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by: Mr. Vernie Wehner


Mr. Vernie Wehner
OK State
GPA 3.67

Edward Burkley

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Edward Burkley
Class Notes
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mr. Vernie Wehner on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2743 at Oklahoma State University taught by Edward Burkley in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see /class/232889/psyc-2743-oklahoma-state-university in Psychlogy at Oklahoma State University.




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Date Created: 11/01/15
PSYC 2743 Social Psychology Chapter 3 There are three things that are extremely hard steel a diamond and to know one s self Ben Franklin What is the self and what is it not We are bothered by the warmth of a seat sat in b another but comforted by our own warmth in a sea 7 William Jones Think first of swallowing saliva in your mouth Then imagine spitting in a cup and drinking it What seemed natural and mine suddenly becomes disgusting and alien Gorden Allport What is the self How is the self structured l Selfknowledge 2 Interpersonal self 3 Agent self 1 Self Knowledge self concept 0 Information and beliefs that we have about who we are 0 A female a daughter a sister a strong person me 2 Interpersonal Self 0 Public self 0 Image of self that is conveyed through others 0 Concerned about how others see you 3 Agent Self executive function of self 0 Involved in choices and self control 0 Covered further in chapter 4 Self Awareness 0 Attention directed towards self 0 Self originates from human capacity to turn attention towards self 0 Situation known to increase selfawareness are mirrors being evaluated by others and being videotaped Two types of Self awareness 1 Private attending to inner states emotions and desires 2 Public selfawareness attending to the public aspects of self how we are perceived by others Standards are ideas of how things might be this can be ideals norms expectations and laws We compare current state to standards to assess how good or bad things are SelfAwareness often involves comparing self to some standard and often times we fall short of our standards Self awareness is often felt as unpleasant Self Awareness and Behavior Does selfawareness makes us act better or worse why 1 Change behavior to meet standard When in front of mirror people are less likely to 0 Cheat on an exam 0 Eat fattening food 0 Act aggressively o Violate sexual morals 2 Escape from selfawareness Occurs when we are unable to resolve discrepancy 0 Results in destructive ampor socially undesirable behaviors o Binge eating 0 Alcohol abuse 0 Suicide Origins of Self knowledge Where does it come from 1 The looking glass self looking outside Why Learn who we are by imagining how we appear to others Others act as a mirror in which you see self People do respond to feedback from others but others view of us are often inconsistent with our own view Research shows the gap is not between our self and what we think others believe about us The gap is in between what we think others believe and what they really do believe 2 Looking inside introspection Examine own mind Assumes we have privileged direct access to our inner state Hisbett amp Wilson 1977 showed people do not always know whats going on inside Often rationalize our choice after the fact Conclusion we often know what we are feeling or thinking but not know why Need notes from 12110 Chapter 4 Behavior Control Self in Action The self in action Humans have an elaborate inner system for controlling behavior Attach meaning to certain behaviors Make choices in unique ways Can think longterm Better developed selfregulation Goals Plans and Interactions Goals an idea of some desired future state a guide we use for our behavior 0 It tells us how to purse and uphold our values 0 Setting and pursuing goals is a vital job of the self 0 Most people have 15 goals at any one time Setting goals involves 0 De ning goal speci c goals are better 0 Assessing its feasibility o Deciding how much you want to pursue it When setting goals people tend to be realistic o Thoughtful processing 0 Seek out lots of information about the goal good and bad Pursuing goals involves 0 Flaming what to do to reach goal 0 Carrying out these behaviors When pursuing goals people tend to be optimistic 0 Positive illusions 0 Focus on the information about goals and ignore information about other goals Setting and pursuing goals why is it good to be optimistic about our goals 0 Optimism helps us 0 Persist in face of failure and setbacks 0 Resume goalpursuit after interruptions Goal Planning 0 Once you set a goal you must develop a plan 0 Problems with planning 0 Plans that are too rigid are discouraging 0 Plans tend to be overly optimistic Goal Planning common mistakes in planning 0 Flaming fallacy tendency for plans to be overly optimistic o Underestimated time and money required to achieve goal Why does Planning fallacy occur 0 People do not allow for unexpected problems 0 Positive illusions about self Making Choices as culture progresses it offers more and more choices How do we make choices 0 Step 1 reduce full range of choices to a limited few 0 Step 2 careful comparison of limited options 0 Researchers focus on step 2 o Assumed to involve a costbenefit analysis of each option weighing the and 7 in a rational manner Making choices 1 Risk Aversion in decisions greater weight given to possible losses rather than gains 2 Status Quo Bias preference to keep things the ways they are rather than change them 3 Omission Bias preference for course of action that requires you to do nothing Self regulation is the self s capacity to alter its own responses 0 People regulate their thoughts emotions and behaviors Self Control is self regulation that involves inhibiting a behavior 0 Getting out of bed 0 Acting nice to people when we do not like them 0 Studying for an exam when you want to party 0 Dieting and exercising Why is SelfRegulation so important 0 Predicts success in multiple areas 0 Selfregulation failure is responsible for many problems like drug and alcohol abuse eating disorders unprotected sex STDs teenage pregnancy credit card abuse bankruptcy and underachievement in school How do we monitor our behavior TOTE model TEST OPERATE TEST EXIT TEST gt EXIT OPERATE 1 Test compare self against standard 0 If discrepancy move to operate Equot Operate exert conscious control to change self Equot Test Compare again to see if progress was made 0 If discrepancy operate again 4 Exit the standard has been met and we can exit the system What is the imp01tance of monitoring test phase 0 Must monitor behavior in order to determine progress 0 Provides opportunities for immediate improvement 0 Food journal 0 Record exercise 0 Record money spent Things that interfere with our ability to monitor behavior 0 Emotional distress 0 Stress distraction 0 Alcohol intoxication Capacity for change operate phase Requires selfcontrol willpower Self control all acts of self control draw from same resource this resource is used up quickly once used up impairs subsequent acts of selfcontrol Conclusion becomes fatigued loses strength and requires rest to replenish you can exercise it to build up strength Chapter 5 Social Cognition The Duplex Mind chap 2 The mind is composed of two systems 1 Automatic System 0 outside of conscious awareness or control 0 performs simple operations 0 effortless 2 Conscious System 0 controllable o performs complex operations 0 effortful Most people assume the conscious mind runs the show but the automatic runs almost everything The mind naturally tries to make everything automatic habit Recent research had focused on role of automatic system The book Blink Bene ts of Automatic Bene ts of Conscious quick efficient more exible stimuli Requires little effort handles complex can multi task initiated on its own logical reasoning The Duplex Mind How do these different systems work together The automatic works with the conscious Before making conscious decisions the automatic has done a lot of the work for us 0 The automatic signals conscious when it is needed What happens when they don t cooperate o Conscious overrides the conscious must override the automatic impulse What is Social Cognition o The study of how people think about people Knowledge Structures How is information organized in the brain Schemas information about a concept its attributes and its relationships to other concepts 0 Can be about particular people social roles groups or common events 0 Aid in information processing fill in the blanks etc Attribution Theory Attributions are causal explanations people give for their own and others behavior Attribution Theory Developed to look at 0 Why do we make these attributions 0 When do we make attributions o What types are there 0 Are our inferences accurate Fritz Heider attribution theory founder 1958 Humans have two strong motives 1 Need to understand the world 2 Need to control our environment thus need to be able to predict how people are going to behave When do we make these attributions 0 Most occur automatically but we become aware of them when 0 Something unexpected occurs 0 Something unpleasant occurs Types of Attributions l Dispositional internal attributions o Caused by person s disposition personality Attitude 2 Situational external attributions o Caused by factors in the situation in uenced by others late emergency 1 Fundamental Attribution Error FAE o Tendency for observers to attribute other people s behavior to dispositional causes and downplay situational causes Why does FAE occur I Dispositional attributions are automatic I Situational attributions require a correction I Less likely to correct if cognitively busy 2 ActorObserver effect 0 Tendency for actors to make external attributions and observers to make attributions 0 Blame our behavior on the situations 0 Blame other s behavior on their disposition 3 Selfserving Bias 0 Tendency to take credit for our success but deny blame for failure 0 An A on a test is because we studied hard an F on a test because it was too hard Why does the selfserving bias occur 1 Motivated to see self in a positive light 2 Encourages us to attempt similar tasks in future 3 Depressed individuals show an absence of this bias Heuristics are mental shortcuts that provide quick estimates about the likelihood of events a Representative heuristics judge frequency of event by extent to which it resembles the typical case Availability heuristics judge frequency of event by the ease with which relevant Fquot instances come to mind c Confirmation Bias tendency to search for information to confirm one s beliefs and ignore information that disconfirms this is why people with different perspectives can see the same event and make radically different conclusions Counterfactual Thinking imaging alternatives to past or present factual events or circumstances 0 Upward counterfactual ways it could have been better 0 Downward counterfactual ways it could have been worse this makes us feel better


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