PSYCH OF MOTIVATION
PSYCH OF MOTIVATION PSYC 3013
Popular in Course
Popular in Psychlogy
This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mr. Vernie Wehner on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 3013 at Oklahoma State University taught by Melissa Burkley in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see /class/232884/psyc-3013-oklahoma-state-university in Psychlogy at Oklahoma State University.
Reviews for PSYCH OF MOTIVATION
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 11/01/15
Unit 2 TYNKs Chapter 5 Motivation for Competence amp Control T1 Competence is thought to be developed through nurturing in two ways mastery performance to increase own sense of competence which makes one adopt learning goals and approval performance to gain others approval which makes one adopt performance goals Entity theorists assume traits are stable and fixed we re either born with the ability or not One chooses tasks we re good at and adopt performance goals Incremental theorists assume traits are subject to change and improvement To them learning and challenges are pleasurable they don t fight criticism amp failure because they expect to improve and they adopt learning goals Praising children for natural abilities leads to entity theorists while praising them for their effort leads to incremental theorists Mueller amp Dweck s 1998 study showed 5th graders picked different types of goals and had different levels of task enjoyment based on type ofpraise effort intelligence or no praise T2 Intrinsic motivation is when one completes tasks for their own reasons Extrinsic motivation is when one completes tasks to get an external reward The overjustification effect is when giving someone a reward for doing something they already enjoy it decreases their motivation to do it They attribute their actions to external rather than internal reasons Deci s 1971 study showed that those who were paid to complete an enjoyable task stopped even when encouraged to continue when they weren t paid but those who weren t paid at all continued even when they could stop According to cognitive effect theory any stimulus can increase or decrease motivation based of two factors sense of control externalized tends to decrease motivation while internalized tends to increase it and sense of competence Ifboth are present stimuli increase intrinsic motivation T3 The illusion of control is when we overestimate how much control we have we assume our skills determine the outcomes of events that are controlled by chance or other external causes Examples of this are gambling and slot machines It is more likely in mentally healthy people Research on quottempting fate shows people have the intuition that tempting fate increases the likelihood ofa negative outcome such as Risen amp Gilovich s 2008 Stanford shirt study Pronin amp Wegner s 2006 voodoo study showed the effects of quotmindcontrol or when thinking about the event before it happens leads us to believe we caused the event In this study students acted as quotwitch doctors and put pins in the head ofa voodoo doll representing a nearby victim while Later Victims complained ofa headache Those with offensive victims were more likely to think they caused pain more that those with neutral victims Epistemic motivation is the need to seek and obtain motivation it s based on a need to predict and control our surroundings There are two types need for closure need to find definitive answers and avoid ambiguity amp confusion and need for cognition the need to engage in and enjoy thinking T4 Selfefficacy is the perception ofperceived competence or the beliefin one s ability to exert control over one s surroundings Bandura indentified four sources of selfefficacy performance outcomes most common and most powerful vicarious outcomes verbal persuasion and physiological feedback T5 Learned helplessness is when an organism is so used to having no control over a situation that when the situation changes the organism will stay passive unable to learn avoidance Seligman s 1975 puppy shocking study showed this effect in dogs The consequences of this in humans are motivational apathy depressed effect and cognitive impairments leading to depression theory oflearned helplessness We desire noncontrol whenever a person expects an unpleasant outcome or when one is convinced that relinquishing control to someone else will increase the likelihood ofa desired outcome Chapter 7 Arousal T1 Hull s Drive theory states that nonspecific internal arousal created by biological means energizes all responses There are three main characteristics 1 Drive motivates organism to behave in order to reduce its intensity drive is aversive 2 Drive energizes behavior by intensifying responses in a situation the more intense the drive the more intense the behavior 3 Drive is a pooled energy source nonspecific responses acquired under one condition relevant drive can energize different deficit irrelevant drive Behavior Drive X Habit Why a multiplicative relationship If either drive or habit is zero behavior will be zero Drive theory is better than Freud s instinct theory because it provides a clear mechanism for behavior can be empirically tied to physiological basis and can be studied in the lab can be manipulated Habits are behaviors that have previously been rewarded and are therefore more likely to continue in the future According to drive theory drive increases performance on easy tasks and impair performance on difficult tasks until the task becomes routine T2 Optimal level of arousal refers to arousal theory s idea of beneficial arousal It states that the relationship of arousal and motivation is an inverted Ufunction too little or too much arousal is aversive Intermediate levels of arousal are better for performance than high or low levels Hull s theory was a straight line if graphed stated that more arousal equated to more behavior Diverse exploration occurs when one is understimulated we seek out new stimuli to increase arousal Specific exploration occurs when one is overstimulated we seek out familiar or simple stimuli to decrease arousal T3 According to Zukerman there are four types of stimulus seeking 1 Thrill amp adventure seeking when one engages in exciting activities 2 Experience seeking when one enjoys seeking strong sensations mind and body 3 Disinhibition when one enjoys social stimulations clubbing bars etc and 4 boredom susceptibility or an aversion to monotonous unchanging situations T4 The reticular formation is a large bundle ofneurons in the midbrain that ultimately activates the cells of the cerebral cortex It serves two functions to convey specific sensory info from the sense receptors to such areas as the auditory and visual cortex and to carry nonspecific impulses that raise the general activity level of the entire cortical region ie when we hear a loud noise and jump when we hear it The Behavior Activation System BAS and the Behavior Inhibition System BIS are two antagonist mechanisms in the brain A warning signal sets off the BIS causing a general inhibition of behavior A signal the predicts the onset ofpleasure elicits activity in the BAS therefore increasing behavior Both the BAS and BIS also have inputs into a central arousal mechanism the intensifies both the approach and avoidance behaviors controlled by the respective system T5 The largest critic of general arousal theory was apparently Lacey who concluded that human behavior regarding arousal is highly individualistic T6 The two major premises of the YerkesDodson law is that there is an optimal level for arousal and that that optimal level is lower for difficult tasks than for easy ones Anderson s 1994 caffeine study heavily supported this theory increasingly higher levels of caffeine created worsening GRE scores but better letter cancellation scores Chapter 8 Emotion T1 Emotions are feelings of pleasantness or unpleasantness They allow us to anticipate the harm or benefit ofa stimulus According to the central approach emotions are produced by a brain process specifically from activity in the CNS According to the peripheral approach emotions are a visceral process and are produced from activity in the muscles and organs The IamesLange Theory of Emotions Stimulus gt Behavior gt Emotion It is a peripheral approach They believed emotion is the perception of our body s response to a stimulus Identity theory of emotions stated that different emotional experience came from different areas of the body Sadness heart fear stomach anger muscle tension shame face The greatest contribution ofamesLange Theory is that it emphasized physiology in the study of emotions The CannonBard Theory is a central approach Stimulus gt Emotion Behavior simultaneous According to them emotion is a stimulus travels to the thalamus where the message divides into signal A to the amygdala emotions and signal B to the automatic nervous system physiological reaction Emotion is a byproduct of emergency responses This theory s greatest contribution to the study of emotions is that it emphasized brain areas T2 CognitiveArousal Theory of emotions states that cognition is necessary for emotion that is unexplained arousal cognitive label specific emotion A stimulus activates the ANS creating general arousal If an arousal quotsourcequot is identified we attribute it correctly ie gun shot in a dark alley fear However if the arousal source isn t easily identified it could be misinterpreted Dutton amp Aron bridge study T3 Evolutionary psychologists believe psychological mechanisms evolved through natural selection to solve problems of adaption to our environment According to this theory all emotions stem from six major universal emotions anger happiness fear disgust sadness and surprise These emotions also have universal facial looks according to the FacialAutomatic Coding System FACS which are related to certain physiological reactions anger high skin temp amp heart rate fear low skin temp and high heart rate happinesssurprisedisgust low heart rate The facial feedback hypothesis has two debating components Cognitive mediation the first has two theories as well inference mediation facial expression gt perception gt emotion ie I m smiling so I must be happy and memory explanation facial expression gt memories gt emotions ie expressions evoke memories of related affective states Biological mediation states that facial expression gt physiological response gt emotions Zajonc s 1985 study showed that facial expressions in uenced the ow of blood to the brain and brain temperature Unit 1 TYNKs Chapter 1 Intro to the Study of Motivation T1 Motivation is the reason one acts in a particular way This is expressed in three basic dimensions ofmotivation initiation of behavior intensity of behavior and persistence ofbehavior There are three steps involved in the motivation process defining a goal intensity of behavior and persistence of behavior Needs are quotpersonquot in uences ie when one is hungry they seek food Demands are quotsituationquot in uences ie a roommate who cooks nasty food will cause you to go out to eat T2 The major assumption of this course is that human motivation takes place in a social setting T3 Hedonism is the pursuit of pleasure as the highest good and aim in human life Freud described motivation as an instinct and focused on introspection and structuralism He believed the process arose spontaneously within a person Behaviorists described motivation as simply a stimulusresponse they rejected all notions ofpurposive behavior In response to the behaviorists Hull described motivation as drive He believed motivation functioned similar to instinct but is also a function of external in uences This school of thought was soon replaced by arousal theory which is based on the assumption that behaviors are ordered along a continuum of intensity Moderate arousal is the best for performance ie the best motivator Social psychologists have taken over the study ofmotivation in modern days though through the study of selfregulation and an approach that Views motivation within a larger framework that includes cognitions and emotions Chapter 2 Goals in Motivation T1 A goal is a state that a person desires considers attainable and for which the person is willing to expend effort Goals are organized in a triangular hierarchy Incentives higherorder goals are at the top goals lowerorder goals are in the middle and actions simple behaviors are at the bottom Incentives are broadly defined goals that subsume several classes oflowerorder goals and can only be realized by attaining several smaller goals They can lead to goal striving or movement towards goals at each level Distal goals are goals that are farther away such as incentives and proximal goals are goals that are nearer T2 Expectancyvalue theory states that behavior is a function of the expectance of success and the value of the outcome behavior expectancy x value if either value is zero there is zero behavior For example job performance expectations ofa raise x value of raise If there is no chance ofa raise or there can be no raise there will be zero motivation for job performance Tolman 1932 T3 There are three processes involved in goal setting and performance effort how much energy the person invests in their goals strategy formation plans on how to complete the goal and commitment to the goal how long one will preserve towards the goal Goal difficulty and goal specificity help determine effort challenging clearly defined goals result in superior goal performance For example quotI want to lose 15 pounds by May 15 is more readily accomplished that quotI want to lose some weight T4 Mental simulation is visualization and imagining the process of goal attainment There are two main types outcomeoriented where one visualizes the outcome of the behavior and processoriented also know as implementation intention where one visualizes the process to achieve the goal Taylor et al 1998 showed process oriented simulations to be more effective that outcomeoriented simulations Planning fallacy is when one underestimates the time and cost needed to complete a goal This was famously seen in the planning of the Sydney Opera House Buehler 1994 showed grad students to greatly underestimate the time it would take them to complete their thesis even when assuming everything to go wrong only 48 finished by their worst time estimates but to be highly accurate when estimating how long it would take other students to complete their theses T5 Goal commitment is increased effort and persistence to attaining a goal It is in uenced by situational factors public declaration of intent and rewards and personal factors selfefficacy or judgments ofpersonal abilities T6 There are three dimensions of attribution locus internal vs external stability regularity vs sporadically and controllability controllable or not Chapter 3 Action Control in Motivation T1 Discrepancy is the difference between our current state and our desired goal state Will is the human capacity to engage in conscious and purposeful behavior Willful action is required to remove discrepancy The homoeostasis model is a biological principle that when there is a discrepancy between the quotnormalquot state of an organism and the existing state it is caused by an event or situation and the natural response is to either adjust to the new quotnormalquot or try to return to the old Example temperature and humans The cybernetic feedback method uses an operative mechanism furnace example The most common of these is the TOTE model Miller et al 1960 which means Test Operative Test Exit T2 Actionoriented is doing the actions for a goal while stateoriented is not Those who are actionoriented have selective attention avoid attending to goal irrelevant info selective processing avoid processing goal irrelevant info and emotional control experience emotions that support goaldirected behavior T3 Playing through is when one creates a script of imagined events and actions it facilitates goal attainment Deliberative mindset is for goal setting it is openminded realistic accurate and seeks out both positive and negative info Implemental mindset is for goal striving it is closeminded optimistic has positive illusions and goal info dominates Implemental mind set can be susceptible to planning fallacy T4 Selfcontrol is the active inhibition of unwanted responses that might interfere with goal achievement There are two major characteristics of selfcontrol it is a limited resource and a general resource Once you exert selfcontrol you have less to expend on other selfcontrol tasks and all forms of selfcontrol draw on the same limited resource making quotselfcontrol like a muscle Baumeister s 1998 experiment that allowed groups to eat either cookies or radishes those allowed to eat cookies performed better on tests of selfcontrol then those not allowed to eat them and made to eat radishes Thought suppression rebound is when attempting to suppress a thought produces an increase in the occurrence of that thought Wegner et al s 1987 White Bear study Chapter 4 The Self in Motivation T1 The ideal self is what one ideally wants to become The actual selfis what one is now Selfawareness theory is a theory that certain situations cause people to be self focused Certain stimuli such as mirrors being on stage and being filmedphotographed cause people to be selffocused and compare the actual self with the ideal self T2 Schemas are categories one has organized info about the surrounding environment into A selfschema is a cognitive representation of the self Possible selves are selfschemas of what we may become They are organized into two categories desired selves What we want to be in the future and undesired selves what we don t want to be come We are motivated to approach the desired self and avoid the undesired self Regulatory focus theory states there are individual differences in the tendency on which self desired or undesired is more motivating Promotion oriented people are motivated by approaching the desired self and reducing actualdesired discrepancies they re concerned with advancement Prevention oriented people avoid the undesired self and increase actualdesired discrepancies they are concerned with security The ideal selfis what we ideally want to become while the ought selfis what we feel others want us to become They produce different emotions when compared with the actual self Actualideal discrepancies produce dejection emotions and actual ought discrepancies produce agitation emotions T3 Selfesteem is good feelings about the self Selfenhancement is the need to be seen positively by the self andor others Social comparison theories Festinger 1954 states we are driven to evaluate our opinions and abilities but when there are no objective standards we assess by comparisons with similar others There are two types of comparisons upwards where we compare to those better than us and downward compare to those worse than us Different motives drive these comparisons downward is driven by selfenhancement and upward is driven by selfimprovement role models The selfevaluation maintenance model Tesser 1988 focuses on how we feel after upward comparisons or how we compare to others superior performance This theory states that the reaction depends on how close one is to the person and how personally relevant the performance domain is If someone close to us outperforms us in an important domain we feel envy If someone close to us outperforms us in an unimportant domain we BaskIn Re ected Glory aka BIRGing T4 Selfhandicapping is when one deals with a prospective failure by creating obstacles for success it creates an external source of failure Excuse making is making excuses AFTER failure by blaming an external source Selfserving attributional bias is when one attributes one s own failure to external causes but other s failures to internal causes
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'