New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here


by: Dell Boehm DVM


Dell Boehm DVM
OK State
GPA 3.84

Thomas Wikle

Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Thomas Wikle
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Course

Popular in Geography

This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dell Boehm DVM on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 1114 at Oklahoma State University taught by Thomas Wikle in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see /class/232817/geog-1114-oklahoma-state-university in Geography at Oklahoma State University.




Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 11/01/15
Geography Lab Final Investigation 6 Vegetation Geography 0 Explain the concept of the holocenotic environment 0 Geographic distributions of plants are dependent on many interrelated factors acting in combination 0 Identify and discuss the 2 major vegetation types that occur in Oklahoma 0 Midlatitude Forest mostlv 39 39 39 39 characterized by a fairly dense growth of tall broadleaftrees with interwoven branches that provide a complete canopy in the summer I Smaller trees and shrubs exist at lower levels but for the most part the forest floor is relatively barren undergrowth I Has the richest assemblage of fauna to be found in the midlatitudes as well as a considerable variety of birds and mammals o Midlatitude Grassland general response either to a lack of precipitation sufficient to support larger plant forms or to the frequency of fires both natural and human induced that prevent the growth oftree or shrub seedlings I Wetter areas grasses grow tall and the term prairie is often applied I Drier areas the grasses are shorter and are often referred to as steppe o Interpret vegetation history for a site 0 Vegetative subsystem is subject to change because of energy and moisture variations 0 New species may invade an area disease may lessen the number of individuals of a species or humans may substantially alter plant distributions 0 Be able to calculate and interpret a water budget when provided data 0 Incorporated with potential evapotranspiration 0 Used as understanding natural plant communities and guidance for irrigation o A water budget has the following components I Precipitation PPT I Potential evapotranspiration PET I Deficit D PPT PET difference in SOIL I Surplus S I Soil Storage SOIL Previous SOIL PPT PET I PPT PET D S difference in SOIL 0 Define all boldfaced terms 0 Vegetation dynamics by studying the sizes of individual members of species in an acre ofa forest able to hypothesize much about the past history and likely future of the area 0 DBH categories diameter at breast height based on the species diameters at a standard height above the ground 0 Cohorts relative numbers of species by size classes I Successful reproducers have smaller trees with progressively smaller numbers oftrees in larger older cohorts I Relict species few individuals in the smaller size classes with great numbers in the largest cohorts lots oftrees in larger sizes I Recent invaders lots oftrees in smaller sizes 0 Biomass dry weight of the organic material associated with greenness of an area 0 Evapotranspiration amount of water evaporated from surfaces and transpired through plants leaving Earth s surface and is reckoned in millimeters of inches 0 Soil moisture used by plants instead of direct precipitation to keep alive 0 Soil moisture recharge when precipitation is greater than potential evapotranspiration and the soil moisture is not to capacity moisture will be added to the soil Investigation 7 Soils Geography 0 Understand the soil sieving procedure 0 Hydrometer device that measures texture by observation of the rate offall of a soil particle through a liquid 0 MProcedure in lab book 0 Determine a soil39s texture using the texture triangle 0 Texture refers to the percentages of sand silt and clay present in a soil s fine particle fraction I Sand rough coarse feeling soil I Clay soft sticky soil 0 Fine particle fraction is composed of pieces smaller than 2 mm in diameter I Sand 05 20 I Silt 002 05 I Clay 002 and less 0 Discuss the 5 soil forming factors textbook pg 326328 0 Inorganic Materials small but macroscopic particles 0 Organic Matter living organisms some is dead but decomposed plant parts and animal carcasses some is totally decomposed and so has become humus and some is in an intermediate stage of decomposition 0 Soil Air half the volume of an average soil is made up of pore spaces called interstices that let air and water penetrate into the soil 0 Soil Water water comes into the soil by percolation of rainfall and snowmelt but some is pulled above the water table by capillary o Gravitational Water temporary in that it results from prolonged infiltration from above and is pulled downward by gravity through the interstices toward the groundwater zone 0 Use the materials in a NRCS county soil survey 0 Slight the soil feature not important for a particular use 0 Moderate the soil feature has some limitations that can be overcome or corrected 0 Severe the soil feature has serious limitations that are impossible or costly to overcome 0 Define all boldfaced terms 0 Sediment small loose inorganic or organic material that can be carried from the soil in suspension by water or wind Finefraction components sieving and sorting by particle size sand silt clay Soil series species of soils that has measured properties 00 Investigation 8 Streams and Runoff 0 Find the direction of stream flow on a map 0 If you know the height of each contour line on the map it is readily apparent which is the downhill direction because water flows downhill o On small streams the pattern of crenulations quotVs made in contour lines always point in the upstream direction 0 Tributary streams almost always join the main stream pointing in the downstream direction 0 Explain how a map measurer works 0 Analog device which measures distances and areas on a map 0 Measure the length of straight or curved lines on the map and convert them to distance using scale 0 Understand how runoff coefficients are used to figure runoff 0 Values refer to the fraction of total rain which will run off the ground surface during a typical precipitation event 0 Ex rainfall coefficient of 25 means that of the rain has run off I Completely impervious surface such as concrete or asphalt have a coefficient of 10 while a loose sand surface would have a coefficient of 00 in most rainstorms 0 Understand the effects of urbanization on runoff 0 Higher runoff coefficients that prevent runoff meaning moisture isn t absorbed into the ground 0 Explain the workings of the stream features you saw in the stream table 0 Knickpoint retreat channel profiles the migrate upstream as a result of undercutting and eventually disappearing I Rapids and waterfalls o Streams as boundaries streams meander and erode the outsides of their bends and deposit sediment in the insides of the bends o Braided streams and deltas develops when the sediment load is much to great for the stream to move all at once 0 Define all boldfaced terms 0 Permeability rate of water infiltration into the ground Investigation 9 Stream Stages and Floods 0 Understand the meaning of hydrograph data 0 Hydrograph chart that shows the change of discharge of time o Streams where the draingage area is forested a precipitation event will produce a relatively slow increase to peak discharge and than a relatively slow decrease 0 Some streams are flashy and quickly respond to rainfall because of the topography oftheir drainage basins o Urbanized streams where the drainage basin has become urbanized by being paved over with roofs roads and parking lots the peak discharge comes sooner is greater and recedes faster 0 Plot data on a semilogrithmic graph 0 Semilogrithmic graph have the advantage of portraying relationships over several orders of magnitude 0 One axis of the graph has a quotregularquot arithmetic scale while the other is based on natural logarithms I Axis for the river s stage arithmetic I Axis for discharge is logarithmic 0 Calculate a stream39s gradient and discharge 0 Stream discharge QVxA I V Velocity I Q Discharge I A cross sectional area through the stream in square meters 0 Calculate a recurrence interval 0 RI N1M I RI recurrence interval in years I N number of years or record on the stream I M rank of the particular peak discharge in the context of all years of record 0 Define all boldfaced terms 0 Stage height ofthe water above an arbitrary elevation datum sometimes he bed of the stream 0 Bestfit curve also known as the ratings curve connects as many plots as possible along a curve 0 Floodplain zoning traditionally prevented houses and business from locating in the floodplains Investigation 10 Aerial Photograph and Remote Sensing 0 Explain how a stereoscope works 0 Device used for viewing aerial photographs 0 Provides some magnification but its real value is that it orients your eyes so as to create a 3 dimensioanl effect 0 Explain why a stereopair makes a quot3Dquot effect 0 Based on overlapping photographs 0 The two overlapping photos have the same scene centers each feature is viewed from two perspectives o Topographic position on the landscape is readily seen high areas can be distinguished from low areas 0 Volumes of topographic features are made obvious o Vegetative covering is more easily identified with the sense of depth Calculate scale on an aerial photo 0 Find section line roads a mile apart and measure the distance on the aerial photograph 0 Ex 2 inches apart I 2 inches photo distance to 62 500 inches actual distance I Divide by 2 to get the fraction of 131250 Recognize and explain the origins of the physical features you worked with on the aerial photos Recognize the other types of remote sensing images and the strengths of use of each type Geography Lab Midterm Investigation 1 Place The Earth Grid and Time 0 Be able to place any of the locations in Table 11 on a map listed below are the only the ones that I don39t know 0 00000 O Mariana Trench 0 Huang He Yellow River Gobi 0 Cape Horn Andes Mountains 0 Cape of Good Hope Mt McKinley Denali o Sahara Caspian Sea 0 Mt Everest Tibetan Plateau o Atacama Desert Himalaya Mountains 0 Understand the basic concepts of the geographic grid latitude and longitude and the location of continents with respect to latitude and longitude coordinates O O Latitude all important in the amounts and seasonality of energy received from the sun consequently it is closely tied to weather climate soils and living organisms I Parallel lines Longitude tied to the rotation ofthe earth on its axis and so has to do with physical time I Meridian lines Location of a point on the earth s surface is made with reference to a mutually perpendicular set of lines the Prime Meridian longitude and the Equator latitude 0 Use longitude of a time zone s central meridian to determine time at a particular location 0 24 standard time zones with each zone covering 15 degrees of longitude 0 Convert locations in degrees minutes seconds DMS to decimal system DD and DD to DMS 0 DD Degrees minutes60 seconds3600 39 EX 45 303900quot 453060003600 0 455000 39 EX 202514 0 2514 X 60 15084 0 0840 X 60 5040 0 20 153905quot Investigation 2 Topographic Maps and Location 0 Define Scale 0 O Refers to the relationship between distance on the earth and distance on a map Large scale map the displays a small area in great detail the larger the area covered the smaller the object represented on the map 0 Small scale map that displays a large area with less detail the smaller the area covered the larger the objected represented on the map Understand 3 types of scale found on maps 0 Verbal scale quotone inch represents one mile 0 Representative fraction quot124000quot I Units can be expressed in any units of distance 0 Graphic bar scale tells the map user that the distance shown between the outside bars on the paper is representative of x miles on the Earth Set up and work a scale problem 0 Ex 25cm map80km Earth 1 cm mapx km Earth I X 32 km I 32km x 100000cmkm 3200000 cm 0 Define terms related to topographic maps and mapping 0 Topographic map allows a three dimensional conceptualization diagram ofa portion of Earth s surface 0 Topo maps Quadrangles illustrate the relief of the Earth s surface its water features hydrology and important cultural features such as roads buildings and rail lines 0 Draw an isarithmic contour map if presented with the proper data 0 soines lines that connect points having equal values can be subdivided into two categories I Isarithm line that connects points of equal value for actual or derived data that can exist at a point help show geographic patterns in the physical environment I Isobars connect points having the same barometric pressure 0 Benchmark indicates the exact elevation for the point that has been surveyed 0 Know how to use the US Land Office Survey System Township and Range 0 Townships are located and surveyed from an initial point from a principal meridian and baseline intersection 0 Range lines West to East 0 Township lines North to South 0 Township consists of 36 square miles each township consists of 36 square miles is subdivided into 1 square mile sections of 640 acres I Each section of 1 square miles is divided into quarter sections of 160 acres 0 Read and interpret topographic maps to extract information such as elevation contour interval scale latitude and longitude etc Investigation 3 Global Positioning Systems GPS 0 Understand the basics and principles of the GPS 0 System made up of space control and user components I Space component is made up ofa network of 24 satellites 21 of which are operational with three in reverse o Orbit the earth at altitude of about 10900 nautical miles I Control component is made up offive stations around the world that keep track ofthe satellites and can make clock and orbital corrections for each satellite I User component includes an antenna and receiver that can provide positioning velocity and precise timing measurements to a user located on Earth s surface or in the air 0 Use distance and angle to four ofthe GPS satellites to perform trilateration and provide the receivers position in three dimensional space 0 Understand GPS functions such as you used them outside 0 Weather and buildings multipath errors 0 Waypoints latitude and longitude coordinates that allow the user to navigate to those points Investigation 4 Atmospheric Moisture 0 Define terms related to atmospheric moisture o Humidity refers to water vapor in the atmosphere 0 Mixing Ratio one measure of the actual amount of moisture present in vapor form 0 Saturation Mixing Ration mass of water vapor that could possibly be held in the air at a particular temperature measure of what could be there rather than what is actually there 0 Lapse rate rate of temperature change with height 0 Environmental lapse rate an individual measurement of temperature change with height when only the temperature measuring device air is moving vertically o Unstable occurs when adiabatic temperature is warmer than the environment 0 Stable occurs when the adiabatic temperature is cooler than the environment 0 Use the formula to derive relative humidity 0 Relative Humidity Mixing ratio saturation mixing ratio x 100 0 When the air is holding all of the moisture it can hold it has a relative humidity of 100 and is said to be saturated 0 When relative humidity is 100 it has reached the dewpoint temperature 0 When the is air is cooled below the dewpoint water vapor condenses out of vapor form I Condensation and precipitation don t mean the same thing water can condense in an air mass without precipitation taking place 0 Puffy white clouds on a sunny day are visible evidence of ongoing condensation without precipitation 0 Understand how humidity is measured with the sling psychrometer o Equipped with a wet and dry thermometer the sling psychomotor is slung around for 30 seconds or until the temperature drop ceases on the wet bulb thermometer 0 Wet Bulb Depression difference between the wet and dry bulb thermometers o The wet bulb cloth is dampened in air temperature due to change of sensible heat to latent heat via the process of evaporation I Sensible heat is the energy measured with a thermometer I Latent heat is contained in the water vapor molecules but is not measureable with a thermometer o If the air around the wet bulb thermometer is relatively dry low humidity then the cloth will lose moisture faster creating a larger wet bulb depression 0 Use knowledge of lapse rates to calculate the temperature and moisture conditions at various altitudes 0 Never use moist air lapse rates when going downhill 0 Average normal lapse rate decrease of 65 Ckm of ascent o Adiabatic lapse rate those that refer to changes in temperature in vertically moving air 0 Dry adiabatic lapse rate refers to the change in temperature in moving air which is not undergoing condensation 10 Ckm of descent o Moist adiabatic lapse rate used to compute temperature in air that is forced to rise but in which condensation is taking place varies from 5 Ckm to 10 Ckm Investigation 5 Weather and Climate o Interpret and create a weather station model o In lab manual 0 Read and understand 500mb and surface weather maps 0 500 mb Height Contour Maps show the elevation of 500 millibar pressure surface in contour lines labeled in decameters I Ex height contour labeled 564 represents a 500 mb height of 5640 meters I Maps show the general speed and direction of middle troposphere winds as obtained from balloon soundings I Where the contour lines are close together the winds are fast I 500mb elevations generally decrease with increased latitude due to cooler temperatures I Isotherms are drawn in increments of 10 C and temperatures are below 0 year round 0 Surface weather in the middle latitudes is largely created and moves because of upper air patterns I Fronts zone of discontinuity between unlike air masses 0 On either side of the front the weather conditions can be quite dissimilar I Cyclones and anticyclones are large important features on middle latitude maps 0 Cyclones centers of low pressure associated with rising air and precipitation o Anticyclones high pressure centers associated with sinking air and bright dry weather 0 Classify climate data into a Koppen type when provided Tables from the Lab Manual o In ab manual


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Allison Fischer University of Alabama

"I signed up to be an Elite Notetaker with 2 of my sorority sisters this semester. We just posted our notes weekly and were each making over $600 per month. I LOVE StudySoup!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.