INTRO PLT SOIL SYSTEM
INTRO PLT SOIL SYSTEM PLNT 1213
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Donnell Beatty on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PLNT 1213 at Oklahoma State University taught by Sarah Lancaster in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see /class/232799/plnt-1213-oklahoma-state-university in Plant Science at Oklahoma State University.
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Date Created: 11/01/15
PLNT 1213 Note outline Water Management Plants need water to maintain The amount ofwater required by a crop can be described in terms of its WUE dm matter groduced water consumed The amount ofwater required by a crop is regulated by ET WUE and ET are determined by Climate Crop characteristics Climate Crop characteristics Leaf size and leaf shape Photosynthetic pathway Crop size If rainfall is not adequate for crop growth crops can be irrigated Irrigation methods can be divided into three categories Gravity flow irrigation Sprinkler irrigation Microirrigation Sources of irrigation water can be divided into two categories Groundwater Surface water An effective water supply for irrigation Salinzation occurs when To be most effective irrigation timing should be carefully planned Chemigation History n the US peanut is grovm on approx 12 million acres It is the third major oilseed ofthe world next to soybean and cotton 180 M in Oklahoma in 2008 Market price is 3 to 4 times more than wheat Mum History a wwwwewww aquot Agronomic Practices Crop Rotation 1 year out of 3 4 preferably Reduced assess and nematode prumems Manageame Weed cumrm systems Corn grain sorghum grass small grains and cotton are good rotational crops Table 1 Pod yxeld averaged over 12 year of crop rotation Rotation 12 yr Avg lb a 3967 PN7CR 4081 PN7CR70R 4487 PN7PN7CR 4289 N7 4055 PN7CT7C1 4462 PN7 out of 11 yr 3757 PNSO 3916 Agronomic Practices Soil Fertility 7 mucmam 7 DD not respond wrecuym fertmzer apphcatmns 7 Spem cs pH 13 ms 5 Adequate 12m um K Ca Mg and mmvunumems Aumd mm mm mm peggmg zune pups and pud m1 mcvease me Hsk 11 mm Varieties Four Market Types Spanish Runner Virginia and Valencia Growth habits bunch or prostrate at Planting Peanuts are planted alter the last frost in April when soil temperature reaches approx 65 to 70 degrees Fahrenheit Seed is planted 2 in deep and 12 in apart in rows Strip till Plant Growth and D 39 It 10 days after germination root growth can reach 12 inc es 60 days after germination roots can extend 35 to 40 inches deep Indeterminate Producing leaves and stems at the same time that is owering pegging and developing pods Plant Growth and D 39 It Flowering begins 30 days after planting Heat and moisture stress can greatly impact ower response July Daily High Temperature xu xkxbl39 b if w DyufMumh Plant Growth and D 39 Pegg Moisture Stress Stress Period days a er planting Yield lbA 30 to 65 3960 65 to 100 2900 100 to 135 4120 No stress 4540 w hamsmm art my eah he reuueeu W 25 at tempemtmes shave mu ueerees r Harvesting Peanuts are harvested 12D te ten days arter ptantmg usuaHy m September a d omeher A drggerrshakerattachmenttu the traetur rs used tn gm mm the sen a d eutthe tapreeterthe ptant the shaker theh punsthe prahtrrerh the gruund gentry shakmg the art ettthe peanuts a d praerhgthe praht upsrue dEIWH rh Wmdruvvs te dry furtvvu te three days T erarrher hr rhur r prck the peanuts trerhthe VWES Peanuts are erred te tunn rhersture The rerharhrhg prahts eah he hated mm hayfurcame feed ur rhureheu mm the hem Other considerations Disease Weeds History The soybean is one ofthe oldest cultivated crops Soybeans originated and were rst grovm in northeastern China The rst record dates back to 2838 BC Soybeans rst appeared in Europe in the 17th century and in the United States in 1804 History Little attention was given to soybean as a crop until 1898 when the USDA imported a large number of varieties for researc Since that time there has been rapid expansion in soybean production particularly since 1920 soybeans were grown in the South priorto 1924 then it began to assume importance in the Com Belt Economic Importance grown on an average of 194 million acres in 20002003 World production averaged about 65 billion bushels or 34 bushels per acre The United States is the world leader in soybeans producing over 13 ofthe global sup Other major soybeanproducing countries are Brazil Argentina China and India Crop Density Percent ef39retai Gram Cmp Area 5 1 V Wheat 5 eye eae 5a mu A 1 Surghum Cum Adaptations The climatic requirements ter soybean are abuutthe same as those or turn seypeah Will Wrthstahe shurt perrees er ereeght atter the ants ll established in generai eerhprhatrehs er high temperature ahe luvv preerprtatreh are unfavorable Soybean seee preeeeee ahe eri eeairty Suyb ah is sensitive te over irrigatiun peer suii drainage eah reeeee yields A average rhreserhrher terhperatere et 75 te 77 degrees F is uptirnurnfuraiivarieties Luvverternperaturestend te delay riewerrhg Planting Group III and IV indeterminate a Double Crop Planting June Sit and riu iater tnan Jui 3 e F39ianted iri narruvvruvvs ur driiiEd Planting Minimum soil temperature for germination is 50 F Minimum soil temperature for rapid germination is 55 to F Fertilizer Recommendations A suiitestsnuuid be dune tn determinetne needs at suybeans and utnercrups iri the rutatiuri The uptirnurn pH ievei is a a tn 6 5 but maytuierate SEIii pH as iuWas 5 2 A nitrugen deficiency requires abuth 2n ibacre Respunsivetu F39 and K respurises Rotation corn cotton and small grains As a fullseason cro 39 r r I I corn is used grass crop such as corn or grain sor hum Yields of soybean are 5 to 15 higher following corn due primarilyto less dise se Often used as a double crop a erwheat Weeds Roundup Ready Soybean Preplant Environmental Effects Crusting Shattering Lodging Harvest u rnuisture cuntent at the seeds drups tn 12 Later harvesting increases shattering lusses asvvell as Splitting ufthe uverly dry beans m threshing The minimized Split beans the cylinder speed ufthe perminute Harvest Soybean can be cut for hay anytime from pod formation until the leaves begin to fall The best qualily of hay is obtained when the seeds are about half developed Soybean is dif cult to cure because the thick 1 are cut for hay except a er a disaster that prevents the crop from maturity
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