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Date Created: 11/01/15
Lecture 18 Behavioral Perspective Social Learning Theory Ways of Learning Habituation Classical conditioning Operant conditioning Observational Learning Shortcomings of Traditional Behavioral Perspectives Ignores motivation thought amp cognition Based on animals Ignores social dimensions Treats the organism as passive Dollard amp Miller s Social Learning Theory Habit hierarchy all of the behaviors an individual might do are ranked in order from most to least probable Motivation and Drives Drive a state of psychological tension that feels good when it is reduced 0 Drive I Primary Drive food water sex avoiding pain I Secondary Drive social things prestige money love Drive Reduction Theory llFrustrationaggression hypothesis when we have a goal that is blocked we become frustrated and may lash out Psychological conflict approachavoidance conflict any time we re faced with a decision we can either approach decision or avoid it 1 An increase in drive strength increases the tendency for approach or avoidance the hungrier you are the more willing you are to seek out food When there are two competing goals the stronger response wins The tendency to approach increases as the positive goals gets closer The tendency to avoid increases as the negative goal gets closer 9594quot Tendency 4 is stronger than tendency 3 Rotter s Social Learning Theory Primary concerns Decision making and the role of expectancies Expectancy Value Theory 0 Behavioral decisions are determined by I The presence or size of reinforcements I Beliefs about what the results of behavior are likely to be o Locus of control I Internal High generalized expectancies More control over life I External feel like they don t have much control over life Bandura s Social Learning Theory Emphasizes social nature of learning amp ways people interact with situations in their lives Efficacy expectations the perceived probability that you will do something Reciprocal determinism how people shape their environment Bandura s Social Learning Theory Observational Learning Bobo Doll Study Bandura 1965 1977 1 Groupl aggression rewarded 2 Group2 aggression punished 3 Group3 aggression no consequences The CognitiveAffective Personality System CAPS Mischel based on Kelly s personal construct theory Most cognitive version of social learning theory 1 Individual s interpretation or construal of the world is allimportant 2 Describes thought as simultaneously occurring on multiple tracks that occasionally intersect Most important aspect is their interaction Not a single output from a single linear serial Your personality is a stable system that mediates how an individual selects construes and processes social information and generates social behavior CAPS Cognitive Person Variables Individual differences 1 Cognitive and behavioral construction competencies IQ creativity social skills 2 Encoding strategies and personal constructs Persons idea of how world can be categorized efficacy expectations belief of own capabilities 3 Subjective stimulus values individuals belief on probability of attaining a goal if it is pursued How much you value different outcomes 4 Selfregulatory systems and plans how you alter situations your in how people control their own thoughts situation selection 5 Affect amp Emotion Exam 3 Review April 13th Wednesday April 13 2011 234 PM Broad Topics to know Humanistic What makes studying humans unique WhatisI39 39 I I I 39 How do existentialists explain anxiety Understand and apply the concepts of Rogers selfactualization fully functioning person conditional worth Maslow hierarchy of needs Kelly personal constructs Csikszentmilhayli flow and Maddi hardiness What is positive psychology I Behavioral How do behaviorists define personality Describe the key philosophical ideas of behaviorism empiricism associationism hedonism Understand and provide examples applications of habituation classical conditioning US UR CS CR operant conditioning reinforcement punishment shaping and how these apply to I 39 39 I 39 39 U 39 conditioning What is social learning theory according to Dollard amp Miller Bandura Rotter and Mischel How is it different from traditional behavioral theories Personality Processes Conscious vs Unconcscious thoughts shortterm mem compare to freudian unconscious Rational vs experiental systems Epstein39s CEST What is priming and chronic accessibility Examples of rejection sensitivity aggression What are the stages of emotion Describe indiv Differences in emotional experience What is the set point theory of happiness from textbook Culture What is culture What is crosscultural psychology Why do we study crosscultural differences Collectivism and individualism and beyond Influence on personality assessment and etic vs emic Cultural diff on thoughts and values ChaHenges