PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY GEOG 1114
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dell Boehm DVM on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 1114 at Oklahoma State University taught by Sam Hardwidge Hiett in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see /class/232822/geog-1114-oklahoma-state-university in Geography at Oklahoma State University.
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Date Created: 11/01/15
GEOG 1114 Sam HardwidgeHiett Fal ZQDQ T Th 0900 1Q15 T Th 1Q30 1145 Chapter 13 Landform study The structure of the Earth Knowledge of the interior ofthe Earth is from indirect sources Deepest samples are from eight miles deep 4000 miles total 0 Primary tool of research is studying the transmission of earthquake waves The structure of the Earth Crust 1 849 km 525 mi Earthquake waves and Earth s interior w ur ww T ILquot The structure of the Earth 0 The Earth has four regions The Crust The Mantle The Outer core The Inner core The structure of the Earth Crust the outermost solid layer of Earth consisting of a broad mix of rock types On average continental crust is about three times as thick under continents as under oceans Makes up less than 1 of Earth s volume Mohorovicic Discontinuity Moho the boundary between Earth s crust and mantle The structure of the Earth Mantle the portion of Earth between the crust and surrounding the outer core depth of 1800 miles Largest volume of all the layers 84 of Earth 23 of Earth s mass Lithosphere the uppermost zone of the mantle and the crust together Asthenosphere plastic layer of the upper mantle that underlies the lithosphere very hot rock 9 easily deformed Dlibllcl Maw Eanh l surlaM mllus 3 8 Dmanu wow Eanh39 wrvacl Himmler umowmn Mantle Structure of the Earth Outer Core the molten liquid shell beneath the mantle that encloses Earth s inner core Responsible for generating Earth s magnetic field Inner Core the supposedly solid dense innermost portion of Earth Consists largely of ironnickel and ironsilicate Plate tectonics Continental Drift An initial theory that proposed the present continents where originally connected and have drifted apart over the last several million years Major flaw was no mechanism was provided for drifting Plate Tectonics A theory of massive crustal rearrangement based on lithospheric plates movement Crucially PT provided a mechanism for the movement of the continents The composition of the Earth 0 The earth is comprised of around 100 elements which in turn join together to form compounds which are the building blocks of rocks which in turn are the building blocks of the landscape Minerals To be a mineral you must be all of the following Be solid Be inorganic Be naturally found in nature Have a specific chemical composition Contain atoms in a regular pattern There are seven categories of minerals Silicates Oxides Sulphides Sulphates Carbonates Halides Native elements Rocks at the surface erosion Rocks 0 There are three main rock classes Igneous volcanic Sedimentary sediments Metamorphic heat and pressure Rock transformation Three rock types Volcanic Extrusive Metamorphic Igneous rocks Formed from volcanic activity Two main types Intrusive within the Earth Extrusive surface rocks Molten rock under the earth is called magma Molten rock at the surface is called lava Volcanic glass is formed from extremely rapid cooling Igneous rocks Igneous Voicanic Extrusive Sedimentary rocks Formed through the mechanical and chemical disintegration of rocks Fragments are transported and deposited as sediments eventually forming a new rock Classified into two categories Clastic sedimentary rocks Chemicalorganic sedimentary rocks Sedimentary rock formation Formed in two ways compaction and cementation 5 0 V y39 I as 4 mags J l Cementation Compaction Sedimentary rocks Sedimentary Metamorphic rock 0 Transformation of sedimentary or igneous rocks that have been radically changed by heat and pressure Two types of metamorphic rock formation Contact Regional Metamorphic rocks The rock cycle I Solar energy Weatherln erosi n deposition Intruslve quoteons 9 ISracks Mewo Metamorphic racks Heat pressure Continental and Ocean floor rocks Continental crust is composed of Granite Oceanic crust is composed of Basalt Granite is lighter than Basalt and will therefore float on top ofthe heavier material lsostasy Crust will sink when material is added to it 0 Crust will rebound when material is removed from its surface Studying landforms An individual topographic feature is called a landform The study of the characteristics origin and development of landforms is called geomorphology There are four basic elements in any landform study Structure Process Slope Drainage Studying landforms Structure the nature orientation and arrangement of the materials within a particular feature Slope the fundamental aspect of shape for any landform Process the actions that have combined to produce a particular landform such as geological hydrological atmospheric and biotic Drainage movement of water snowmelt rainfall within and over a particular feature Uniformitarianism Processes that are occurring currently are the same as those that have occurred in the past 0 This is the key idea in understanding topographic development and internal and external processes External and Internal processes
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