WETLAND,FOR,RANGE SOIL SOIL 4563
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kelvin Flatley on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOIL 4563 at Oklahoma State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see /class/232866/soil-4563-oklahoma-state-university in Soil Science at Oklahoma State University.
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Date Created: 11/01/15
Wetland Delineation Jamie Patton ACOE Wetland Criteria 39 Wetland determinations are determined by Vegetation Soil Hydrology 39 Unless an area has been altered or is a rare natural situation need one positive wetland indicator from each parameter Vegetation Indicators 39 Hydrophytic Vegetation Approximately 5000 plant types Regional lists compiled by USFWS Commonly cattails burushes cordgrass sphagnum moss bald cypress willows mangroves sedges rushes arrowheads and water plantains Other indicators include trees having shallow root systems or roots found growing from the plant stem or trunk above the soil surface Hydrologic Indicators 39 Presence of water at or above the soil surface for a suf cient period of the year to signi cantly in uence the plant types and soils that occur in the area 39 Most reliable evidence provided by gaging station or groundwater well data Hydric Soils A hydric soil is a soil that formed under conditions of saturation ooding or ponding long enough during the growing season to develop anaerobic conditions in the upper part 59 Fed Reg 35680 71394 Hydric Soil Criteria 2000 All Histels except Folistels and all Histosols except Folists or Soils in Aquic suborders great groups or subgroups Albolls suborder Historthels great group Histoturbels great group Pachic subgroups or Cumulic subgroups that are somewhat poorly drained with a water table equal to 00 foot ft from the surface during the growing season or poorly drained or very poorly drained and have either water table equal to 00 ft during the growing season if textures are coarse sand sand or ne sand in all layers within 20 inches in or for other soils or water table at less than or equal to 05 ft from the surface during the growing season if permeability is equal to or greaterthan 60 inhour h in all layers within 20 in or water table at less than or equal to 10 ft from the surface during the growing season if permeability is less than 60 inh in any layer within 20 in or Soils that are frequently ponded for long or very long duration during the growing seasonor Soils that are frequently ooded for long or very long duration during the growing season FIELD INDICATORS OF HYDRIC SOILS IN THE UNITED STATES VERSION 40 MARCH 1998 by United States Department ongriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service Wetland Science Institute and Soil Survey Division in cooperation with National Technical Committee for Hydric Soils httpwwwstatlabiastateedusoilshydric eldind eldindhtml Field Indicators 39 are regionalized are based upon soil genetic processes use hydromorphic features will require further development testing and validation 2000 Field Indicators nclude Low Chroma Colors Mottles Gleyed Colors High Organic Matter Content Organic Streaking Histosol Histic epipedon Sulfidic Material If a soil meets one indicator it s hydricl Regional Lists by Land Resource Region Addresses Problem Soils Mollisols and Vertisols Dark Colors Hide Redox Sandy Soils Hydric soil indicators must be in top 6 inches of soil rather than top 12 for other textures Lack of gray color development Red Parent Materials Abundant iron masks gray redox features Hydric Soil Processes Reduction translocation and precipitation of Iron and Manganese Accumulation and differential translocation of Organic Matter Reduction of Sulfur Vocabulary Anaerobic A condition in which molecular oxygen is virtually absent from the soil Artificial Drainage The use of human efforts and devices to remove free water from the soil surface or from the ground or the use of human efforts and devices to prevent surface or ground water from reaching the soil The presence ofarti cial drainage does not alter the hydric status of a soil Depleted Matrix Refers to a soil horizon or subhorizon from which iron has been removed or transformed by processes of reduction and translocation to create colors of low chroma and high value A E Calcic Matrix may change color upon exposure to air reduced matrix Matrix value 5 or more and chroma 1 or less Matrix value 6 or more and chroma 2 or less Matrix value 4 or 5 and chroma 2 and has 2 percent or more distinct or prominent redox concentrations as soft masses andor pore linings or Matrix value 4 and chroma 1 and has 2 percent or more distinct or prominent redox concentrations as soft masses andor pore linings 39 Gleyed Matrix Soils with a gleyed matrix have the following combinations of hue value and chroma and the soils are not glauconitic 10Y 5GY 10GY10G5BG1OBG5B1OBor 5PB with value 4 or more and chroma is 1 or 5G with value 4 or more and chroma is 1 or 2 or N with value 4 or more or for testing only 5Y value 4 and chroma 1 In some places the gleyed matrix may change color upon exposure to air reduced matrix 39 Histic Epipedon A thick 2060 cm 824 in organic soil horizon that is saturated with water at some period ofthe year unless arti cially drained and that is at or near the surface ofa mineral soil 39 Histosols Organic soils that have organic soil materials in more than half of the upper 80 cm 32 in 39 Muck A sapric organic soil material in which virtually all ofthe organic material is decomposed not allowing for identi cation of plant forms Bulk density is normally 02 or more Mucky Peat A hemic organic material with decomposition intermediate between that of bric and sapric organic material Bulk density is normally between 01 and 02 gcm3 Redox Concentrations Bodies of apparent accumulation of FeMn oxides Redox concentrations include soft masses pore linings nodules and concretions Redox Depletions Bodies of low chroma 2 or less having value 4 or more where FeMn oxides have been stripped or where both FeMn oxides and clay have been stripped Redoximorphic Features Features formed by the processes of reduction translocation andor oxidation of Fe and Mn oxides Formerly called mottles and low chroma colors Reduced Matrix Soil matrices that have low chroma and high value but whose color changes in hue or chroma when exposed to air Soils have high value low chroma in situ but color changes when exposed to air 7 reduced Fe is present 7 Fe2 is oxidized to Fe3 upon exposure a a Dipyridyl A dye used to test for the presence of reduced Fe 7 pink reaction to Fe2 7 dye sensitive to light and heat 7 apply to freshly broken open soil ped Types of Redoximorphic Features Redox Concentrations Masses Pore Linings Nodules and Concretions Redox Depletions Depleted Matrix Reduced Matrix Redox Concentrations Bodies of apparent accumulation of FeMn oxides Masses Pore Linings ped faces root channels Nodules and Concretions Soft Masses Soft bodies frequently in the soil matrix variable shape can usually be removed from the soil intact Pore Linings 39 Zones of accumulation coatings on a pore surface impregnation39s ofthe matrix adjacent to the pore Nodules and Concretions 39 Firm to extremely rm bodies often reict should be irregular shape Redox Depletions 39 Bodies of low chroma where FeMn oxides have been stripped out generally value 2 4 chroma s 2 formerly called gray mottles Depleted Matrix Dominant color of the soil is gray 1 Cl Iml im Plahts 6 l What Makes a Plant a Hydrophyte 0 It is capable of growing in soils with high Morphological Structural modi cations provide increased buoyancy or support 0 Buttressed tree trunks Tree species develop enlarged trunks Nontropical forested areas 0 Pneumatophores modi ed roots serve as respiratory organs Cypress knees Morphological Adventitious roots occur on plant stems in positions Where roots normally are not found Not all adventitious roots develop as a result of inundation or soil saturation Shallow root systems Plants with in ated leaves stems or roots spongy aerenchymous tissues in leaves stems andor roots They provide buoyancy or support and serve as a reservoir or passageway for oxygen Morphological Polymorphic leaves Plants with different leaf shapes on different portions of the plant Floating leaves leaves uniquely adapted for oating on a water surface strongly indicative of hydrophytic vegetation Floating stems large internal air spaces when occurring in inundated areas Hypertrophied lenticels produce enlarged lenticels to increase oxygen uptake through the stem Morphological Multitrunks or stooling produce several trunks of different ages 0 Oxygen pathway to roots specialized cellular arrangement that facilitates diffusion of gaseous oxygen from leaves and stems to the root system Physiological Malate accumulation Ethanol is a toxic by product of anaerobic respiration these plants concentrate malate instead Increased nitrate reductase level Nitrate reductase needed in ammonium ions formation for amino acid formation Increases in metabolic rates Short duration increases in metabolism Physiological Rhizosphere oxidation Low oxygen requirements lt 10 for extended durations 0 No alcohol dehydrogenase ADH activity ethanol production Reproductive Prolonged seed Viability gt20 years Exposure to atmospheric oxygen stimulates germination Seed germination when subjected to low oxygen concentrations Allows for germination during inundated periods Floodtolerant seedlings Characteristics of Wetland Types Characteristics of Wetland Types Based on 0 Hydrogeornorphie features geomorphie River Depression Fringe Slope Flat Characteristics of Wetland Types Based on 0 Hydrogeornorphic features Hydrogenesis Precipitation Overland ow Groundwater Characteristics of Wetland Types Based on 0 Hydrogeornorphic features hydrodynamic Vertical Horizontal unidirectional Horizontal bidirectional 45 classes of HGM features Characteristics of Wetland Types 0 Based on Vegetation Swamps trees Marshes grasses Bogs shrubs moss Marshes fens lacustrine potholes wet prairie wet meadow Origin Glacial scouring in moraines prairies rising sea level marshes fens sedimentation lacustrine Hydrology 6 inches to 3 feet depth highly variable Soils many mineral sediments inorganic N and P uctuate seasonally fewer nutrients than tidal freshwater Marshes fens laeustrine potholes wet prairie wet meadow Vegetation softstemmed emergent plants vary with water level Dieot water lilies cattails arrowheads pickerel weed smart weed Monoeot reed grass wild rice sedges rushes Bogs Moor Europe or muskeg Canada Origin Shallow lakes scoured out by glaciers at uplands very slow moving streams Hydrology Rainfall snow only water source Water chemistry critical in formation Soils Saturated low nutrient levels low pH thick acidic peat deposits with slow decomposition rates Bogs Moor Europe or muskeg Canada Vegetation Acidophillic herbaceous or woody or mixture N Bogs trees 0 northern red cedar bog birch tamarisk ashblack spruce N Bogs shrubs alder leatherleaf Labrador tea cranberries N Bogs herbaceous Sedges cotton grass Sphagnum moss S Bogs cyrilla persea gardenia sweet bay pond pine Virginia chain fern pitcher plants Swamp Origin Hydrology slow moving streams 1 to 2 inCh depth beaver activity wetter in summer than sprlng and fall OOd plams Wide range of pH at uplands wide range of nutrients lak baSinS Rain fed swamps acidic nutrient poor Alluvial swamps 0 neutral pH nutrient rich Swamp Soils Saturated up to a few inches of surface during growing season includes all textural classes Vegetation North 0 tamarack white cedar black spruce balsam red maple black ash South 0 water oak overcup oak watertupelo swamp black gum bald cypresspond cypress Northwestwestern hemlock red alder willows Other plantsmosses duck weed smart weed Bottomland Hardwoods riparian wetlands bayou Origin Sedimentation of alluvial ood plain shifting river channels old channel Hydrology Varies Permanent inundation short periods of inundation during growing season Soils Nutrient rich alluvial deposits Bottomland Hardwoods riparian wetlands bayou Vegetation Southeast US deep 0 bald cypress tupelo gum bottom brush water elm swamp privet Southeast US moderate overcup oak red maple water locust bitter pecan Southeast US ooding dormant muttal oak pin oak sweet gum willow oak Southeast US upland boundary 0 shag bark hickory swamp chestnut oak post oak West US lowermiddle elevation 0 salt cedar mesquite cottonwood will West US upper elevation willow alder Tidal Freshwater Wetlands Origin drowned river systems inundated lled with sediment Hydrology Subject to tidal forces river ow or rainfall quantities maintain freshwater high marsh ood to 3 feet during high tide low marsh ood for 912 hours during high tide Soils abundant organic matter anaerobic except for surface pH70 Tidal Freshwater Wetlands Vegetation high species diversity submerged vascular plants 0 spatterdock waterweed pondweeds water milfoil summer annuals 0 water smartweed water hemp burr marigold high marsh clearweed tearthumb rose mallow bidens wild rice cattails big cord grass giant cutgrass low marsh arrow arum pickerelweed arrowhead Tidal Salt Marsh Origin Deposition of sediment and behind barrier reefs bays river mouth estuaries primarily on recently elevated coastal plain Hydrology Alternately inundated and drained by tides upper marshirregularly ooded lower marsh ooded daily Soils ne grained silts eroded material highly organic much vegetation anaerobic variable salinity saturated frequently Tidal Salt Marsh Vegetation 10W species diversity must adapt to variable 0 salinity temperatures 0 water levels Species Spartina cord grasses Juneus rushes Salicornia saltwood Mangrove Swamps 0 Origin groundwater and surface water ow over soft limestone bedrock at or just below surface behind barrier islands on shores of protected shorelines Hydrology brackish to saline tidal waters Tidal action maintains salinity reducing plant competition Soils Tides aerate soil Tides maintain salinity sandy to mucky soils reduced when ooded Mangrove Swamps Vegetation mangroveany salttolerant intertidal tree 10 ssp in western hemisphere 3 dominant Florida White black and reds
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