FOUND, PHIL TCHG, AGED
FOUND, PHIL TCHG, AGED AGED 3103
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AGED 3103 Agricultural Education A Historical OverviewEvents Leaders Concepts Timeline 1733 Context Late1700s and Legislation Selected Events and Contexts Agriculture was first taught formally in the State of The prevailing view was that anyone could farm father taught son mother taught daughter etc Everything was made by hand the era of craftsmenwomenquot Formal schools taught the classics Philosophy Greek Latin Religion etc Schools were for the elite they prepared lawyers and clergy Agriculture was taught at and beginning about 1792 Context Mid18005 Context 1857 Context 2 Most influential people of the time were planters largescale farmers In 1789 in his first address to congress George Washington called for a National University to teach agriculture Private Agricultural schools began operating However they were for the wealthy so very few could attend State operated agricultural schools colleges were founded Biggest problem was the lack of agricultural knowledge The scientific understanding of agriculture was lacking The was first proposed In 1859 it narrowly passed both houses of Congress but it was vetoed by then president Buchanan There was strong resistance to what was seen as federal centralized control especially in matters related to education see the 10th Amendment to the US Constitution Senators and 1862 Context Representatives from the southern states were the most vocal opponents of the bill ie the States Rightsquot argument With passage of the Morrill Act the stage was set for more formal agricultural education The act provided resources for funding what is now known as the State colleges began teaching agricultural and practical arts Land for research was also provided Historically the Morrill Act marked the first federal aid for vocational education The USDA was also formed at that time Over time The Land Grant Mission would evolve With advent of the Civil War the southern Congressman were no longer present to block the bill39s passage President Abraham Lincoln was an ardent supporter of education and agriculture 1862 18651877 Context The 1862 version of the bill also included a provision mandating colleges to offer training in the military arts ie more and better trained army officers for the North39s war effort Massachusetts is the first State to enact legislation encouraging agricultural instruction End of the Civil War and the period of Reconstruction The role of a strong central government is solidified Common schools are growing in popularity Horace Mann teaching the 3 R squot etc The industrial and agricultural revolutions had begun and are building momentum eg Eli Whitney and the invention of interchangeable machinery parts Farmers Clubs such as the Grange became popular they were social organizations as well as forums for disseminating new information and innovations In some regions they became a political force 1887 Context Late1800s Context Turn of the Century Passage of the Act provided federal funding to establish agricultural experiment stations in connection with the Land Grant Colleges In effect colleges began to branch out into other parts of their State The second Morrill Land Grant Act expanded the 1862 act to include the historically Black institutions eg Langston University or to establish the same Agricultural high schools were organized in many states The schools were based on Congressional districts Their purpose was to educate good farmers and good housewives The teachers made supervisory visits during the summer Corn Clubs and Tomato Clubs became popular in many rural areas Context Many felt that rural youth needed opportunities to acquire more and better social skills The clubs stimulated competition between rural youth Many farmers were reluctant to try new methods but they would let their sons try them on a limited basis The clubs served as the foundation for Early 1900s Until this point agricultural education had Context followed a predominantly approach A sample curriculum consisted of agronomy laboratory and fieldwork rural engineering and farm mechanics However the orientation of agricultural education would take a somewhat different direction with the increased involvement of the federal government soon to come 1905 1907 Context 1908 7 For much of the 20th century it would be set on a course of agricultural education The Douglas Commission recommended that Vocational Education be started on the secondary level high school Passage of the Nelson Amendments to the Morrill Act provided the first to prepare teachers of agriculture Agricultural education begins to orient towards a more vocational or practical arts direction Questions about methods of instruction curricula age appropriateness and program costs are debated These questions are still being asked today becomes director of the Smith Agricultural School in Northhampton Massachusetts Con text 1908 1912 1914 8 Stimson implements the supervised farming method of instruction A method that is rich in experience eg supervised practice and handson training For this innovation Stimson becomes known as the father of the supervised farming method and what became known as SAE President Theodore Roosevelt39s Country Life Commission studied the flight of rural people to the city Commission findings were instrumental in the push to teach agriculture in high school Twothousand high schools offered instruction in agriculture or its applications related to botany chemistry and zoology Passage of the Act created the Cooperative Extension Service eg funding for county extension agents 1917 Con text Passage of the Act National Vocational Education Act established the principles of federal financial aid and cooperation with the states in promoting public vocational education in agriculture trades and industry and home economics At this time the dye was castquot for an increasing emphasis on agricultural education as opposed to general agricultural education At this point the primary mission of agricultural education was to prepare young people to be farmers Agriculture teachers strove to implement curricula and programs that were comprehensive in coverage scienti c in method and practical in impact and focus The teachinglearning process involved a mixture of classroom instruction work experience and entrepreneurship Decisionmaking analytical problemsolving skills principles of experimentation and opportunities for taking the initiative were all elements of a comprehensive vocational agricultural education program The SmithHughes Act required that Stimson39s model of learning by experience learning by doing be incorporated into the teaching of vocational agricultural education In the spirit of this principle in time the FFA Motto would become Learning to Do Earning to Live Living to Serve 1917 The Michigan High School Agricultural Association is formed Context 1921 1922 1925 Context The association s motto was I learn by doing States in the Southern Region cooperate to host a regional judging contest Nebraska forms a Junior Farmers Association Its purposes were very similar to what will become the founding purposes of the National FFA Organization New York and New Jersey form state organizations with similar goals New Jersey publishes a newspaper entitled The Future Farmer The Future Farmers of Virginia FFV is established Walter Newman Edmund Magill and Henry Sanders are the founders 1925 1926 Context Because of his early involvement and support Henry Groseclose is frequently referred to as father of the FFA Organization The organization s ceremonies are patterned after the Masons The FFV39s emblem is adapted from an organization in Denmark The first National Dairy Judging Contest is held in Indianapolis Indiana A National Livestock Judging Contest is held in conjunction with the American Royal in As a result the National Congress of Vocational Agriculture Students is organized the first organization of its kind that is national in scope The Future Farmers of America National FFA Organization was founded in Kansas City MO Context 1928 1933 1933 1934 1935 The National Congress formed in 1926 was disbanded The National FFA Organization was patterned closely after the Virginia association was the first state association to receive a charter By the end of 1928 there were 105 chartered FFA chapters in 18 states The Oklahoma FFA Association was chartered Charter Massachusetts attempted to allow to become members of FFA The Official FFA Jacket was adopted for use by FFA members The National FFA Organization specified that female enrollment be limited to state and local levels The NFA was founded Context Context 1946 Context Context The NFA was the agricultural student organization for AfricanAmerican students The National FFA Foundation is established The Foundation raises and manages funds donated to support the National FFA Organization and its various activities The GeorgeBarton Act passes congress The law provided funds to support the supervision of agricultural education programs within each state eg program specialists It also provided funding to support guidance and counseling programs in local schools The FFA is granted a Federal Charter P L 740 As a result the FFA Organization could own property copyright its emblem and other insignia sue and be sued and borrow money 1958 1963 Context The National Defense Education Act passes Congress The law placed renewed emphasis on teaching and Congress passes the Vocational Education Act of 1963 PL 88210 The act was the first modernization and revitalization of national legislation pertaining to vocational education since the SmithHughes Act of 1917 Until 1963 vocational agricultural education was intended for students who would enter production agriculture The law39s passage enabled greater flexibility by preparing students for both farm and occupations It led to the beginning of agriculture coop and preemployment laboratory PEL programs directedlabs The terminology Supervised Farming became Supervised Occupational 1965 1969 1984 Experience 50E which is now called Supervised Agricultural Experience or 5A E Other aspects of the law placed greater emphasis on persons with such as handicapped or disadvantaged students This dimension of vocational education would be further enhanced by statute in the Vocational Education Amendments of 1968 The NFA and FFA were merged This was a consequence of school integration were officially admitted into the National FFA Organization The National FFA Alumni was established The Carl D Perkins Vocational Education Act is passed by Congress Con text 1988 1990 Con text 17 The Law required that 0o of federal spending for vocational education is designated for special populations ie handicapped individuals disadvantaged individuals adults in need of training and retraining single parents and homemakers elimination of sexbias and stereotyping and criminal offenders in correctional facilities The name Future Farmers of America was changed to the National FFA Organization Congress approved the Vocational and Applied Technology Education Act The law reauthorized and extended the 1984 act through FY 1995 and mandated initiatives to integrate academic and occupational curricula eg the TechPrep 2 2 Education program Congress continued to debate whether funding for careerrelated education should be categorical on a programbyprogram basis or if monies should be provided to States in the form of block grants ie greater State control over where and how 1998 1998 1999 Con text 18 the funds are spent The debate still goes on today Dedication of the new National FFA Center The National FFA Organization ended a 71 year relationship with Kansas City MO as its site for the annual National FFA Convention The National FFA Convention is held in Louisville KY for the first time Nationally 95 of all agricultural departments sponsor an FFA chapter and approximately 75 of all agriculture students are FFA members There are approximately 457000 FFA members nationwide with more than 7000 chapters representing all 50 states District of Columbia Puerto Rico Virgin Islands Guam and Rota Note See the Of cial FFA Manual 2002 2003 for more on the Chronological History of the FFA FFT Food for Thought What will agricultural education in America s high schools look like as the 21st century unfolds What should it look like Why How will this happen Who will do this PLEASE NOTE The material contained in this handout answers to the fillintheblanks and supplemental information provided through lecture are all potential EXAM QUESTIONS Selected References Herren RN 2001 Class notes and selected papers Athens GA The University of Georgia Herring DR 1997 Spring Class notes Agricultural Education 615 College Station TX Texas AampM University National FFA Organization 2002 Retrieved November 7 2002 from httpwwwffaorg National Research Council 1988 Understanding agriculture New directions for education Committee on Agricultural Education in Secondary Schools Board on Agriculture Washington DC National Academy Press Of cial FFA Manual current edition Indianapolis IN National FFA Center National FFA Organization Taylor WN amp Crunkilton JR 1979 A history of the Future Farmers ofAmerica in Virginia Blacksburg VA Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Tenney AW 1977 The FFA at 50 Indianapolis IN National FFA Center National FFA Organization 20 20