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# EXPERIMENTAL PSYCH PSYC 3914

OK State

GPA 3.67

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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mr. Vernie Wehner on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 3914 at Oklahoma State University taught by Melissa Burkley in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see /class/232885/psyc-3914-oklahoma-state-university in Psychlogy at Oklahoma State University.

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Date Created: 11/01/15

Unit 2 TYNKs Chapter 5 Descriptive Research T1 Descriptive research are measures of central tendency and variability A survey is a selfreport measure and A crosssectional survey design is the most basic common kind we see T2 Sampling is the process of selecting a sample ofparticipants from a population of interest A representative sample has characteristics similar to the population it allows us to draw accurate and unbiased conclusions Sampling error is the difference between the sample and the population s data explained by the margin of error the degree to which the data obtained from the sample is estimated to deviate from the population In simple random sampling every participant has equal odds of being selected such as with a random number generator In stratified random sampling random sampling occurs within a strata such as race or age Convenience sampling is sampling from an accessible population such as college students T3 The purpose of descriptive statistics is to describe the data Inferential statistics test the hypothesis The three measures of central tendency are mean median and mode The three measures of variability are range variance and standard deviation Range is inferior to the other two because it only relies on two scores In a positively skewed distribution there are more low scores than high scores while in a negatively skewed distribution there are more high scores than low scores Chapter 6 Correlational Research T1 A correlational coefficient is a statistic that indicates the degree to which two variables are related to one another in a linear fashion A positive correlation is an increase in one variable due to increases in another while a negative correlation is a decrease in one variable due to an increase in another T2 The coefficient of determination tells the proportion of variability in one variable that can be predicted by info about another variable This is calculated by rA2 T3 When a correlation is statistically significant it indicates that it is unlikely that the correlation in the population is zero Factors that in uence the significance level are the magnitude of the level and sample size T4 A restricted range is when correlations tend to be weaker because the data represents a narrow range Outliers can make correlations look stronger or weaker than it actually is The reliability of the measures can also distort correlation coefficients because unreliable measures decrease correlation T5 Causality A gt B Reverse causality B gt A Third variable problem C gt A amp B Chapter 8 Basic Issues T1 To be an experiment it must have three conditions manipulation of an IV random assignment and control of extraneous variables T2 An independent variable is believed to cause changes in participants behavior Each IV must have at least two levels or different values There are three types of IV environmental instructional and invasive manipulations The dependent variable is the variable that is thought to be in uenced by the IV There also must be at least two groups the control group which receives no IV and at least one experimental group that receive nonzero levels of the IV One can know if the IV is successfully being manipulated by performing a pilot test which is a super small preliminary experiment or a manipulation check which occurs during the study and are simply questions that measure the manipulated variable Subject variables re ect existing characteristics of participants such as age race SES that in uence the DV and aren t manipulated T3 Simple random assignment is a powerful control procedure that can account for all unwanted subject variables by washing out systematic differences Examples of simple random assignment are coin tosses and random number generators Random sampling differs from random assignment the prior involves the actual sample while the latter involves how the sample is distributed between experimental groups Matched random assignment is good for small samples it involves matching participants on relevant variables and then randomly assigning each participant of the pair to different conditions T4 Between groups designs are when participants are assigned to different groups each group goes through a certain procedure and then the differences are prepared It is the most basic design Withinsubj ects design involves a single group of participants being put through all levels of an experiment such as in the Mythbusters video It eliminates the need for random assignment and controls for individual differences therefore reducing error variance However because all participants experience all levels of the IV it may be easier for them to guess the hypothesis They are also subject to order effects Order effects can be limited by counterbalancing where the experimenter presents every possible order to different groups If this is not a viable option one can partially counterbalance with a random order of presentation in which the experimenter chooses a limited number of orders to present and Latin square design where each condition appears once ABCD BCDA CDAB DABC T5 Experimental control is when one eliminates or holds constant extraneous factors that might in uence results Systematic variance re ects differences among experimental groups It comes from two sources the IV and confound variance The proportion of variance in the DV that s due to the IV is known as treatment variance Scores that vary for reasons other than the IV are known as confounds Confound variance is the proportion of variance in the DV due to confounds These must be eliminated at all costs Error variance is the proportion of variance in the DV due to unsystematic differences among participants while undesirable it is preferred over confound variance Combined all three make up total variance T6 Internal validity is the validity of causal inferences in scienti c studies usually based on experiments as experimental validity Confound variance can completely ruin internal validity T7 Maturation are changes in the participant due to growth or predictable changes which is opposed by history 7 changes or events the occur during the study that are unpredictable such as 911 Pretest sensitivitiy are changes on the subject due to the effects of previous testing Instrumentation are any change in the calibration of the measuring instrument over the course of the study Regression to the mean is the tendency for extreme scores to be less extreme on a second measure Selection is any factor that creates groups that aren t equal at the start of the study such as when participants drop out Attrition or mortality is when participants die during a study Diffusion of treatment is when participants tell other participants the purpose of the study Experimenter expectancies are when an experimenters expectations in uence how participants respond similar are demand characteristics subtle cues that indicate to participants how they should behave Participants will follow either a goodsubject role when they do what you think they want and badsubj ect role when they do the opposite of what they think you want In a doubleblind or masked procedure neither participants nor the experimenter know which condition the participant is in It remedies both the above issues Placebo effects are physiological or psychological changes that occur because of the mere suggestion that change will occur The placebo control group is the group that gets the placebo T8 Power is the ability to detect effects of the IV if they really exist This can be effected by individual differences are the most common source of preexisting differences among participants Transient states are the states in which a participant enters the study happysad healthysick etc Differential treatment is when an experimenter treats participants differently based on transient states of either the participants or the experimenter Environmental factors include variability in environment could affect responses which can be eliminated by holding testing environments constant Measurement error can be eliminated by using good well established measures T9 Intemal validity is the validity of causal inferences in scientific studies usually based on experiments as experimental validity External validity is the degree to which results obtained in one study can be generalized to other samples research settings andor procedures Experimental control is a doubleedged sword more control increases internal validity but can make a subject specific and arti cial and reduces generalizability Mundane realism is the degree to which the physical setting in an experiment is similar to real world setting Psychological realism is the degree to which subjective experience of a participant is similar to realworld experience Unit 1 TYNKs Chapter 1 Research in the Behavioral Sciences T1 Tenacity accept ideas as true because they have been accepted for so long Intuition knowledge just comes to you wout thought or experience Authority accept bc it comes from respected source Rationalism through reason amp by using rules of logic Empiricism making systematic observations Science needs both rationalism and empiricism because theory isn t enough without empirical support T2 Basic research is 39 39 to J J p 39 39 39 39 processes without regarding for the whether or not the knowledge is immediately applicable In contrast applied research s goal is to nd solutions for certain problems rather than to enhance general knowledge The three goals with of science are to 1 describe behavior 2 predict behavior and 3 explain behavior T3 The three criteria for scienti c investigation are systematic observation because it needs to be observable public veri cation protects against publication and solvable problems so that an answer can be found with current researchknowledge T4 The two jobs of a scientist are to discover new phenomena and to explain said phenomena Atheory is a set of propositions that attempt to specify the interrelationships among a set of concepts Posthoe theories are explanations made after the fact An a priori theory is a theory made before collecting data and is the preferred type Parsimony is the concept of when faced with two competing theories that do an equally good job of explaining the observations we should prefer the simpler ones It steers scientists away from unnecessary concepts A hypothesis is a speci c proposition that logically follows from the theory A theory is something proven while a hypothesis is just an educated guess Falsi ability is having the potential to be proven false T5 An operational de nition de nes a concept by specifying precisely how the concept is measured by manipulated in a particular study Example aggression 7 swearing physicality monitoring facial expressions T6 We cannot PROVE because obtaining empirical support for a hypothesis doesn t necessarily mean that the theory from which the hypothesis was derived is true We look at repeated patterns of data across multiple studies and state that the answer is supported by the data The next observation could make a theory false Psychologists say PROVE Chapter 2 Behavioral Variability and Research 1 The seven phases of the research process are l ideagenerating 2 thinking carefully about paradoxical 3 push analogies to their limits 4 analyze practioners rule of thumb 5 think carefully about con icting results 6 try to account for exceptions and 7 think about the simpler pieces of complex relationships between variables T2 Variability is variations in behavior There are five propositions are 1 all behavioral research attempts to explain behavioral variability 2 research questions are all questions about behavioral variability 3 research studies must be designed to answer questions about variability 4 measurement of behavior involves assessment of variability and 5 statistical analyses are used to describe and account for observed variability in behavioral data Descriptive statistics summarize the data and inferential statistics are used to draw conclusions T3 Variance is a descriptive statistic that indicates the amount of observed variability is participants behavior It is measured by total variance which is systematic variance variability is behavior that s caused by variables of interest and error variance variability is behavior that is unrelated to variables of interest combined Effect size is the proportion of total variance that is systematic Chapter 3 The Measurement of Behavior TI Observational measurement involves direct observation physiological measurement records internal processes and selfreport measures which are replies people give on questionnaire and interview T2 Measurement is assigning numbers that represent values of the variable Identity each number has meaning Magnitude numbers have order smallest to largest Equal interval difference between units is the same anywhere on scale Truezero zero represents absence of variable A real number system has all four which is what allows us to do PEMDAS Nominal properties are categorical where each number re ects category produces nominal or categorical data Ordinal properties are rank order where the number re ects the order and not the amount It gives the data identity and magnitude and produces score data It has identity magnitude and equal intervals Interval properties are equal intervals and provide info about absolute differences stimuli Ratio properties are and interval scale with a true zero and has all four mathematical properties T3 Reliability is the consistency of measurement Measurement error is any inaccuracy in measurement The observed score is the true score plus measurement error a true score is a score someone would obtain if measurements were perfect Testretest is the degree of consistency of measure over time Interitem is the degree of consistency among items on a scale and interrater reliability is the degree of consistency among 2 or more observers Itemtotal correlation is the correlation between respondents score on one item on a scale and the sum of their responses on remaining responses Cronbach s alpha coefficient is the index of interitem reliability We can improve reliability by getting more observations T4 A scale is valid is it measures what it is intended to measure Face validity is when a scale appears valid the problem is that measures can appear valid can sometimes not be Criterionrelated validity refers to the extent to which a measure allows us to distinguish among participants on the basis of a particular behavioral criterion Concurrent validity is the extent the measure allows the researcher to distinguish between respondents at the time of the measure Predictive validity is the extent the measure allows the researcher to distinguish between respondents in the future Reliability is a necessary but not sufficient condition for validity Chapter 4 Approaches to Psycholog39cal Measurement T1 Observational methods are direct observation of human behavior Naturalistic observations are observations made in realworld settings Participant observations are when researchers engage in the same activities as the participant Undisguised observations are made when participants don t know they re being observed It is less likely to in uence behavior Disguised observations are made when participants do know they re being observed T2 Physiological measures are measures that measure biologicalphysiological activities There are four main measures neural activity ANS responses uids and bodily actions T3 Selfreport measures are interviewsquestionnaires A doublebarreled question is a question that asks two things at once Social desirability is when a participant distorts the response so that it s socially acceptable Acquiescence and nay saying is when a participant agrees or disagrees with most statements T4 In archival research researchers analyze data pulled from existing records Experimental Methods Unit 3 TYNKs Things You Need to Know Chapter 9 Experimental Design T1 Pg 230233 What is a oneway design 1 Manipulated IV What is the simplest oneway design De ne a randomized groups desigp Participants are randomly assigned to one of 2 conditions Compare for differences matchedsubjects desigy Participants are matched into blocks based on some relevant variable each person in the block is randomly assigned to a condition and each participant experiences all conditions repeated measures withinsubiects Each participant experiences all conditions T2 Pg 233235 What is the difference between a posttest DV is only measured after the experimental manipulation and pretestposttest desigy DV is measured before and after manipulation Why is the pretestposttest design preferred Determines that participants did not differ in DV at start of study can compare to see how much IV changed behavior What is the major problem with a pretestposttest design Pre test sensitization 1 What is the Solomon s fourgroups design hint what 2 IVs does it involve Treatment vs Control and Pretest vs No pretest How does it address the problem associated With the pretestposttest design Tests for pre test sensitization T3 Pg 236239 What is a factorial desigp Includes 2 or more IV s factors How many IVs or factors are in a twoway desigy 2 How about a threeway desigy 3 How many IVs are in a 3 x 3 design How many levels are there to each IV How many groups are in this design 2 IV s 3 levels 9 groups T4 Pg 239241 What is a randomized groups factorial design Partcipants are assigned randomly to one of the possible combinations of the independent variables What is a matched factorial desigy Involves rst matching participants into blocks on the basis of some variable that correlates with the dependent variable What is a repeated measures factorial desigy Requires all participants to participate in every experimental condition Feasible with small design but not with larger design What is a mixed factorial design Mixed factorial design is and experimental design that includes one or more between subjects factors it s also known as between within design This also refers to an experimental design that includes both manipulated independent variables and measures participant variables and is also called expericorr design What is a splitplot factorial Split plot factorial design is a factorial design that combines one or more between subjects factors with one or more within subjects factors it s also called mixed factorial design and between within design T5 Pg 241246 amp lecture What is a main effect A main effect is the effect of a particular independent variable ignoring the effects of other independent variables in the experiment Interactions occur when the effect of one variable on the DV depends on the level of another variable What is an interaction Combined effect of 2 IV s that one IV in uences over another In a factorial design the variance in the DV is a function of what three components Variance in the DV can be due to separate effects of each IV main effects combined effects of IVs interactions and error variance In a 2 x 3 design there are 6 interactions In a 2 x 2 x 2 design there are 8 interactions In a study description be able to identify what the main effects and the interaction are If given a graph how can you tell if there is an interaction If lines on graph are not parallel then there is no interaction In a 2 x 3 design how many main effects are there How many interactions are there How about with a 2 x 2 X 2 design What is the difference between a first order and second order interaction T6 Pg 246249 What is a mediansplit Why is it used What is a problem with this technique Median split is when participants are assigned to groups depending on whether their scores on a particular variable fall above or below the median of that variable What is an extreme groups procedure Why is it used What is a problem with this technique Extreme groups procedure is when one creates two groups of participants that have unusually low or unusually high scores on a particular variable Chapter 10 Analyzing Experimental Data T1 Pg 257258 amp lecture Why are inferential statistics used Indicates if observed diffbetween means in our conditions are greater than expected on chance error variance alone 1 What is involved in developing and testing a research hypothesis Testing 3 hypothesis the Experimental Hypothesis the Confounding variable hypothesis the null hypothesis What is a null hypothesis and what role does it play in testing a research hypothesis The hypothesis that the IV will not have a signi cant effect What does it mean to reject the null hypothesis Type I error Group differences larger than expected due to chance research concludes IV did have an effect What does it mean to m to reject the null hypothesis Differences are what would expect if due to chance research concludes IV did not have effect Type 11 error What is the relationship between the null hypothesis and its alternatives ie experimental hypotheses the independent variable is causing the predicted changes in our DV Addressed in 2 parts Rejecting the null hypothesis statistically attempt to remove the confounding variable and confounding variable hypotheses Factors other than the independent variable are causing our results Design controls for confounds What is alpha the statistical decision criteria used in testing the null hypothesis T2 Pg 258261 De ne Type I error reject a true null convicting innocent person and Type II error retain a false null acquitting guilty person You should be able to replicate the chart given in lecture 2 What is power The probability that a study will correctly reject the null hypothesis when the null hypothesis is false or put another way the probability that the study will obtain a significant result if the researcher s experimental hypothesis is in fact true What does it mean if a difference in means is statistically significant When we reject the null hypothesis with a low probability of making a Type I error we refer to the difference between the means as statistically signi cant What is an effect size The proportion of variability in the dependent variable that is due to the independent variable T3 Pg 261268 What statistic is used to compare the means between 2 groups T Test What statistic is used to do this in a betweengroups design What statistic is used to do this in a matchedsubjects or withinsubj ects design Paired T test What statistic is used to compare the means between more than 2 groups Factorial ANOVA What is the difference between statistical A difference so large that it is very unlikely to be due to error variance alone and practical sigpiflcanc Chapter 11 Analyzing Complex Designs T1 Pg 275280 amp lecture Why do we not use multiple ttests to analyze factorial designs What is an analysis of variance and when is it used to analyze data Analyze data from designs that involve more than two conditions What components make up the Fstatistic Between group variability and within group variability for each effect When an F value is large what does this tell us That it is likely that the differences among the condition means re ect true effects of the independent variable rather than the error variance What three things can we do to increase the F value Between group variance and within group variance and 2 What is total sum of sguares Total amount of variability in a set of data How is it calculated Subtract mean from each score square differences and then adding them up Formula for mean of squares Sum of Squares within group DF Within group What is sum of squares withingroups Estimates how much error variance exists in the data What is mean sguare withingroups How is it calculated and why is it better than the sum or squares within groups Divide within group variance by within group degrees of freedom Because we need an index of something like the average variance Within experimental conditions What is sum of sguares between groups Used to isolate the variance that is due to the IV What is mean sguare betweengroups How is it calculated and why is it better than the sum or squares betweengroups Sum of squares between groups divided by its degrees of freedom It is the estimate of between groups variance Because it re ects systematic differences among the groups that are due to the effect of the IV How are the mean square terms used to calculate the F test Used to test Whether the between group variance is larger than we would expect based on the amount of within groups error variance in the data You should be able to look at a oneway ANOVA summary table and calculate the MS terms and the F term T2 Pg 280283 amp lecture In a factorial ANOVA what is the sum of squares betweengroups further partitioned into Two components between groups systematic variance and within groups error variance T3 Pg 284292 amp lecture What is a simple main effect Effect of one IV at a particular level of another IV In essence a main effect of the variable but one that occurs only on ONE level of the other variable What is an ANCOVA Analysis of covariance ANCOVA is a general linear model with a continuous outcome variable quantitative and two or more predictor variables where at least one is continuous quantitative and at least one is categorical qualitative ANCOVA is a merger of ANOVA and regression for continuous variables ANCOVA tests whether certain factors have an effect on the outcome variable after removing the variance for which quantitative predictors covariates account What is a MANOVA Multivariate analysis of variance tests differences between the means of two or more conditions on two or more dependent variables simultaneously Chapter 12 Quasi Experimental Designs T1 Pg 296298 De ne Quasiexperimental desigys A design inwhich the researcher cannot assign participants to conditions or manipulate the IV instead comparisons are made from groups that already exist De ne a Quasiindependent variable Time When do we conduct quasiexperiments When the researcher lacks control over the assignment of participants to conditions andor does not manipulate the causal variable of interest the design is quasi experimental How is a quasiexperiment similar to a true experiment How is it different No random assignment T2 Pg 298304 What is a one group pretestposttest desigy Compare pretest to posttest to see if reduced Provide an example What is wrong with this design What is a noneguivalent groups posttest only desigy Treatment group Introduce cell phone ban 9 posttest rate of car accidents Naturally occurring control grp no cell phone ban 9 posttest rate of car accidents What is a 39 39 groups pretestposttest design Nonequivalent groups pretest posttest design best one Treatment group Pretest of car accidents 9lntroduce cell phone ban 9 posttest rate of car accidents Naturally occurring control grp pretest rate of car accidents 9no cell phone ban 9 posttest rate of accidents T3 Pg 305309 What is atime series desigy measure the DV on several occasions before and after quasi IV occurs What is a simple interrupted time series design Provide an example What is the main problem with this design Single group is tested repeatedly before and after IV or quasiIV Essentialy a singlegroup pretestposttest design with multiple before and after measures What is a control group interrupted time series design Singe group is tested repeatedly before and after IV or quasiIV T4 Pg 30931 lWhat is a longitudinal design follow same people over time What are some problems with this design Dif cult to follow same people over so many years Very reliable Longitudinal follows same people cross sectional measures diff people at same point in time What is a crosssectional design Compare groups of different ages at a single point in time eg compare 3yr olds w 6 9 and 12 yr olds What are the pros and cons of this design Pros Less costly amp easier to conduct What are generational effects people who differ in age also differ bc of conditions their generation grew up in Which design suffers from them longitudinal 0r crosssectional Longitudinal Chapter 14 Ethical Issues in Behavioral Research T1 Pg 346349 What are the potential bene ts of research What are the potential costs Potential bene ts from research include 1 add to basic knowledge 2 improve humananimal bene ts 3 give student experience 4 help profs keep job and 5 participants learn something Potential causes are 1 scal costs 2 participants may suffer psychologically and 3 some studies may physically hurt participants What is an Institutional Review Board IRB 1 What role does it play in research The Institutional Review Board IRB is a board that decides which universities receive funds Members are from scienti c amp nonscienti c disciplines T2 Pg 349354 What is an informed consent What information does it contain What are some problems with informed consent Informed consent informs the participant the nature of the study and obtains their agreement to participate It doesn t require divulging all info but must tell them info that would in uence their willingness to participate How are invasion of privacy oercion to participate and Stl relevant to the consent process Invasion of privacy is the violation of a research participant s right to determine how when or where he or she will be studied Coercion to participate is the situation that arises when people agree to participate in a research study because of real or implied pressure from some individual who has the authority or in uence over them Stressing the participant is also an issue with informed consent T3 Pg 354357 What is deception and how is it used in research What are the objections to using deception How do participants typically react to deception Deception should only be used under what conditions Deception hides the true purpose of the study by using confederates false feedback or a 2 study design It s the most controversial research practice because some view it as lying immoral and because it may lead to undesirable consequences Deception should only be used if it s justi ed by a study s value and couldn t be conducted without deception Typically participants react to deception by mistrusting behavioral sciences from then on out What is a debrie ng and how is it used in research What information should it contain Debrie ng is when after a study participants are fully informed about the purpose amp details of a study It should clarify the nature of the study including the reason for deception and participants are allowed to express feelings Researchers need to remove any negative consequences the study may have induced assess palticipants response to the study and leave feeling good about their participation What is con dentiality Con dentiality is when data may only be used for research and not divulging to personal info to others Researchers must protect palticipants right to privacy and anonymity T4 Pg 362365 What behaviors constitute scienti c misconduct Unit 3 TYNK s Chapter 9 Experimental Design T1 T2 T3 T4 Randomized groups design is a betweengroups design where participants are randomly assigned to one of the 2 conditions Matched factorial design is an experimental design involving two or more independent variables in which each participant serves in all conditions of the experiment Mixed factorial design is and experimental design that includes one or more betweensubjects factors it s also known as betweenwithin design This also refers to an experimental design that includes both manipulated independent variables and measures participant variables and is also called expericorr design Splitplot factorial design is a factorial design that combines one or more between subjects factors with one or more withinsubjects factors it s also called mixed factorial design and betweenwithin design T5 A main effect is the effect ofa particular independent variable ignoring the effects of other independent variables in the experiment Interactions occur when the effect of one variable on the DV depends on the level of another variable Variance in the DV can be due to separate effects of each IV main effects combined effects ofIVs interactions and error variance In a 2 x 3 design there are 6 interactions In a 2 x 2 x 2 design there are 8 interactions T6 Mediansplit is when participants are assigned to groups depending on whether their scores on a particular variable fall above or below the median of that variable Extreme groups procedure is when one creates two groups ofparticipants that have unusually low or unusually high scores on a particular variable Chapter 10 Analyzing Experimental Design T1 T2 T3 Chapter 11 Analyzing Complex Designs T1 T2 T3 Chapter 12 QuasiExperimental Design T1 T2 T3 T4 Chapter 14 Ethical Issues T1 Potential benefits from research include 1 add to basic knowledge 2 improve humananimal benefits 3 give student experience 4 help profs keep job and 5 participants learn something Potential causes are 1 fiscal costs 2 participants may suffer psychologically and 3 some studies may physically hurt participants The Institutional Review Board IRB is a board that decides which universities receive funds Members are from scientific amp nonscientific disciplines T2 Informed consent informs the participant the nature of the study and obtains their agreement to participate It doesn t require divulging all info but must tell them info that would in uence their willingness to participate Invasion of privacy is the violation ofa research participant s right to determine how when or where he or she will be studied Coercion to participate is the situation that arises when people agree to participate in a research study because of real or implied pressure from some individual who has the authority or in uence over them Stressing the participant is also an issue with informed consent T3 Deception hides the true purpose of the study by using confederates false feedback or a 2study design It s the most controversial research practice because some view it as lying immoral and because it may lead to undesirable consequences Deception should only be used ifit s justified by a study s value and couldn t be conducted without deception Typically participants react to deception by mistrusting behavioral sciences from then on out Debriefing is when after a study participants are fully informed about the purpose amp details of a study It should clarify the nature of the study including the reason for deception and participants are allowed to express feelings Researchers need to remove any negative consequences the study may have induced assess participants response to the study and leave feeling good about their participation Confidentiality is when data may only be used for research and not divulging to personal info to others Researchers must protect participants right to privacy and anonymity

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