INTRODUCTORY BIOLOGY BIOL 1114
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ms. Jedidiah Kling on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1114 at Oklahoma State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see /class/232797/biol-1114-oklahoma-state-university in Biological Sciences at Oklahoma State University.
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Date Created: 11/01/15
Chemical Defenses Scenario a Sick Child in Nigeria b How can the poisonous antidote save the child s life 0 What is calabar bean and what is its history d How does physostigmine work How does a normal neuromuscularjunction work a The players and an overview b What is the nature of the electrical signal 0 How does a cell secrete signals d 80 what about the child who has eaten the calabar bean How could something change normal signaling and muscle contraction Antidote a How might the antidote work to counteract what goes on in the synapse after exposure b Why and how does atropine the antidote work How do plants and animals use chemical defenses Calabar bean Chondrodendrontomentosum Poison arrow frogs Puffer fish How do arrow poisons work Why are chemical agents like these an advantage for plants and animals g What uses do we have for chemical agents such as these mooo39m The passionvine Passi ora produces toxic chemicals that protect its leaves from most insects But caterpillars of the butter y H eliconius have digestive enzymes that break down the toxins but only the levels present in the small immature leaves new growth As a result H eliconius gains access to a food source that few other insects can use The leaves of some passionvine species produce yellow sugar deposits that look like the eggs of H elicom39us Female butter ies avoid laying their eggs on leaves that already have eggs This increases the likelihood that their caterpillar offspring will have a large supply of leaf to eat upon hatching The females respond to the yellow sugar deposits as if they were eggs and Passz39 ora species with yellow sugar deposits are less likely to be eaten by newly hatched caterpillars Some passionvine species spend long periods of time with no growth of new leaves therefore some H elicom39us must go long periods of time without laying eggs because no foodplant is available for the caterpillars These butter y populations have adapted to using the pollen of a local vine Psigurz39a as a food source Eating pollen allows them to live and postpone laying eggs until the Passz39 ora puts on new growth leaves Two groups of pea plants are kept under identical conditions except the light to which they are exposed One group of pea plants is illuminated with red light and the other group is illuminated with green light The Advanced Life Support Program of NASA plans to include crop plants in developing planetary outposts in the future Dopamine is a neurotransmitter It is common in nerves whose action potentials trigger voluntary muscle movement or the sensation of pleasure in the brain Cocaine affects the body primarily by altering the lnction of nerves that use dopamine as their neurotransmitter A space probe was sent recently to a distant planet far from our sun The mission of the probe was to make measurements about the planet s physical environment and sample and bring back specimens of living organisms It was determined that only blue wavelengths of light were illuminating the planet s surface In addition to other life forms the probe collected a few random plants and brought them back to Earth In the summer of 1996 Winter Cherry bugs were observed feeding on the tree Duboz39sz39a leichardtii that produces atropine without illeffects In addition to atropine the tree sap contains sucrose a common sugar in plant sap Winter Cherry bugs have an enzyme that produces glucose and fructose from the sucrose The authors of the paper concluded that the bugs and the tree coevolved Clark s Nutcracker is a small bird that stores the seeds and nuts on which they feed A single bird may store tens of thousands of seeds every year in the ground under leaves or in crevices The birds use their long sharp bills to pry the seeds out of the cones from certain species of pines and carry seeds in a pouch under their tongues The seeds that the birds eat possess structures that make them easier to bury The trees that produce these seeds do so at times that increase the chances that birds will bury the seeds Studies show that without the birds to bury the seeds at the right depth for growth the trees do not reproduce well Leber s Hereditary Optic Neuropathy LHON is a disease that impairs vision The disease usually develops between the early teens and 30 years of age Most o en there is fairly rapid painless visual loss in one eye followed weeks or months later by vision loss in the opposite eye Vision loss in LHON usually leaves the patient legally blind ie 20200 or worse This disease is due to a mutation that reduces the efficiency of electron transfer to the first protein in the Electron Transport Chain in the inner mitochondrial membrane A scientist observes birds feeding on a group of snails The birds break the snail shells open by tapping them on rocks and then feed on the so body of the snail The scientist notices that in one area among the rocks there are snails with striped shells and snails with unstriped shells She is interested in whether or not the shell type in uences the rate at which birds eat the snails In one area the scientist collects the following data I Striped Shells I Unstriped Shells I Total I Percent striped I Live intact 264 296 560 471 Dead broken 486 377 863 563 MycoToxins are fungalmold secondary meTaboliTes ThaT are Toxic To many organisms including chickens rabbiTs horses insecTs bacTeria and even humans The Toxins are released by The growing fungus and can accumulaTe in feed ThaT is sTored under The specific condiTions of TemperaTure and humidiTy ThaT allows The fungusmold To flourish Humans are more likely To encounTer The Toxins in wheaT and peanuTs ThaT have been sTored improperly Diseases resuITing from The consumpTion of mycoToxins are called mycoToxicoses MycoToxicoses are noT conTagious and cannoT be Transferred from one animal To anoTher Some mycoToxins are ThoughT To disrupT poke holes in membranes wiThin cells and oThers are ThoughT To inTerfere wiTh cellular processes such as proTein RNA and DNA synThesis EffecTs relaTed To mycoToxicoses include reproducTive failure failure To Thrive loss of appeTiTe suppression of The immune sysTem increased occurrence of cancer and even morTaliTy in some cases To avoid This problem Dr HamilTon buys good qualiTy grain and feed for her chickens and sTores iT in clean dry conTainers Dr HamilTon39s chicken flock conTains several Types of STandard size chickens including Rhode Island reds ThaT are large birds wiTh brighT red combs fleshy cresT on The head and waTTles fleshy folds hanging from The neck or ThroaT Their shanks legs are clean as opposed To some chickens ThaT have feaThered shanks The aee for feaThered shanks is auTosomal and is dominanT To The aee for cleanshanks During a howling spring windsTorm Dr HamilTon39s chicken coop was damaged and 10 chickens including hens and roosTers escaped TogeTher To esTablish a small chicken colony in The woods far from Their original home The woods provide chicken food and shelTer buT also houses predaTors and oTher birds ThaT carry diseases harmful To chickens Locals call The woods The quot100 Acre WoodsII iT conTains 100 square acres Monkeypox is a rare disease caused by a virus found primarily in squirrels and oTher rodenTs ThaT live in The rain foresTs of cenTral and wesT Africa In Those counTries The virus is someTimes TransmiTTed To people who are biTTen or who come in conTacT wiTh lesions or body fluids of an infecTed rodenT The firsT reporTs of human infecTions were in 1970 and Today iT is esTimaTed To cause deaTh in 1 To 10 of The people in Africa who are infecTed In summer 2003 Monekypox was reporTed in a few people in The US The monkeypox virus is closely relaTed To The smallpox virus AlThough smallpox has been essenTially eradicaTed There are many people sTill living who were vaccinaTed againsT smallpox when They were young These people were vaccinaTed by pricking The skin and placing a drop of fluid conTaining a pox virus under The skin The pox virus used in The vaccine rarely makes people ill Some Africans who have been immunized vaccinaTed againsT smallpox do noT become ill when exposed To monkeypox
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