INTRO PLT SOIL SYSTEM
INTRO PLT SOIL SYSTEM PLNT 1213
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Donnell Beatty on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PLNT 1213 at Oklahoma State University taught by Sarah Lancaster in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see /class/232799/plnt-1213-oklahoma-state-university in Plant Science at Oklahoma State University.
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Date Created: 11/01/15
PLNT 1213 Note outline Disease and insect management What is a disease The loss ofthe ability to properly function as the result of prolonged irritation by a pathogen A pathogen is a species that is The disease triangle in order for a disease to occur all three conditions must be conducive to the development ofthe disease A Most economically important disease are caused by Diseases can be managed by Cultural management environmental conditions and resistant varieties Chemical management Biological management Cultural management Environmental conditions Resistance Chemical management Biological management Insect Pests There are approximately 600 species of insects and arachnids that are harmful to crops How do insects damage crops Chewing Piercing and sucking Vector diseases Insects can be managed by Cultural managementl environment and resistant varieties Chemical management Biological management Cultural management Chemical management Biological management To apply pesticide correctly you need to know You want to control johnsongrass in your 55 acre RoundUp Ready soybean field The state extension specialist recommends you apply 1 pound of the active ingredient glyphosate in 25 gallons of water per acre If you have a 300 gallon spray tank how many times will you need to fill the tank If each gallon of RoundUp contains 3 pounds of glyphosate how much RoundUp do you need for the field and for each tank 55 A x 25 gal water per A 1375 gallons of water 1375300 458 5 times 55 acres x 1 lb per A 55 lbs glyphosate 55 lbs glyphosate3 lbs per gal 1833 gal RoundUp total 300 gal water25 gal per A 12 A per tank 12A x1 lb per A 12 lbs glyphosate 12 lbs3 lbs per gal 4 gal glyphosate per tank Pesticide resistance It is not uncommon for pests to develop resistance to pesticides This is largely because An ests that survive the a lication will y p pp Before pesticide After pesticide produce additional resistant pests This is application app39ication nota First generation Pesticide resistance can be prevented by Later generation Integrated pest management IPM One concept that has become important in pest management is IPM IPM is a series of pest management evaluations and decisions that consider There are four principles of IPM Prevention Thresholds Monitoring pest Control Prevention Manage the crop in such a way that pests do not become a threat Thresholds The population level at which action must be taken to control the pests Monitor Removes the possibility that pesticides will be used when they are not really needed or that the wrong kind of pesticide will be used Control Management practices are chosen based on effectiveness and risk PLNT 1213 Note outline Crop improvement What is crop improvement Plant genetics is the study of These traits are the result of Genes are composed of Deoxyribonucleic acid When James Watson and Francis Crick discovered DNA they developed the central dogma of molecular biology The form and function of an organism is also called the phenotype An organism s phenotype is the result of the interaction between Plant breeding is A plant breeder must know 1 Self pollination Cross pollination The process of plant breeding 1 01th Identify objective Collect genetic variation Make new combinations of variation Select desirable combinations Evaluate selections Plant breeding objectives Sources of genetic variation Making and selecting new genetic combinations Mass selection Pure line Hybridization Mass selection Pure lines Hybridization Evaluating selections Limitations of traditional breeding Biotechnolotgy Genetically modified crops All of the crops we use today are genetically engineeredgenetically modified Some use newer technology than others This new technology involves the use of The resulting crops are called Recombinant DNA Plant transformation Plants regenerated ram tissue culture i e i at 42 Transgenic crops developed include Some ofthe controversies surrounding transgenic crops include PLNT 1213 Note outline Tillage and soil conservation Tillage facilitates There are primary and secondary tillage process Primary tillage processes are those that Secondary tillage processes are operations that There are many kinds of tillage implements Some are for primary tillage and some are for seconday tillage operations Primary tillage implements Moldboard plow Disk plow Chisel plow Sweep plow Secondary tillage implements Disk Tandem disk Field cultivator Harrow Bedder Tillage systems Conventional tillage Pros Cons Conservation tillage Pros Cons No till Mulch till Soil erosion Preventing soil erosion is important because The government agency that administers most soil conservation programs is the Examples of conservation programs inculde Conservation reserve program Environmental Quality Improvemement Program Soil conservation practices Conservation tillage Cover crops Do you remember this from crop use classi cations Grassed watenNays Te rra ces Contour farming Strip cropping PLNT1213 ta Outiline Soil fertility and plant nutrition Illeleale pldlltuptdke u 1 Mass flow 2 Root interception 3 Diffusion Any nutrient that Comes in Contact with the root is NOT absorbed cortex endodermis 1 A plant essential element is There are 16 plant essential elements They can be divided into three groups Nonmineral nutrients 3 Macronutrients 6 Micronutrients 7 Plants respond to nutrient concentration 653 Adequate Zone 4 100 l 39 g 53 3 3 4399 96 69 90 Maximum ald 0 5W 3 one 05 3901 Critical Concenlrations Yield 3 at maximuml Uquot D i De ciency Texicity Nutrient concentration in plant Nutrient deficiency Deficient zone Critical range marginal zone Nutrient sufficiency adequate zone Luxury consumption Nutrient toxicity Nitrogen Nitrogen in the plant Sourcesof Nitrogen The nitrogencycle Nitrogen cycle inputs Nitrogen cycle transformations Nitrogen cycle losses Phosphorus Phosphorus in the plant Sources of phosphorus Potassium Potassium in the plant Sources of potassium and menusch mm Emma avanN SDHDH PLNT 1213 Note outline Rice The history of rice Uses of rice Types of rice There are two species of cultivated rice Rice production systems There are four basic types of rice production systems Rainfed lowlands Upland Flood prone Irrigated USDANASS nv unx 9 US Rice Acres M Hhun Ame 2 1987 men 1593 1996 1999 2m 2m USDA US Rice Production Mmmn cm 2w n 1995 1999 mm mm mm 2mm mm mm was 2mm 2qu usuANAss 114nm US Rice Yields mu 3 3 3 9 3quot 3 3quot s3 3quot 39 3 m V 9 9 9 Be w usuANAss 114nm Planting Growing environment Temperature 80 Water management Nutrients Pest management Weeds Insects Disease Harvest Ratoon crop PLNT 1213 Note outline Soil organisms and soil organic matter What lives in the soil Earthworms Insects Soil microorganism Nematodes Bacteria Fungi Actinomycetes Soil microorganism functions Soil formation and aggregation Soil organic matter SOM Humus Functions of SOM Stabilize soil structure Nutrient cycling Nitrogen cycle Gasews Atmospheric n I i Mil Symbiotic nitrogen fixation Symbiotic nitrogen fixation legumes Carbon cycle 002 002 Plant Respiration Photosynthesis 02 Soil Respiration Groundwater Transport CN ratio Degradation of man made organic chemicals Increase ability of plants to absorb nutrients Mycorrhizae Cause disease Soil borne pathogens PLNT 1213 Note outline Corn The scientific name of the crop known as corn in the US is This crop is know as throughout most of the world The history of corn Uses of corn Types of corn We will discuss six types of corn Flint corn flour corn dent corn Sweet corn popcorn wagtlty corn The characteristics of a corn kernel are a result of properties of the Flint corn Flour corn Dent corn Sweet corn Popcorn Waxy corn m US Corn Acres MHhunAcves mu an 1987 men 1593 1996 1999 mm mm mm usuANAss mm USDA US Corn Weld 3 3 29 9 9 7 E 9 w 99 usmmss 114mm 2008 Cam for Grain Harvested 39 Acres 000 and Change From Previous Year 3 usuAuAss mm Major Corn Producers 2005 harvested com area mHhcn hectares E Europe 5 R I WW Emma Ukrameuf a Umted States 29 Chma27 Memo 7 India 8 Brazil 13 Argemmz 3 South Amca a n mm Planting Growing environment Temperatures Rainfall Soil Nutrients Pest management Weeds Insects Disease Harvest
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