New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here


by: Mr. Vernie Wehner


Mr. Vernie Wehner
OK State
GPA 3.67

Edward Burkley

Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Edward Burkley
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Course

Popular in Psychlogy

This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mr. Vernie Wehner on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2743 at Oklahoma State University taught by Edward Burkley in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see /class/232889/psyc-2743-oklahoma-state-university in Psychlogy at Oklahoma State University.

Similar to PSYC 2743 at OK State

Popular in Psychlogy




Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 11/01/15
Unit 2 TYNKs Automaticity T1 The automaticity perspective investigates how our behaviors are in uenced by situational in uences outside of our conscious awareness or guidance T2 Implicit egoism is when we subconsciously like things that remind us of ourselves It in uences things like where we live and what careers we chose T3 When Bargh studied stereotype priming about the elderly by giving young people crossword One was a control and the other was lled with elderly people stereotypes Those who took the primed stereotype walked slower when they left the study T4 When Bargh primed creativity it was found that people who looked at the Apple logo were more creative than those who looked at the IBM logo T5 High ceilings prime thoughts of freedom which is linked to more creative thinking Low ceilings prime thoughts of con nement which is linked to more analytical concrete thinking T6 The chameleon effect is when people like others who remind them of themselves more T7 Temperature is a halo effect when one trait in uences perception of surrounding traits As shown in Williams and Bargh s 2008 study those holding warm drinks perceived people as more friendly and people holding cold drinks did not T8 Automatic attraction is another of Bargh s theory He hypothesizes that there s a cognitive link between romance sex and women in red Women in red are perceived as more attractive by men but less friendly by women Chapter 6 Emotion and Affect T1 Emotion is the conscious evaluative reaction to some event Mood is a feeling state not clearly linked to some event Affect is an automatic response to something that is good or bad T2 SchacterSinger theory of emotion Emotion has two components 7 unexplained arousal and a cognitive label For example feeling warm shaky and having a racing heart are physiological symptoms that are labeled as arousal when around a beautiful woman and as nervousness when faced with a public presentation Dutton and Aron conducted a study on the misattribution of arousal in 1974 where a woman approached young men with a survey on two types of bridges She later gave them her phone number Those on the high bridge were more likely to call her than those on the low bridge They incorrectly attributed their feelings towards arousal instead of because they were standing on a scary bridge T3 We have emotions because they promote belongingness guide thinking and learning and can help us anticipate how we will feel in the future The affectasinformation hypothesis is when people judge things as good or bad by asking themselves How do Ifeel about this Schwarz and Clore studied this in 1983 in their payphone study When they called people on sunny days and asked about their mood they were more likely to get more positive reports than from those they called on cloudy days but only when attention wasn t drawn to the weather Broaden and build theory positive emotions expand one s attention and mindset For example joy creates the urge to play and be creative which can expand boundaries Physicians in good moods also diagnosed patients faster and with fewer errors T4 There are six universally recognized emotions anger happiness sadness surprise disgust and fear Contrary to stereotypes there are no real gender differences Chapter 7 Attitudes Beliefs and Consistency T1 Attitudes are global evaluations toward an object or issue There are two types of attitudes implicit attitudes which are automatic and unconscious like prejudice and explicit attitudes which are controlled and conscious like egalitarian views People have attitudes to help us deal with a complex world provide immediate evaluations and help us make choices T2 The Implicit Association Test measures attitudes and beliefs that people are either unwilling or unable to report They complete a survey of their explicit beliefs and the complete the implicit measure by classifying words or images into categories as quickly as possible T3 The mere exposure effect is the tendency for novel stimuli to be liked more after the individual has been repeatedly exposed to them like that damn Miley Cyrus song This is very similar to classical conditioning when we develop an attitude towards conditioned stimuli such as in Pavlov s dog study Attitude polarization is an effect that occurs when people re ect on their attitudes they become more extreme Furthermore those with strong initial attitudes on certain issues are likely to evaluate relevant evidence with bias T4 Balance theory or Heider s POX theory involves three components 7 Person Other Person and Attitude Object Individuals prefer balanced situations 3 positives or 2 negativesl positive 7 We agree with our friends and disagree with our enemies to imbalanced situations 3 negatives or 2 positivesl negative This theory doesn t take into account multiple systems or situations that involve more than three elements Cognitive dissonance theory is a hypothesis that states psychological discomfort is produced when attitude and behavior are inconsistent For example if a student goes to OSU but hates orange discomfort will occur Either rationalizing the behavior or changing their attitude to be consistent with the behavior can resolve this Festinger and Carlsmith s peg turning study was a study in which participants turned pegs monotonously and then told other participants it was fun Depending on how much money the first participant was paid the first participant either believed it was fun or just said it was This study was done to show effort justification which is when people suffer or work hard to make sacrifices they will convince themselves that it was worthwhile T5 La Pierre s study in which he followed a Chinese couple throughout America was meant to analyze attitudebelief consistency At the time only one restauranthotel refused service to the couple but when sent a letter about the incident 92 of proprietors said they would refuse service to a Chinese couple This led to researchers to identify which situations attitudebelief consistency was strongest in Measured attitude must be specific to the topic and must be measured closely to the behavior Relevant attitudes are the most salient and there can be no situational pressure T6 Belief is automatic once one understands something they believe it This is known as belief perseverance Disbelieving requires control to correct the belief We are most likely to believe things when under stress or distracted 7 when the mind is otherwise occupied Chapter 8 Social In uence and Persuasion T1 Normative in uence is when one goes along with the crowd in order to be liked such as in Asch s Line Study In this study five confederates and one subject were asked to compare lines and pick the matches In the beginning everyone picked the correct lines but after a few rounds the confederates began to pick the wrong lines Shockingly 33 of subjects agreed with the confederates even though it was blatant that the lines were not matches Informational in uence is when one is convinced their beliefs are incorrect or another belief is better such as in Sherif s autokinetic study in which participants judged the distance of a light Private acceptance is when one actually changes their beliefs after being in uenced public compliance is when one publicly changes their opinion but doesn t actually believe it T2 Footinthedoor technique is when one begins with a small request and then asks for something large such as in Freedman and Fraser s 1966 Committee for Safe Driving petition and signs The study showed that those who signed a petition for safe driving were more likely to later put large ugly signs in their lawn when asked at a later point The lowball technique is when one starts with a lowcost request When another complies hidden costs are revealed This is often seen in car sales The baitandswitch technique draws people in with an attractive offer that isn t available and are then shown a less attractive offer that is available Retail stores do this a lot All three of these techniques are based on commitment and consistency T3 The doorintheface technique is when someone starts with a big request and then switches to a smaller request which is what they actually wanted to begin with For this to work the first request must be viewed as reasonable This is shown in Caldini et al s zoo trip study Caldini asked others to mentor a juvenile delinquent for two hours a week for two years Most refused and were then asked to chaperone a bus trip Consequently most complied with the second request The that snotalltechnique is when one begins with an in ated request but immediately adds to the deal by offering a bonus item or a discount This is seen in infomercials These techniques are based on reciprocation T4 The limited offer technique also seen in infomercials and retail stores is when an offer has a supposedly limited duration This works because of psychological reactance when personal freedoms are threatened it makes us feel uncomfortable and we reassert our control by taking the offer T5 Both pique technique and disruptthenreframe technique are based on capturing and disrupting attention Pique technique is an in uence technique in which one captures people s attention by making a novel request Can you spare 17 cents vs Can you spare some change Disruptthenreframe technique is an in uence technique in which one disrupts critical thinking by introducing an unexpected element then reframes the message in a positive light T6 Persuasion is attempting to change a person s attitude We are more persuaded by people who are experts and trustworthy which is known as source credibility However even noncredible sources can be persuasive over time we forget the source of the message and believe the message which is known as the sleeper effect Source likeability also in uences credibility that is we are more persuaded by similar others and those who are physically attractive Humor and fear are also methods of persuasion particularly ads People in good moods are more responsive to persuasive messages and people who are moderatively fearful of an event can be persuaded by being told how to avoid the fear T7 Elaboration Likelihood Model ELM is a theory that posits two routes to persuasion via either conscious central or automatic peripheral processing duplex mind When going through the central route arguments must be thoughtful and logical Evaluations are based on argument quality It occurs when people are have both the motivation and ability to process info deeply When using the peripheral route one must in uence by simple peripheral cues It doesn t require much cognitive resources and occurs when one has neither ability or motivation to process anything deeply Some peripheral cues are when the expert knows best providing more arguments and saying what is beautiful or expensive is better T8 Attitude inoculation is a method of resisting persuasion when one is exposed to weak arguments one can generate counterarguments and increase resistance Furthermore people are even more resistant to sneak attacks when they know they re coming Persuasive attempts can lead to the boomerang affect when people do the opposite of what they re requested to do Chapter 9 Prosocial Behavior T 1 Reciprocity is the obligation to return in kind what another has done for us The tragedy of the commons is a dilemma arising from the situation in which multiple individuals acting independently and solely and rationally consulting their own self interest will ultimately deplete a shared limited resource even when it is clear that it is not in anyone39s longterm interest for this to happen T2 Obedience is complying with a person or group perceived to be a legitimate authority Milgram s obedience theory the shocking study found 63 of people will follow authority even when another s life is at stake According to the film we watched in class very similar results would be found if we could do this study today T3 Conformity is simply going along with the crowd There are two causes informational social in uence conforming out of a desire to be accurate ambiguous stimuli gt private attitude change and normative social in uence conforming out of desire to be liked by others nonambiguous stimuli gt public compliance A minority can sway a majority by being consistent in their position being forceful being otherwise similar to the majority and not appearing to be driven by selfinterest T4 Kin selection is the evolutionary tendency to help people who have our genes Egoistic helping is when a helper seeks to increase his or her own welfare by helping another while altruistic helping is when a helper seeks to increase another s welfare and expects nothing in return Empathy is reacting to another person s emotional state by experiencing the same emotional state The empathyaltruism hypothesis states the idea that empathy motivates people to reduce other people s distress as by helping or comforting This is directly tied to negative state relief the idea that people help others in order to relieve their own distress T5 There are ve steps to helping One 7 noticing something is wrong Two 7 Interpret meaning of event Three 7 Taking responsibility for providing help Four 7 Know how to help Five 7 Providing help The bystander effect is when people are less likely to help when others are present This is caused by pluralistic ignorance which is when we look to others for social cues when they are looking at us for clues For example one might not ask questions in class because no one else is This was illustrated in the smoke filled room study where those alone were almost seven times more likely to seek help when smoke began to pour into the room than those who were in the room with other people Diffusion of responsibility also reduces helping the presence of others makes us feel less responsible for causing or solving a problem as shown in the seizure study Unit 3 TYNKs Chapter 10 Aggresqinn amp quot 39 39 quot 39 T1 Aggression is any behavior intended to harm another person who is motivated to avoid the harm Violence is aggression with the goal ofphysical harm Hostile aggression is hot impulsive angry behavior crimes of passion Instrumental aggression is cold premeditated behavior that is the means to some end like Dexter Passive aggression is harm by withholding behavior while active aggression is harm by performing a behavior T2 According to Freud humans have two instincts Eros the lifegiving instinct and Thanatos the death instinct Freud believed Thanatos explained aggression Modeling is observing and copying the behavior of others as seen in Bandura s Bobo doll studies T3 Frustration is defined as the blockage of personal goals The frustration aggression hypothesis states that aggression implies a previous frustration and that frustration always leads to aggression The problem with this theory is that aggression isn t always caused by frustration and frustration doesn t always end in aggression As humans age displays ofphysical aggression lessen However 25 of toddler interactions in day care settings involve physical aggression This is thought to be caused by limited alternatives for con ict resolution and low selfcontrol abilities While neither men nor women are more aggressive it s displayed in different forms Men show higher rates ofviolent crime and display ight or ight syndrome in which they chose between violence or escape Women on the other hand engage in relational aggression and display tend and befriend syndrome keep your friends close and your enemies closer T4 The weapons effect is when the mere aggressive behavior I I CSCIICC ofa wea I 011 increases Unpleasant environments testosterone and alcohol all increase aggression Alcohol in particular reduces inhibitions narrows attention decreases selfawareness and disrupts executive function T5 Correlational research shows a positive correlation between watching violent TV and aggression However there may be a case for reverse causality or poor parenting Crosslagged correlational research measures variables at different time points Eron et al s 1972 studied TV preferences and aggression in boys over 10 years and found TV made them more aggressive Factors that increase the relationship between media violence and aggression are an attractive similar aggressor unattractive victim justification for violence humor rewards for aggression GTA and unobserved consequences for the victim There is strong evidence that videogames cause aggression and have a stronger effect than TV This is because videogames are more interactive the player is committing to the aggression rather than simply viewing and the violence in reinforced a la Grand Theft Auto T6 Selfcontrol plays a role in aggression a lack ofit makes one more likely to be aggressive Deindividuation is when in groups people lose selfawareness It results in a loss of individuality and selfrestraint Diener et al s 1976 Halloween study showed that groups of children unidentified were far more likely to cheat and take more than one piece of candy than children alone identified or anonymous or identified children in groups Chapter 11 Attraction T1 Humans tend to like those who are similar to us in attitudes interests values background and personality as well as age education intelligence religion attractiveness and height This is thought to be caused by implicit egotism we like things that remind us of ourselves The matching principle is when people tend to pair with others who are equally attractive It also states that dissimilarity in attractiveness increases the risk of breakup T2 Propinquity is when one encounters someone on a regular basis making them more prone to like them Festinger s Westgate West Study showed that residents were most friendly with those closest to them their nextdoor neighbors Propinquity promotes attraction because of the ease of availability lower cost in terms of time money and forethought exposure effect and cognitive dissonance T3 Humans tend to value attractive people It is believed this is caused by the quotwhat s beautiful is good effect the stereotype that attractive people possess good qualities We tend to find beautiful people to be rewarding such as with the assimilation affect people associated with attractive close others are seen as more attractive themselves Opposite to this is contrast effect when one s with an attractive stranger one is seen as less attractive Evolution wise beauty is thought to re ect health and reproductive fitness this has been shown to be misleading by research T4 Ostracism is being rejected excluded and ignored by others It results is numbness impaired psychological and cognitive functioning negative effect and weakened selfcontrol Baumeister and Dewall 2005 showed rejected people had less selfcontrol Repeated rejection can create aggression which leads to more rejection Social exclusion is common in school shootings Chapter 12 Relationships T1 Passionate love is strong feelings oflonging desire and excitement towards a specific person Companionate love is mutual understanding and caring Passionate love is important for starting a relationship but it is shortlived Companionate love is important for relationships to succeed and survive According to Sternberg s triangle love is composed of three ingredients passion intimacy and commitment T2 The three types of attachment are secure avoidant and anxiousambivalent Adults who have secure attachment styles find it easy to get close to others share feelings and ideas have healthier relationships turn to partner when stressed are responsive to their partner s needs and are trusting They tend to have healthy sex lives Adults who have an avoidant attachment style are uncomfortable getting close to others fear commitment aren t emotionally involved They prefer sex with no intimacy or may avoid sex entirely onenight stands and affairs are common Adults who have an anxious ambivalent attachment style seek relationships but worry about abandonment are obsessive and jealous fall in love at first sight and feel unappreciated by their partners They use sex to create intimacy have sex when they don t want to and may engage in risky behaviors because they re afraid to say no They often have larger numbers ofpartners and may have unwanted pregnancies T3 Interdependence theory is the most used theory ofsocial relationships Based on principles of social exchange theory it analyzes social interactions in terms of benefits and costs to the individuals When two people are interdependent they will coordinate their behavior to maximize rewards and minimize costs Comparison level or CL is the quality of outcomes you believe you deserve It is purely subjective and determines one s satisfaction in the relationship Comparison level for alternatives is the average outcomes of the next best available alternative It determines one s dependence on a relationship The investment model is based on interdependence theory in it satisfaction alternatives and investments all in uence commitment which in turn in uence our relationship maintenance mechanisms These include positive illusions idealizing partner forgoing tempting alternatives not cheating relationshipenhancing attributions he s stressed and mean because of work willingness to sacrifice cutting off hair to buy him a watch band and him selling watch to buy her a hair comb and accommodation and forgiveness Chapter 13 Prejudice T1 Prejudice is a negative attitude or feeling towards an individual that is based solely on that person s membership in a certain group Discrimination refers to unequal treatment of different people based on the groups or categories to which they belong Stereotypes are beliefs that associate groups of people with certain traits T2 According to realistic group con ict theory prejudice exists due to competition over scarce resources which leads to intergroup hostility and con ict According to social identity theory prejudice exists because people automatically categorize the world into ingroups quotusquot and outgroups quotthemquot In this theory ingroup complexity is assumed as is outgroup homogeneity quotthey re all the same Ingroup favoritism is preferential treatment or favorable attitudes towards one s own group Minimal group effect is the automatic preference for members of one s own group even in the absence of pragmatic benefit or personal relationship such as when groups are assigned In Sherif s Robber s Cave experiment boys were randomly assigned to one of two groups and made to compete After one week the two groups were intensely hostile towards each other In order to reduce this prejudice super ordinate groups were created ie they worked together for a common goal According to the ignorance perspective prejudice exists because people have very little contact with other groups and due to lack ofinformation about them fill in the gap with stereotypes The contact hypothesis states that regular interaction between members of different groups reduces prejudice In order to reduce prejudice there must be 1 equal group status 2 Sufficient frequency duration and closeness and 3 institutional support According to rationalization oppression prejudice exists because the more powerful group uses stereotypes and prejudices to retain power According to automatic categorization prejudice exists because of the natural human tendency to group objects Stereotypes act as mental shortcuts The main difference between prejudiced and nonprejudiced people is that nonprejudiced people will consciously override the stereotype We are most likely to rely on stereotypes when group category is salient ambiguous or have inadequate info and are low on cognitive resources stressed scared distracted etc T3 Socialization reduces prejudice through mere exposure Each generation appears slightly less prejudiced than the last possibly due to increased college education changing targets and learning to consciously override stereotypes The jigsaw technique is when a classroom represents all sorts of races and they must complete a task that requires all of them to help therefore pushing stereotypes aside Recategorization also helps eliminate prejudice It encourages one to recategorize members of the ingroup and the outgroup as members ofa larger more included groups rather than OU vs OSU recategorize as OK college students T4 Selffulfilling prophecy is defined as a belied about the future that comes true in part because the belief causes it to come true This plays into stereotypes threat or the fear that one might confirm the stereotypes that others hold such as women fearing doing poorly on a math test as compared to men Steele amp Aronson s studies showed this very well In study 1 whites ended up doing better than blacks on a standardized test when primed in study 2 whites did worse than Asians on standardized test when primed In both studies when there was no priming the two groups did pretty much the same Surprisingly stigmatized groups tend to have equivalent selfesteem levels This is thought to be due to selfprotective strategies such as attributing negative feedback to prejudice not getting a job and blamingit on prejudice making ingroup social comparisons I m better at math than most women and disidentification valuing attributes on which their group excels This was shown in Crocker s Blinds study if the participant was seen they attributed their negative feedback to prejudice It unseen it was far less likely T5 Implicit stereotypes are automatically activated without awareness of their in uences such as seen in Payne s raceweapon study In this study they weapon would change from person to person depending on the race of the observer Macrae s backpack study showed that suppressing stereotypes takes selfcontrol Those who tried to suppress stereotypes ended up sitting farther away from an out group backpack Chapter 14 Groups T1 A group is two more people doing or being something together Optimal distinction theory is the proposition that when people feel very similar to others in a group they seek a way to be different and when they feel different they try to be more similar T2 Triplett did social psychology s first study in 1898 He found that cyclists biked faster when around other cyclists He also did the first social psych experiment in which children were told to pull in line on a fishing rod as fast as possible They were faster when surrounded by other kids These studies demonstrated social facilitation Social facilitation is the proposition that the presence of others increases the dominant response tendency or the most common response in a given situation Social inhibition is when the presence of others decreases the dominant response tendency Zajonc s cockroach study was an excellent example of this cockroaches naturally run in a straight line In his study they completed mazes in the presence of other cockroaches and when given a straight maze they were faster than when alone but did worse one the curved maze than when alone The presence of others is thought to increase arousal because of evaluation apprehension People are concerned about being evaluated and want to make a good impression Social loafing is the finding that people reduce effort when working in a group compared to when working alone T3 Groupthink is the tendency of group members to think alike Symptoms of groupthink include an illusion of invulnerability shared stereotypes an illusion of morality selfcensorship direct pressure and mind guarding Groupthink can be overcome if the leader remains impartial and encourages the expression of dissent if subcommittees are used to discuss the same issue separately if a quotdevil s advocate is appointed and if outside experts are consulted Risky shift is a tendency for groups to take greater risks that the same individuals on average would have decided to take individually Group polarization effect is a shift towards a more extreme position resulting from group discussion This can be seen with WMDs in the Bush era and the Bay of Pigs Module D Law T1 Eye witnesses are extremely in uential yet not particularly accurate Prejudice and stereotypes in uence accuracy as does the ownrace bias people will be more accurate identifying their own race Lawyers also tend to use misleading questions and primed words to in uence our perception ofwhat really happened eg what happened when the cars slammed into each other The bestguess problem is when people pick the person that most closely fits the person they remember Unit 1 TYNKs Chapter 1 The Mission and the Method T1 According to Allport social psychology is the scienti c study of the way in which people s thoughts feelings and behaviors are in uences by the real or imagined presence of others Wegner and Gilbert believe the modern de nition of social psychology is more concerned with the scienti c study of the human experience 7 what it s like to be a person T2 Affect emotion behavior and cognition make up the ABC triad T3 The two main assumptions of social psych are that 1 individual behavior is strongly in uenced by the social environment and focus on situational explanations of behavior and 2 individuals actively construing social situations T4 Interpersonal level focus on a person s social situation ie social psych Societal level a general understanding of patterns of social behavior ie sociologists Individual level a study of a person s unique life history and psychological characteristics ie clinical and personality psychologists T5 We study social psych because 1 curiosity about people 2 experimental philosophy 3 want to make the world better and 4 it s fun T6 The ve steps of the scienti c method are l stating the problem 2 formulate a testable hypothesis 3 design and collect the data 4 compare the results of hypothesis using statistics and 5 communication of results A theory is a set of unobservable constructs somehow linked together a hypothesis is an idea about the nature of these links The manipulated IV is the IV that the researcher changes hoping to create a change in the DV Measured IV s are variables such as age race and gender that affect the study but cannot be manipulated T7 The two key features of an experimental study are manipulated IV and random assignment Together they insure that the differences at the end of the study are due to IV and not some other in uence Quasiexperiments are structured like a true experiment except the researcher is unable to randomly assign conditions A study is said to have high internal validity if the researcher can be relatively con dent that changes in the IV caused changes in the DV A study can be said to have high external validity is the results are similar Chapter 3 The Self T1 The self is structured into three major components 1 Selfknowledge information about the self 2 the interpersonal self and 3 the agent self executive functions Self knowledge or selfconcept is the info and beliefs we have about who we are The public self is the image that one conveys to others The agent self controls executive functioning such as decision making and selfcontrol An independent selfsontrual emphasizes what makes the self different and sets it apart from others In contrast an interdependent selcontrual emphasizes what connects the self to other people and things Western peoples tend to be more independent and Eastern peoples tend to be more interdependent T2 Selfawareness is attention directed towards the self There are two main types 1 privateselfawareness where one attends to inner states emotions thoughts desires traits and 2 public selfawareness where one attends to the public aspects of the self how one s perceived by others Standards are ideas of how things must be done ideals norms expectations laws We compare our current state to standards to assess how good or bad things or ourselves are Selfawareness often involves comparing the self to some standard which we often fall short of Because of this shortcoming we often change our behavior to match our standards T3 A large part of our selfknowledge comes from the lookingglass self or who we think we are by what we think others imagine us to be Another part of selfknowledge comes from introspection or the examination of our own minds While it s assumed we have privileged access to our inner minds we often have no idea what s going on According to Nisbett and Wilson introspection is inaccurate We also gather selfknowledge through social comparison We are likely to compare ourselves to others when there s no objective standard such as when we re in an unfamiliar town or at a party where one doesn t know anyone There are two main types of social comparisons l downward where we compare to people we consider worse than us and 2 upward where we compare to those we consider better than us 7 our role models T4 There are three main motives for selfknowledge 7 l appraisal motive or the desire for accurate self info 2 selfenhancement motive or the desire for positive selfinfo and 3 consistency motive or the desire for consistent selfinfo Selfenhancement motive is the dominant motive especially after failure or threats to the selfesteem This is known as automatic egotism and also emerges under times of stress or distraction However we also selfhandicap we put obstacles in our way when we anticipate failure so we can blame our failure on said obstacles All of this works together to make the working selfconcept or the image of the self that s currently active in one s thoughts Every situation achieves a small part of the total selfinfo T5 Selfesteem is how favorably people evaluate themselves People with high SE have positive self views while people with low SE have an absence of positive views Research has shown that depressed people have something called depressed reality 7 rather than having a distorted view of the world and the self as commonly believed research has shown their observations to be very accurate On the other hand non depressed people have unrealistically positive views of the self and world which are known as positive illusions There are advantages and disadvantages to having high SE 7 Al it increases con dence and initiative and A2 it feels good However it Dl can lead to narcissism and D2 often harms those around the individual T6 Selfpresentation is de ned as any behavior that seeks to convey some image of self or some information about the self to other people intentionally or unintentionally Chapter 4 Behavioral Control The Selfin Action T1 A goal is an idea of some desired future state There are three steps involved in setting goals 1 defining goals 2 assessing their feasibility and 3 deciding how much we want to pursue said goal There are two steps involved in pursuing goals 1 planning and 2 carrying out plans When people set goals they are surprisingly realistic and when we pursue goals we remain optimistic Flaming fallacy are tendencies for plans to become overly optimistic by underestimating time and money required to reach the goal such as in the construction of the Sydney Opera House T2 Sometimes people hesitate to change The statusquo bias is a simple preference to keep things the way they are instead of changing such as why it took so long to change health care Another reason people don t change is because of omission bias or taking whatever course of action doesn t require you to do anything such as not unclicking the junk mail option on an online application Risk aversion is also a reason why people chose not to change the possible risk outweighs the possible outcome T3 Selfregulation is the self s capacity to alter it s own responses Selfcontrol is self regulation that involves inhibiting a behavior like a diet Reactance theory is a theory proposed by Brehm that states that people are distressed by loss of freedom or options and seek to reclaim or reassert them T4 Selfregulation is important for society because it keeps it from being like Gotham in The Dark Knight when the Joker who has no selfcontrol goes crazy The TOTE model is the Test Operate Test Exit model We test ourselves against a standard operate and then test again This repeats until we feel we have met the standard upon which we exit the model The test phase or monitoring allows is to determine our progress and make immediate improvements According to Muraven and Baumeister selfcontrol is like a muscle It tires with use but can also be trained to get stronger Chapter 5 Social Cognition T1 Social cognition is the study about how people think about other people Humans are cognitive misers 7 they don t like to think more than they have to T2 Schemas are info about a concept its attributes and its relationships with other concepts and can be about people roles groups or events They aid in info processing Like schemas scripts are knowledge structures that contain info about how people or objects behave under varying circumstances 7 basically schemas for certain events Another concept related to schemas and scripts is priming Priming means activating a concept like a schema or script in the mind T3 Attributions are the causal explanations people give for their own and others behavior According to Heider humans have two strong motives for attributions l the need to understand the world and 2 the need to control the environment both of which sate our need to be able to predict how people are going to behave Fundamental attribution error is the process of attributing personal failure to external sources and other s failures to internal sources Related to this is actorobserver bias the tendency for actors to make external attributions and observers to make internal attributions Another related concept is selfserving bias the tendency to take credit for successes but deny blame for failure This bias occurs because it interprets the event in a way that makes one feel good T4 Heuristics are mental shortcuts that provide quick estimates about the likelihood of uncertain events A representative heuristic is the tendency to judge the frequency or likelihood of an event by the extent to which it resembles the typical case The availability heuristic is the tendency to judge the frequency or likelihood of an event by the ease with which relevant incidences come to mind Anchoring and adjustment heuristics are the tendencies to judge the frequency or likelihood of an event by using a starting point called an anchor and then making adjustments up or down T5 Con rmation bias is the tendency to notice and search for information that confirms one s beliefs and to ignore info that disconfrrms them An illusionary correlation is the tendency to overestimate the link between variables that are related only slightly or not at all False consensus effect is the overestimation of the number of other people who share one s opinions attitudes and beliefs while false uniqueness effect is the underestimation of other people who share one s most prized characteristics and abilities Counterfactual thinking is simply imagining alternatives to past or present events or circumstances 7 it s the what might have been This can envision outcomes that were either better 7 upward counterfactuals or worse 7 downward counterfactuals


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Jennifer McGill UCSF Med School

"Selling my MCAT study guides and notes has been a great source of side revenue while I'm in school. Some months I'm making over $500! Plus, it makes me happy knowing that I'm helping future med students with their MCAT."

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.