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by: Shaun Kshlerin


Shaun Kshlerin
OK State
GPA 3.59

Johnnie Kropp

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Johnnie Kropp
Class Notes
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shaun Kshlerin on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANSI 3653 at Oklahoma State University taught by Johnnie Kropp in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see /class/232815/ansi-3653-oklahoma-state-university in Animal Science at Oklahoma State University.




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Date Created: 11/01/15
Animal Nutrition Exam 2 Beef Cow Nutrition Forage Quality CP CF BW Excellent gt13 2029 25 Medium 712 3039 20 Poor lt6 gt40 15 Forages become less digestible as they grow The more developed the plant the lower the digestibility Crude fiber and crude protein content the higher the CF the lower the digestibility Immature plants have less developed cell walls Nutrient intake can be estimated by lab testing forages or by book values Forage intake is estimated by the maturity and nutrient content and by the forage guideline table Optimum body condition is 6 At body condition 3 a cow will not cycle A cow must gainloose 100 lbs to change one body score Post partum interval Days from calving to first observed estrus BCS 6 3045 days BCS 4 60120 days Production Periods 1 Late Gestation 2 Early Lactation 3 BreedingWeaning 4 MidGestation Late gestation and early lactation are critical production periods because there is poor forage and a high nutrient requirement High plant protein feeds 3040 CP Composed of primarily soybean meal cottonseed meal sunflower meal The nitrogen requirement of ruminal MCOs is satisfied so MCO numbers increase so digestibility increases and intake increases positive associative effect High energy Low protein feeds 20 CP Composed primarily of cereal grains corn milo wheat Introduction of significant starch into the rumen decreases ruminal pH thus decreasing MCOs Negative associative effect High energy Low protein feeds 20 CP Composed primarily of byproduct feeds wheat midds soy hulls etc Since byproduct feeds are digestible fiber feeding this supplement will increase energy intake without introduction of significant quantities of starch Digestibility and intake are not affected NonProtein nitrogen feed 2030 CP Composed primarily of molasses and NPN urea NPN is rapidly hydrolyzed in the rumen Available carbon chains are limited due to poor digestibility of weathered mature forage Poor utilization of fed nitrogen To determine if there is an Energy or Protein is a concern forage availability and body condition must be assessed If forage is adequate and the cows are thin then ENERGY must be supplemented with high energy low protein forage The supplement selection should be based on cost of TDN If forage availability is limited then ENERGY must be substituted with harvested forages PROTEIN is the primary concern if there is adequate forage and the cows are in acceptable condition 3040 CP supplements lead to a positive associative effect Supplement selection should be based on price per lb ofCP NPN supplements for cows on weathered mature grass are well utilized because the ruminal MCOs have a ready source of CHOs Measuring of usable NPN and CP CP NPN CP from natural sources NPN x 50 utilization CP from NPN Natural CP CP from NPN Total CP value Mineral Supplements Ca Phos Salt Wheat 8425 Native grass 16830 Bermuda grass 121212 0 Copper Sulfate Inorganic 70 absorption Copper Oxide Inorganic 20 absorption Copper Lysine Complex 100 absorption 0 Organic trace mineral deficiency Depigmentation of hair Limited estrus activity Recurrence of estrus 3555 days after apparent conception Calf deaths at 7 10 days old with no reason 0 Trace mineral deficiency can be tested by a liver biopsy 0 Low liver copper levels Mature cow s normal level is gt4060 ppm Young calf s normal level is gt 300 ppm 0 Vitamin A deficiency is a problem with fall calves and first calving females grazing on dormant forages Calves may have watery eyes that can become blindness cows have no symptoms Supplements and shots may be used Immature and mature forages still have their vit A Critical Body Temperature is 30 with dry coat and 50 if coat is wet Find the temperature change from critical temp to wind chill temp 1 TDN is added for a dry coat and 2 for a wet coat Calf Nutrition 0 Critical colostrum is the most important requirement of a newborn calf 0 Insufficient energy and protein consumption by late gestating females result in low colostrum levels which can lead to calf scours and death o Colostrum provides antibodies to calf The calf s ability to absorb antibodies greatly decreases after 6 hours After 12 hours after birth absorption is at 50 and by 24 hours is 0 o Calf scours Diarrhea which causes dehydration and loss of electrolytes Symptoms Bright orange scour Depression Sunken eyes Inability to stand Acidosis Death 0 Growth Implants for the cowcalf operation Ralgro SynovexC and Calfoid cost 80 100 a dose plus labor and increase weaning weight by 25 lbs The increase income per cow by 3125 Ralgro can be used on replacement heifers gt30 days old and SynovexC and Calfoid can be used at gt45 days old 0 Replacement heifers are typically not implanted because there is no profit from the added gain 0 Bull calves should not be implanted because the implants will sterilize them 0 Creep feeding is supplying supplemental feed to a calf and not allowing its dam access to the feed 0 Spring calving creep ncreases weaning weight by 4070 lbs Uses 1530 lbs of feed per lb of gain 0 Fall calving creep ncreases weaning weight by 5080 lbs Uses 510 lbs of feed per lb of gain 0 Creep feeding has no affect on milk intake by the calf o Preweaning heifers should not be feed creep because they may put on too much weight which causes fat to deposit in the udder which can decrease future potential milk production Heifer Development 0 Factors that affect age at first estrus Weight 65 mature weight Age 812 mo Breed 0 Having heifers gain weight slowly for an extended period of time then quickly for a short period of time before breeding will increase conception decrease age at puberty and decrease lbs of feed per lb of gain 0 Cool season forages are good to use for springcalving replacement heifers because they will have high nutrient content compared to forages that are weathered and mature o Cows should have a BCS of 665 at calving Bull Nutrition 0 Fleshy bulls that have been on high concentrate diets must slowly be fed a diet that decreases by 10 then 20 etc Forage must be available and will slowly replace concentrate Stocker N utrition 0 Small framed calves should graze cool season forages to sustain daily gains gt15 lbs Small cattle have limited intake and immature forage has high digestibility 0 Large framed calves should graze warm season forages to sustain daily gains gt15 lbs Large cattle can consume large quantities of forage to meet their nutrient values 0 Calves weaned in the fall should eat cool season forages calves weaned in the spring should eat warm season forages Receiving Nutrition 0 Producers offer entering calves good quality hay and protein pellets because the calves recognize the forage and it will promote dry matter intake and ruminal cellulose digesting MCOs o Alfalfa should not be fed in a receiving ration because it may cause bloat Feedyard Nutrition 0 Physiological maturity is the point where a steer is ready for harvest it has 5 inches of fat at the 12 h rib o The larger the steer the longer it will take to reach physiological maturity o Feedlots use a series of four rations to slowly change the ruminal MCOs from primarily cellulose digestion to starch digestion o Ration 1 Ration 2 Ration 3 Ration 4 NEg 47 52 57 62 CP 1315 13145 1314 1314 0 Corn silage is used for roughage but is only 50 Roughage the other 50 is Concentrate o Steaming rolling fermenting and flaking are ways to process cereal grains 0 Silages and molasses are used in rations to bind particles 0 Urea can only be used in finishing ration 4 and be no more than 30 of the total nitrogen and 515 of the total ration 0 Calcium is supplemented by limestone 0 Phosphorus is supplemented by dicalcium phosphate 0 Potassium is supplemented by potassium chloride 0 Vitamin Adose is 1500 IU perlb of DM 0 Vitamin E dose is 25 IU per lb of DM for the last 100 days 0 Vitamin D dose is 100000 IU per lb of DM for the last 6 days 0 onophores Rumensin 80 and Bovatec 68 dose is 250 mg per head per day for growth in rations 2 3 and 4 o Antibiotics Tylan 40 and Aureomycin 50 dose is 10 mg per 100 lbs live weight and are used in all rations o MGAs 200 dry or 500 liquid dose is 5 mg per head per day and suppresses heat in females o In llRumensin 80quot the 80 stands for the grams of the active ingredient present in one lb 0 Blood propionic acid levels control the amt of voluntary concentrate intake


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