New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here


by: Mr. Vernie Wehner


Mr. Vernie Wehner
OK State
GPA 3.67

Rachel Messer

Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Rachel Messer
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Course

Popular in Psychlogy

This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mr. Vernie Wehner on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1113 at Oklahoma State University taught by Rachel Messer in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see /class/232879/psyc-1113-oklahoma-state-university in Psychlogy at Oklahoma State University.




Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 11/01/15
Psychological Disorders What Is Abnormal Identifying Psychological Disorders quotPsychological Disorder is a relatively new invention 7 possessed by demons God s punishment witchcraft seen as criminals Medical model 7 psychological abnormalities as diseases 7 Diagnostic amp Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSMIVTR 7 classification system that describes the features used to diagnose each recognized mental disorder 7 Defining the Boundaries of Normality Deviation from average DSMIVTR three key elements for symptoms to qualify as a potential mental disorder 1 Showing symptoms that involve disturbances in behavior thoughts or emotions 2 symptoms associated with significant personal distress or impairment causing problems in everyday life 3 symptoms stem from an internal dysfunction biological psychological or both 0 Defining the Boundaries of Normality 0 Determining the degree to which a person has a mental disorder is difficult GAF Score 0 Classification 0 North American clinicians used to divide disorders into just two categories 0 psychosis neurosis 1952 Diagnostic Manual of Mental Disorders DSM published 0 recognized need to have a consensual diagnostic system 0 Classification DSMIVTR Neurosis now anxiety disorders 0 Classification Comorbidity two or more disorders occurring in a single individual 0 Classification amp Causation 0 Medical model diagnosis useful because any given category ofillness is likely to have a distinctive cause 0 Etiology of mental disorders 0 Common prognosis 0 Too Oversimplified Classification 8 Causation 0 Integrated perspective 0 biological factors 0 psychological factors 0 environmental factors 0 DiathesisStress Model Predisposed for a mental disorder that is unexpressed until triggered by stress personal vulnerability InterventionCausation Fallacy Consequences of La heli ng Stigma 70 ofpeople with diagnosable mental disorders do not seek treatment 0 Erroneous beliefs False or uninformed beliefs 0 Rosenhan Study Anxi ely Disorders 0 Anxiety Unpleasant psychophysical state resulting from unwanted recurring thoughts feelings 0 Anxiety Disorder Anxiety that is out of proportion with real threats and challenges 0 Generalized anxiety disorder People have anxiety about many different things in life 0 5 ofpopulation has this disorder 0 People in lower SES are more likely to have this than middle class 0 Treatments benzodiazepines valium librium stimulate GABA Phobic Disorders 0 Specific phobia eg water snakes heights bridges blood 0 Social phobia eg eating in public using public restroom Preparedness Theory Predisposed to fEAR Seligman 1971 0 Temperament Abnormalities in neurotransmitters serotonin and dopamine common Panic Disorder 0 Panic disorder Recurring panic attacks 0 Agoraphobia Being scared ofbeing around people 0 812 ofUS pop have an occasional panic attack 0 Modest heritability component 0 People with panic disorder acutely sensitive to sodium lactate reinforces biological view ObsessiveCompuIsive Disorder 0 Anxiety plays a role 0 Primary symptom is unwanted recurrent thoughts obsession and actions compulsion 0 Numbers often take on exaggerated meaning 0 Obsessions typically derive from concerns that they could pose a real threat eg contamination disease preparedness theory Dissociative Disorders 0 Herschel Walker Had Dissociative Identity Disorder 0 Dissociative identity disorder quotSplittingquot The identity of someone is split from their host identity 0 05 to 1 prevalence 0 Female to male ratio 9 to 1 0 Most report history of severe childhood abuse and trauma 0 DSM criteria Cannot result from normal forgetting or brain injury drugs or another mental disorder 0 Dissociative amnesia Loss of memory Usually for a traumatic specific event or period of time 0 Dissociative fugue Loss of former identity and assumption of a new identity Mood Disorders 0 Depressive disorders 0 Major depressive disorder 0 twice as common in women as men hormones as postpartum depression response style 0 Heritability 3345 0 Low levels of Norepinephrine and serotonin linked to depression 0 Diminished activity in left prefrontal corteX and increased activity in right areas associated with the processing of emotions Depressive Disorders Psychological Factors 0 Negative cognitive style 0 Helplessness theory internal stable global attributions 0 May construct social world in ways that contribute to and confirm their negative beliefs 0 Depressed low selfesteem individuals seek confirming negative feedback 0 Dysthymia 0 same symptoms less severe but longer 0 Double depression 0 Seasonal affective disorder SAD Bipolar Disorder 0 Lifetime risk of 13 for both genders 10 have rapid cycling bipolar disorder 0 4 or more mood episodes per year 0 Persistent illness 0 24 relapsed within 6 months 0 77 have at least one new episode within 4 years Biological factors 0 High heritability 80 for identical twins 0 Close relatives also at heightened risk for unipolar depression regular depression 0 Bipolar disorder may be polygenic interaction of several different genes 0 Psychological factors 0 Stressful life experiences 0 Stress personality People who are high in neuroticism do not deal with stress well People high in eXtraversion are more protected in being bipolar Schizophrenia Symptoms 2 or more of the following during a continuous period of 1 month w signs of the disorder persisting for at least 6 months 0 Delusion False beliefs of something 0 Hallucination Disorganized speech Grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior Negative symptoms 0 5 Schizophrenia Su btypes o Paranoid Most common 0 Catatonic Disorganized People have inappropriate reactions to things Undifferentiated Residual Because the various symptoms do not occur in every case recent editions of the DSM recognize 5 subtypes Biological factors 0 symptoms are so severe it suggests quotorganicquot origins 0 strong heritability prenatal exposure to toxins Prenatal exposure to toxins Dopamine hypothesis Idea that people with schizophrenia have too much dopamine Neuroanatomy enlarged ventricles 0 tissue loss in parietal lobe progressing to much of brain 0 Psychological factors 0 Family environment 0 Extreme con ict 0 lack of communication 0 chaotic relationships 0 Expressed emotion intrusiveness excessive criticism Personality Disorders 0 Fall into three clusters 0 oddeccentric dramatic erratic anxious inhibited Antisocial Pe rsonaliry Disorder People with this usually have a history of conduct disorder Antisocial Don t care about wellbeing of others Asocial Unsocial sociopath and psychopath one study of 22790 prisoners 47 of men and 21 of women were diagnosed with APD less activity in amygdala and hippocampus to words that elicit fear in non APD Developmental Disorders 0 Intellectual disability Mild to profound delay in normal cognitive development 0 ADHD Mild to severe inabilities to attend to the environment often with hyperactivity that causes inability to sit still or maintain position Signs present by age 7 Boys are more likely to be diagnosed o Autism Spectrum disorder difficulty functioning to high functioning Signs present by age 3 0 Symptoms include I Flapping toe walking speech delay inability to maintain eye contact social unawareness Treatment of Psychological Disorders Barriers to Seeking Treatment 0 Don t believe they need it 0 Don t recognize need 0 Unwillingness to seek treatment 0 Barriers SES 0 Stigma 0 Previous history of treatment Ap proach to Treatment 0 Two kinds of approaches 0 Psychotherapy BiologicalMedical Psychodynamic Psychotherapy Psychoanalysis Founded by Freud Emphasizes the unconscious mind Assumes that humans are born with aggressive and sexual urges that are suppressed especially during childhood 0 Attempts to gain insight into problems through 0 Hypnosis 0 Free association 0 Dream analysis Psychodynamic Psychotherapy Hypnosis Free association The client reports every thought that enters the mind without censoring Looking for unifying theme Dream Analysisdreams are used as metaphors for the unconscious mind including con icts Manifest content 0 Latent content Psychodynamic Psychotherapy Interpersonal psychotherapy IPT 0 Form ofpsychotherapy that focuses on helping clients improve current relationships 0 Lasts 1216 weeks Research has shown IPT to be effective for Depression Behavior Therapy Assumes that disordered behavior is learned and that symptom reliefis achieved through changing overt maladaptive behaviors into more constructive behaviors BF Skinner Focuses on 0 Eliminating unwanted behaviors 0 Promoting desired behaviors 0 Reducing unwanted emotional responses Behavior Therapy Eliminating unwanted behavior Identifying antecedents to behavior and consequences of behavior Aversion Therapy Promoting desired behavior 0 Token economy 0 Encourage desired behaviors Behavior Therapy Reducing unwanted emotional responses Exposure Therapy Confronting stimulus directly and repeatedly Relies on habituation and extinction Systematic Desensitization 0 Client relaxes while imagining being in frightening situations 0 Have a fear hierarchy In vivo exposure 0 Fear hierarchy 0 Anxiety disorders Response prevention 0 Resisting urge to engage in compulsive ritual or other maladaptive behavior Eg OCD Cognitive Therapy Cognitive Therapy Helps a client identify and correct distorted thinking about self others or the world Beck amp Ellis Cognitive restructuring Mindfulness meditation CognitiveBehavioral Therapy Structured Problem focused Action oriented Transparent Flexible Humanistic Therapy 0 Personcentered therapy Mgm Nondirective Congruence Empathy Unconditional positive regard Eg client controls length and frequency of therapy sessions 0 Group Therapy 0 Advantages Provides conteXt Not alone Model appropriate behavior Costeffective Fortherapist 0 And clients 0 Group Therapy 0 Disadvantages 0 Difficulty getting groups together 0 Members may undermine treatment 0 Less attention from therapist 0 Medical amp Biological Treatment 0 Antianxietymedications Benzodiazepines DiazepamValium LorazepamAtivan AlprazolamXanaX 0 Medical amp Biological Treatment 0 Antidepressants Monoamine OXidaze Inhibitors MAOIs Tricyclicantidepressants ImipramineTofranil AmitriptylineElavil 0 Medical amp Biological Treatment Antidepressants Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors SSRIs FluoxetineProzac CitalopramCelexa ParoxetinePaXil Effexor Wellbutrin 0 Herbal and Natural Medication Inositol omega3 fish oil kava SAMe may have beneficial psychological effects 0 Reasons for use of herbal medications Easily available no prescription needed 0 Perception that they re more natural 0 Cheaper 0 Beyond Medication Electroconvulsive Therapy ECT Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation TMS Phototherapy Psychosurgery Psychotherapy amp Medication Combining the two 0 Medication may help control symptoms until therapy begins to work 0 Medication and psychotherapy activate different areas of the brain 0 However the two can be expensive 0 Evaluating Treatment 0 When evaluating treatments it is important to be aware of 0 Natural improvement regression to the mean 0 Nonspecific treatment effects eg Placebo effect 0 Reconstructive memory 0 Treatment Studies 0 Outcome studies 0 Designed to evaluate whether a treatment works compared to some other treatment or control condition Eg treatment as usual vs new treatment Process studies 0 Understand the process 0 How why and under what circumstances a treatment works DoubleBlind experiment 0 Do Treatments Work 0 Two levels of empirical support for treatments 0 Wellestablishedtreatments CBT for panic disorder 0 IPT and cognitive therapy for depression 0 Probably efficacious treatments 0 IPT for bulimia 0 Behavior therapy for offensive sexual behavior Stress and Health Sources of Stress 0 Stress Stressors 0 Major life events 0 Some Sources of Stress 0 Chronic stressors Negative affectivity 0 Environmental stressors Perceived control 7 Events may be most stressful when there is nothing we can do Stress Reactions 0 Fightor ightresponse Catecholamines as an indicator of chronic stress Stress Reactions 0 General adaptation syndrome GAS 7 Alarm phase Mobilize resources 7 Resistance phase Cope with stressor 7 Exhaustion phase Reserves depleted Stress and the Immune System Immune system Social status is related to health Stress and cardiovascular health Atherosclerosis Build up of fat Psychological Reactions 81139 Sir Stress interpretation Primary appraisal Figuring out if something is stressful to person Secondary appraisal Figuring out if someone can handle the stressor Posttraumatic stress disorder 7 Differing sensitivity to trauma ess Management 0 92 of college students say they sometimes feel overwhelmed by the tasks they face 0 Some gender differences 7 Women tend to seek support under stress 7 Men do not tend to seek support under stress ess ManagementMind 0 Relaxation therapy A significant part of stress management is control of the mind Basic strategies 7 Repressive coping 0 Avoid things and deceive themselves Have an overly positive attitude about things Repress feelings ofbeing stress and don t admit they are stressed 7 Rational coping Confronting Identifyingadmitting they are stressed Exposingconfronting stress 0 Taking action 7 Reframing Rethinking about the stressor 7 Stress inoculation training Knowing and expecting you will be stressed and thinking positively ab out it Somatoform Disorders Psychosomatic illness Placebo effect Hypochondriasis Somatization disorder Conversion disorder All of these psychological in uence on physical symptoms Eating Wisely Average portion We eat more than other countries 0 How long do we take to eat meals We eat faster 0 Focus on exercise and nutrition instead of dieting Avoiding Sexual Risks Illusion of unique invulnerability Lastminute emotions 0 Alcohol use 0 Find ways to help people plan ahead 0 Sex education 7 Does NOT appear to increase seX rates 7 DOES appear to increase use ofprotection


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

"I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.