MEDIA IN A DIVERSE SOCIETY
MEDIA IN A DIVERSE SOCIETY MC 1143
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ivory Dickens on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MC 1143 at Oklahoma State University taught by Michael Sowell in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see /class/232808/mc-1143-oklahoma-state-university in Mass Media Communication at Oklahoma State University.
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Date Created: 11/01/15
Ch 14 Media Law 1222010 80100 PM The First Amendment 1 An establishment of religion or prohibiting the free exercise thereof 2 Abridging the freedom of speech Government can t infringe on your speech 3 Of the press 4 Or the right of the people peacefully to assemble 5 And to petition the government for a redress of grievances Protected Speech Most to least 1 Political 2 Artistic 3 Commercial 4 Indecent Offensive content with some social value Obscenity offensive content with no social value Personal Rights Defamation communication that injures one s reputation Slander spoken language that defames person s character Libel defamation of character in written or broadcast form Can include internet Defenses Against Libel 1 Truth 2 The Times Rule Public figure must prove actual malice Reckless disregard for the truth Based on New York Times v Sullivan 1964 p413 3 Privilege Allows public officials to speak without fear of being sued for libel Protects judges lawmakers trial witnesses etc 4 Fair Comment Honest opinion or criticism such as a book or movie review Libel Cases Three out of every four dismissed without trial Seven out of ten libel verdicts overturned or reduced on appeal Copyright Entitles authors and producers to their published or unpublished work Can be writing music lyrics movies etc For works after 1978 copyright lasts life of author plus 70 years After copyright ends work enters public domain giving public free access to it FirstSale Doctrine Purchasers of copyrighted work can resell or rent it out Does not protect ideas Fair Use Can copy a work for noncommercial use Trademark Words symbols that identify seller s goods Brand name Trademarked name Capitalize brand names Trade name generic Don t capitalize trade names NewsGathering Rights Sunshine Laws Ensure that public meetings are conducted in open Freedom of Information Act FOIA Federal agencies must have open documents X Open Records Laws Shield Laws Protect reporters from having to reveal sources This serves public interest by providing information citizens might not otherwise receive Censorship Courts define it as prior restraint Means courts government cannot block publication or speech before it occurs Pentagon Papers case xDaniel Ellsberg leaked topsecret Vietnam War report 1971 x NY Times began publishing report x Government sued to stop publication x Supreme Court sided with NY Times Video Questions Who was Ellsberg Former state department official Importance of papers Gave the US idea of what was happening in Vietnam Informed US that the government deliberately expanded its role in war What did they reveal Revealed dismaying degree of miscalculations bureaucratic arrogance and deception America was actually losing the war Importance ofjournalism It changed the public view on Vietnam It sparked a landmark freedom of the press case it changed journalism Can government block publication of story before public sees it N0 WikiLeaksamp The Pentagon Papers Similarities 1 Topsecret reports leaked about government actions drawing into question rationale for distant longrunning war 2 Both portray war in grimmer terms than government would like Differences 1 Pentagon Papers complete report relying on highestlevel documents possible Disclosed official secrets outright lies 2 Afghan documents loosely unrelated many unedited Missing document could shed further light 3 Pentagon Papers revealed a single message 4 Afghan documents don t 5 Nixon attempted to block publication Obama didn t Ch 14 Notes Media Law 1222010 80100 PM John Milton 1644 wrote the pamphlet Areopagitica People needed freedom to think for themselves Seditious Libel Laws Laws established in colonial America that made it illegal to criticize government or its representatives Contempt Willful disobedience of the rules of a court or legislative body Alien and Sedition Acts The part of the US Constitution s Bill of Rights that guarantees freedoms of religion speech press assembly and petition Comstock Act Banned sex education and made it illegal to send out information about birth control and abortion methods Anthony Comstock 1842 Espionage Act of 1917 Upheld the censorship of ideas considered injurious to the war effort Sedition Act of 1918 Made any and all criticism of Woodrow Wilson s administration illegal Clear and Present Danger Doctrine Expression should be punished only when words are used in such circumstances and are of such a nature as to create a clear and present danger that they will bring about the substantive evils that Congress has a right to prevent Egual Opportunity Rule Part of the Communications Act of 1934 If a broadcast station permits one legally qualified candidate for any elective public office to use its facilities it must afford an equal opportunity for all other legally qualified candidates for the same office Fairness Doctrine Provide airtime for the discussion of important public issues and to ensure that all viewpoints on those issues were covered Ownership Limitations Chain broadcasting regulations passed in 1941 Limited the power that networks have over affiliates Limited the number of local stations that a network could own Deregulation Era of strong regulation ended in the 1980 s under the Regan Administration The repeal of government rules and regulations Telecommunications Act of 1996 Removed many of the restrictions on a wide range of communications industries 3part Test 1 The material appealed to the prurient interest in sex 2 Portrayed sexual conduct in a patently offensive way 3 lacked serious literary artistic political or scientific value Free Press Fair Trial Gag Order Judicial command not to speak about trial proceedings Continuance Postponement of a trial Sequestering Isolating members of a jury Change of Venue The movement of a trial to a different location 1222010 80100 PM Ch 12 Notes Working in PR 11112010 82700 PM Practice of Public Relations Growing field since 1970 s oWomen 31 over men Public Relations Society of America world s largest organizations of PR professionals Salary figures from PRSA oStarting salary 26000 oMedian salary 71500 Top skills for an entrylevel position oStrong written verbal communication x Most employers have writing editing tests oEnthusiasm willingness to learn x Follow instructions oPersonality culture fit x Work independently PR for Public Relations oMany PR departments now communications departments x Escape negative stigma of PR oPR has evolved into strategic communication Terminology oPress releases better to use news releases oPublic Service Announcements PSA s x Communityservice announcement x On radio or TV oVideo news releases VNR s x Shots inside a factory indicates it is a VNR Working in PR oTwo types 1 Internal 2 External Research p347 xDemographics characteristics of population by age gender income etc xPsychographics measure of attitudes or values Lobbying p349 x Revolving Doorquot people are coming out of Congress and going straight to lobbying xAstroturf Lobbying political organizations or campaigns that appear to be made up of grassroots activists but actually are organized run by corporate interests Friction between journalists and PR oWhat is the truth Facts can be spun oTrust x 25 of PR pros lied on the job according to a 2000 survey x 39 exaggerated the truth x International PR Association voted on this statement PR has a duty to tell the truth it was rejected PRSA ethics code HE FAIL o Honesty o Expertise o Fairness o Advocacy o Independence o Loyalty PR s Watchdog oPR watch x Toxic Sludge is Good For You Biosolids Historical Development oPress agents x Hype exaggeration dramatic publicity techniques PT Barnum oModern PR agents x Ivy Lee p338 x Edward amp Doris Bernays p339340 Edward Bernays oSigmund Freud s nephew xApplied behavioral sciences to PR oTorches of Freedom x Made smoking fashionable for women x Celebration of suffrage oLucky Strikes x Women wouldn t buy because of green package x Make green fashionable oIvory Soap What research shows oAssociating the action with shame fosters resistance to the message oUndergrads who viewed such PSA s try to prove ads wrong by drinking more oGuiIt only makes audience defensive oUse positive message give tactics to avoid risky situations Ch 12 Notes Working in PR 11112010 82700 PM Early Public Relations Press Agents People who work to generate publicity for a client Hype Dramatic publicity techniques First president to use public relations Andrew Jackson First publicity agency Boston Publicity Bureau Public Relations as a Profession Ivy Lee The father of modern public relations industry and the first public relations advisor Edward and Doris Bernays A former press agent and one of the chairs of the CPI and a wellknown writer First University to offer a course in PR New York University Torches of Freedom campaign for women smoking PRSA Public Relations Society of America PR Activities Research x Define problems x Identify problems x Test concepts x Monitor the progress of campaigns x Evaluate campaign effectiveness Counseling x Advise management in decision making x Suggest policies for internal and external communication x Train personnel to promote a positive corporate image Communication x With internal publics those within organizations including employees and stockholders x With external publics those outside organizations including the community news media customers and legislators PR Strategies News Management x Create and distribute messages to generate favorable publicity x Develop and maintain contact with reporters Community Relations x Maintain good relations with government and community groups x Distribute corporate aid and sponsorship x Make charitable contributions on both local and national levels Crisis Management x Repair a client s public image following an error accident or sabotage x Guide corporate response to an emergency x Rehabilitate public image following a scandal Lobbying x Monitor government activities x Maintain relationships with legislators x Disseminate information to legislators supporting laws favorable to clients x Influence legislator voting though personal contacts Ch 12 Online Quiz 11112010 82700 PM In 1942 President Roosevelt established the Office of War Information The primary activities of PR practitioners includes communication counseling and research A publicity stunt is an example of news management Video News Releases have become controversial because they are frequently used without attribution to their real authorship One definition of spinning in PR is supplanting the PR version of reality over other versions that are less beneficial to the spinner Accreditation encourages PR professionals to conduct their affairs in an ethical manner It is legal for corporations to spend millions of dollars to influence the voting of legislators The term flack is meant to suggest that public relations damages journalism A freebie is a gift given to a journalist in an effort to garner a good review