Intro to Clinical Psychology, 1 week of notes
Intro to Clinical Psychology, 1 week of notes Psych 373
Edinboro University of Pennsylvania
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lisa Montanez on Saturday March 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 373 at Edinboro University of Pennsylvania taught by Dr. LaBine in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 138 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Clinical Psychology in Psychlogy at Edinboro University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 03/26/16
INTRO TO CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY NOTES CHAPTERS 7: BEHAVIOR THERAPY & CHAPTER 8: COGNITIVE-BEHAVIORAL THERPAY CHAPTER 7: BEHAVIOR THERAPY BEHAVIOR THERAPY (EXTERNAL CONTROL THEORY) BASIC CHARACTERISTICS: (1) Based on modern learning theory: Classical conditioning Operant conditioning Social learning theory -Pavlov -Skinner (observational learning) -Watson Antecedents – behaviors -Bandera -> Little Albert and consequences UCS = loud bang (Reinforcement punishments) UCR = fear, crying CS = rat CR = fear of rat (2) Employs techniques derived from scientific research (3) Theory of psychopathology: maladaptive behavior is learned, and can be unlearned or replayed by new learning APPLIED BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS (OPERANT CONDITIONING) PRIMARY TECHNIQUES: (1) To increase adaptive behavior through reinforcement and stimulus control (antecedents) (2) Decrease maladaptive behavior through punishment and extinction Assessment: functional behavioral analysis Antecedents -> Behaviors -> Consequences (negative reinforcements) BIG QUESTIONS: What are the antecedents that trigger the behavior and what are the consequences that maintain the antecedents? STRATEGIES: -Direct Behavioral Observation (Ideal strategy) -Indirect Behavioral Observation (weakest strategy) -Clinical Interview Ex: What are the consequences of smoking? What are your triggers? -Self-monitoring (best strategy) Ex: To quit smoking, have client write why they chose to have a cigarette and have them write what happened. Any consequences? Feelings? -This helps identify antecedents to make them aware -DOWNSIDE: Have to get the client to participate consistently *Reinforce accurate monitoring, good and bad and continue standardized questions (Best depression inventory) How much are they sleeping? Social interactions? How much are they eating? TREATMENT: Contingency Management -> the systematic delivery of reinforcing or punishing consequences contingent upon the performance of the target behavior STEPS: (1) Operationalize the target behavior and identify behavioral objectives a. In bed by 11pm, up by 7am 7 days a week (2) Develop a system for insuring target behavior a. Have phone of b. Write down time morning/night (3) Alter antecedents and consequences to increase the likelihood of desired behavior a. No cafeine after noon b. ½ hr. exercise prior to 7pm c. Electronics of at 10pm *Tokens (stars) -> reinforcers (4) Fading the reinforcements *Don’t want the behaviors to be tied to the reinforcements CONCERN: Positive reinforcement may negatively afect intrinsic motivation = if you reward people for doing something they are inclined to do anyway, you can reduce the intrinsic motivation for the behavior Functional Autonomy -> The reason an adult continues a behavior may not be the same as the reason that originally caused the behavior AVERSIVE CONDITIONING (PUNISHMENT) - Temporarily suppresses behaviors, but it doesn’t eliminate behavior and it doesn’t teach alternative behaviors Antabuse: both classical and operant conditioning Physical punishment with children: 35% of raises where physical punishment is used with children -> to child abuse CLASSICAL CONDITIONING Neobehavioristic, Mediational Stimulus-Response Model SITUATIONAL EXPOSURE (AGORAPHOBIC FEATURES) UCS -> UCR CS -> internal cues (conditioned stimuli) CR -> fear/anxiety Panic attack -> fear External situation INTEROCEPTIVE EXPOSURE (Panic attack) CLASSICAL CONDITIONING CONCEPTS: (dog bite-Chihuahua) (1) Stimulus Generalization: the extension/generalization of the conditioned response to a new stimulus (2) Stimulus Discrimination: when a CR is not elicited by a new stimulus (3) Extinction: the gradual elimination of a CR by repeatedly pressing the CS without the UCS (4) Counter-Conditioning: new associational learning, when a conditioned stimulus (CS) is paired with a unconditioned stimulus (UCS) to produce a new conditioned response (CR) a. Ex: Progressive Muscle Relaxation (UCS) -> Relax (UCR) (5) Spontaneous Recovery: when an old CR returns after have been successfully extinguished or counter-conditioned TREATMENTS: Exposure Techniques: (1) Based on Mower’s 2 factor theory of phobias: a. Fear is classically conditioned to a phobic object b. The fear is maintained through operant conditioning (negative reinforcement for escape or avoidance) THREE BASIC TYPES: (1) Imagery (2) In viro: put the patient in environment of what they fear (3) Virtual reality exposure: more powerful than imagery, more realistic, more efective than in vivo a. Ex: PTSD HOW? (1) Massed: keep patient in the environment until anxiety goes down – stay through panic attacks a. Flooding (2) Gradual (spaced) Interoceptive Exposure: panic; exposes you to the internal sensations ascended with panic Exposure and Response Prevention (OCD) Participate Modeling: providing models of successful coping that are relevant to similar to the client (Therapist Technique) CHAPTER 8: COGNITIVE-BEHAVIORAL THERPAY (1) Aaron Beck -> Father of Cognitive Therapy (2) Albert Ellis -> Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (3) Donald Meichenbaum -> Self-Instructional Strategies Stress Inoculation BASIC CHARACTERISTICS OF COGNITIVE THERAPY: (1) Theory a. Specific life event that trigger automatic, maladaptive thoughts b. The maladaptive thoughts are characterized by faultiness (distortions) c. Maladaptive thoughts are usually derived from maladaptive core beliefs (schemas) d. Core beliefs are usually acquired during childhood e. The automatic thoughts, core beliefs and emotional disturbances can be modified though cognitive therapy (2) Therapy a. Requires therapeutic alliance b. Emphasize collaboration and active participation Primary Technique: Collaborative empiricism - Helping the client determine the accuracy and usefulness of the belief o What’s the evidence (in support of your belief?) *NOT ABOUT POSITIVE THINKING *THE GOAL IS TO GET PATIENT’S THINKING RATIONALLY - Therapy is goal-directed and problem-focused - Sessions are structured o Brief update and check on mood o Bridge from the previous session o Setting the agenda o Review of homework o Discussion of ideal on the agenda o Final summary and feedback o Usually present – focused o Educative -> teach the client to be their own therapist
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