n nchm characteristic c mxzamm E 1 000 household Gender Male 25 5 Female zu a white 22 a Black 27 9 er 14 7 Marital Smtus Marneo ID a Nevermamed 43 3 Age 16719 58 2 55 3 4 income Less than 75uu 45 5 75nnn ormore 19 n anz nn Urban 33 l Suburban zu n Rural l7 5 Who s Victimized by Property Crime mam characteristic Victimization 227 J 000 households hite 157 a Black 173 7 Other 139 8 income Less than 75M 188 9 tzsnnuemesa 1617 75nun ormore 169 a anz nn Urban 215 3 Suburban 145 3 Rural 118 3 Home wned 136 4 Rented zlz 7 Theories of Crime Victimization I Victim precipitation I Lifestyle I Routine Activities Suitable Targets Motivated Lack ofcapable Guardians o enders Victims RightsMovement Reaction to due process revolutionquot Resulted in many victimcentered programs and policies 7 Counservices 7 Restitution 7 Victimo ender reconciliation 7 Three strikes and you re out rules 7 Sex o ender reporting programs 7 Victim impact statements 7 Witnessing executions Emerged in 1970s and 19805 inspired by other social movements Sociological and Individualistic Perspectives on Crime39A Preliminary Comparison sociological Individualistic 7 Crime is asocial 39 7 Crime 15 an Individual phenomena phenomenon Th f r The causes ofcrim 7 6 can 0 mme are located in Individual decision located in social structure making or in biological or social processes and psychological pathology cultural value 7 Reduce social inequality strengthen communities 7 Deterrence therapeutic and reduce stigma intervention or medical nt Rational Choice Theory Indlvldual Declslon making Hedonmn Costbene t Deterred thmugh punishment Swift Cert 5 overs Three Types of Criminological Theories Types ofcriminological theories 7 Indlvlduallstlc Importance oftheory r Fucus uur ubservatluns 7 l d explainpattems 7 Implicatluns furpubliepuliry Rational Choice Theory Rooted in classical Criminology rationality free will andhedonism Beccaria r Punlshment should flt the mme 7 Punlshments should have utility7e g to deter crime 7 Punlshments should be SWi certain and severe 7 Fmpumunate tn the smuumess urthe mme Bentham and the goals ofpunishment Reemerged in 1970s with James Q Wilson s Thinmtg about Crime Emphasizes situational crime prevention deterrence and incapacitation Choice Theory AnAssessment and Critique I Major Strengths 7 Major advance over earlier approaches 7 Public policy implications Major Limitations 7 simplistic nores other motivating factvrs e g values and situational factors Rationality is bamde Soclal llfe would be impossible ifWe were allrational calculators 7 Tautologous 7 Assumes behavior is motivated largely by fear ofpunishment Trait Theories Nature over Nurture Similar to choice theory 7 Lucatecaus s ufcnme in individuals 7 Intuitive Simple clear dishnchun betwem nurmal and deviant 7 ider suppuneum Bur culture I A briefhistorical overview Psychulugcal traits persuuahty disurders intelligence and mural develupment Issues to Consider with Trait Theories I Ignore the relativity of crime and deviance I Attem t to ex lain deviance but not conforrnit39 I Medicalization of social life Trait Theories Individual character She Psychological Physiological Addressedthruugh Interve n Medlcahun Conditionsfor and Consequences ofa Medicalized Society I Conditions 7 Bureaucratization of social life 7 Asociety ofexperis 7 Legitimacy othe medical establishment 7 Profitng en pharmaceutical industry 7 Intaconnechedness ofbureaucmtsmedical professionals and the pharmaceutical indush39y Consequences 7 PaLhologizmg the human aipa erice 7 Ovenrehance on experts 7 Neveuendmg Search fornew demons Lo exorcise Net demng and Expanding markets Unantlclpated consequences hmlel m and Longrta m 312011 Sociological Theories of Crime Some Basic Assumptions Satinfacts must be explained by othersacialfatts Criminology Behavior is shaped bvsocialstructure stratification culture and 50C 4 3 3 3 interaction Spring 2011 Definitions ofcrime and deviance ale relative Normalization ofthe deviant Dr Ga ry We bb Reactionsto crime may have unintended consequences Department of Sociology Oklahoma State University Social Disorganization Shaw and McKay s Three Major Branches ofSociological Theories ofCrime Concentric Zone Model Theories of Social Structure lEunctionalisml 7 Social disorganization 7 Cultural deviance 7 Social strain anomie Theories of Social Process lSymbolic lntemctionisml 7 Differential association 7 Drift 7 Social control 7 Labelin B Theories of Social Conflict lConflict Perspectivel Social Disorganization Theory Miller39s quotFocal concerns Theory Cuituraiiy vaiued caais Blocked Opportunities Social institutions 391M Eamiiy M Focal Concerns Government uoie Economy Toughness Community Med Smartness Education Sod Excitement 319 Autonomy Cohen s quotMiddle Class Measuring Rod Theory Lower Class Values Dellrlquerlcy 312011 Critique of Social Disorganization and Cultural Deviance Theories Rely on official crime data I Stereotype the poor Ignore organization and solidarity in urban areas I Fail to explain conformity in the lower classes and deviance in the middle classes I MaiorStrengths Normalize individualdelinquents Locate causes of crime in social context Positive implicationsfor public policy Merton s Anomie Strain Theory Modes of Adaptation Conformity thuallsm Modes ofAdaptation and Threats to the Social Order Conformle Obedlerlce status quo Crime and the Amenom Dream quotlrurl cagequot and 39Meoorieldizatioriquot Messner and Rosenfeld s lnstitutionalAnomie Theory I Crime and theAmerican Dream Our primary concern isvvith how crime is produced when societies workpretty much the way they are supposed toquot I Foundations of the American Dream Achievement Materialism Individualism I US society is criminogenic characterized by Devaluation of nonreconomic activities Penetmtion ofeconomic norms into other institutional domains Economic Values and Social Institutions 312011 Critique of Social Strain Theories 505 Process Theor es Overemphasis on economic values I Society creates crime through definitions and reactions Ignore violent or expressive crimes 39 People learn to conform and deviate Failto explain crimes ofthose who have access to legitimate means Normalize the deviant Ambiguous policy implicationsccmake society less criminogenic M 0 5quot quot 5 Social learning lditferential association and drittl r Locates causes of crime in cultural values and structural inequality Th ree major types Socialcontrolcontainment and social bondl r Forces us to reflect on everyday pracuces thatcreate crime Social reaction llabelingl Social Learning Sutherland s Differential Social Learning Sykes and Matza s Drift Theory Association Theory Technigues of Neutral ation Priority Frequency social Lezrrilrig lntenslty n ury Duration Ratlurizllzatluris ndemnat on of condemners Co Appeal to higher loyalties Social Control Reckless Containment Theory Social Control Hirschi s Social Bond Theory ca rtarrnity inner pushes and outer ressures eg lrnpulsivity and Peers Deviance Labeling Theory Various lire etperiences that could cause crimedelinquency initial act or deviance primary deviance Applieatmn er urneial label Status degradation eeremuny stigma uur selr image Secorl day Devi m Conflict Theory ofCrime Dlvlslurlzl Curitrul Legal Curitrul Proletariat 312011 Social Process Theories A Critique I Strengths Focus on social construction of and reactions to crime Normalize the deviant lforthe most partl Differential association explains street and elite crime Weaknesses Labeling and drllttheories tail to explain initiuldevlance Controltheories pathologize the deviant Differentialassociation is mutologous Con ict Theory A Critique I Strengths Reveals politicaleconomic nature ofcrime Emphasizes socialinequalily Focuses attention on lawamaking not just lawabreaking Normalizes criminals I Weaknesses Tends to overstate issues of social class ignoring race and gender Tendsto be economically deterministic Fails to explain crime in nonacapitalist societies Characteristics of Crime Control Policies Appoodlls Rezdlve Almedm WWW implementation is Slmple nmermme Shuanerm ananadimpact NEgatlve 4 Neutral Proactive cummunity Complex Lu rlngerm Positive Policy Implications of Individualistic Theories of Crime I Rational Choice Theories Strengthen punishments Harden targets I Trait and Psychological Theories Profilingtechniques Medicaltreatments and interventions Policy Implications of Sociological Theories of Crime Social Structure Theories Satindisorganization Urban renewal Satinstrain Stress nonreconomic values and improve access Culturuldeviunce Alleviate interrgeneralional poverty Social Process Theories Di erentiulussatiutian Promote prorsocial learning Satintantra Promote involvement in conventional activities Labeling Diversion Con ictTheories Reduce social inequality Democratize Iawrmaking process 312011


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