ISSUES IN DIVERSITY
ISSUES IN DIVERSITY LEIS 2443
Popular in Course
Popular in Leisure Management
This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Phyllis Batz on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to LEIS 2443 at Oklahoma State University taught by Patrick Lewis in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see /class/232890/leis-2443-oklahoma-state-university in Leisure Management at Oklahoma State University.
Reviews for ISSUES IN DIVERSITY
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 11/01/15
Chapter 4 Race 0 An anthropological concept used to divide humankind into categories based on physical characteristics of size shape of ear eyes Ethnicity Refers to how members of a group perceive themselves and how they are in turn perceived by others Characteristics include religion language and tradition Tend to share similar beliefs within group 0 Tend to hold mere positive beliefs of group then those help by individuals outside of group 0 Like races ethnicities often overlap Ethnicity and Harmony 0 Members of ethnic groups llmay pay particular attention to differences between themselves and others to bolster a positive sense of their social identityquot Bower 1996 0 Therefore individuals from different groups may have a hard time connecting on llneutral ground Human Race 0 All humans make up one species homo sapiens 0 Differences among races account for 6 of human genetic variation 0 Differences among tribes or nations within a race account for 8 of variation 0 Differences within local groups accounts for 85 of genetic difference Subspecies 0 Debate exists classifying human species 0 Monogoloid o Negroid o Capoid o Caucasoid o Australoid o Descriptions include skin color geographic region and facial features Self Identified 0 Race is constantly evolving 0 Some old and lasting some new and emerging 0 quotpurequot race has been extinct for more the 100000 years 0 US Census Bureau 0 Race is selfidentified concept with no clear cut scientific definition of biological stock 0 Definition depends on which race one identifies with most Prevalence of Race 0 US culture uses race categories very often 0 Birth certificate marriage license college applications various official form 0 Census based is used to 0 Determine voting districts 0 Fund social programs 0 Low income housing 0 Medical clinics 0 Literacy education 0 Minority benefits Af rmative Action 0 Affirmative Action policies are intended to assist people who are discriminated against because of their race to obtain equal treatment in housing employment and banking Interactions 0 Take a stand against racist behavior 0 Remove quotracequot from your vocabulary 0 Practice looking at people and not at labels 0 Treat everyone you meet as an equal 0 Celebrate a particular ethnic culture 0 Accept respect and celebrate diversity Whitewashing Gordon 2005 0 White privilege is sustained through color blindness o A selfimposed blindness o Refusal to see race thereby failing to acknowledge white privilege o Noticing skin color 0 Endangers the status quo white privilege o llcultures of niceness Logics o Colorblindness o A selfimposed blindness o Refusal to see race thereby failing to acknowledge white privilege I Strategies 0 Dismiss the concerns of people of color 0 Dance around race instead of bringing up race directly 0 Coding the practice of negatively portraying people of color without explicitly naming race 0 Selective attribution 0 Race exists for some people and not for others 0 Allows white people to make the determination of whose racial identity will be acknowledged I Strategies 0 Selecting White people decide who is acknowledged as a racial being 0 Diluting race is acknowledged but for only those who are NOT present in the room 0 Attributing race applies to everyone NOT white 0 Avoidance 0 Race is acknowledged but there is a change in direction away from the topic to safer ground I Strategies 0 Shifting deliberate change in the focus of the conversation to safer ground 0 Drifting moving the conversation away from direct acknowledgement of race to peripheral issues 0 Running conversation is directly and abruptly hijacked and race talk is abandoned o Containment o Allows for limited race talk but strives to keep the talk safe I strategies 0 Warning front loading a comment llthis is heavy stuffquot 0 Highlights culture of niceness o Whitewashing 0 Differences among white people are minimized to create a sense of solidarity and allegiance I Strategies 0 Hiding person deliberately disguises aspects of his her identity that might be offensive to others religion sexual preference marital status 0 Overlooking ignores racist comments by others and implies tacit agreement with those comments What is the Invisible knapsack Ethnicity Group an entity that is distinguished by commonalities including shared beliefs common origins and share activities Americanization practice of acculturation that seeks to merge small ethnic and linguistically diverse communities into a single dominant national culture melting pot Bigotry the stubborn intolerance of any race nationality or creed that deferrers from one s own 92910 Notes Pam Hawkins Guest Speaker Parks playground equipment benches pavilions people restrooms Take kids friends dog etc Talking about racism and experiencing racism in today s culture Chapter 5 Gender Sex and Gender difference 0 Gender is Not the same as sex 0 Sex 0 Biological and anatomical classification relation to specific organs of reproduction 0 Gender 0 A broad topic which focuses on the roles occupied by males females and Intersexed persons 0 Intersexed aka Hermaphrodites individuals whose chromosomal characteristics and or anatomy are neither fully quotmalequot or quotfemalequot Terms Androgynous a person who exhibits masculine and feminine qualities paperances or behaviors Gender Variance real or perceived incongruity between recorded birth sex and present anatomy physiology behavior manner of dress or manner of presentation born of variant biological sex that s not usual male female biology Transgendered Individuals whose appearance and behaviors do not conform to cultural norm for the gender to which they were born Transsexual a person who was born one sex but emotionally and physiology identifies with another Gender Movement 0 Gender is more complex than the description of a person s genitalia 0 Gender identity can be formed through 0 Psychological factors 0 Spiritual factors 0 Physical factors 0 Gender Equity 0 Movement designed to eliminate gender bias and stereotyping in education sports and workplace Gender Gap 0 Gender Gap 0 Refers to differences and inequalities between men and women 0 Due to and fueled by the fundamental belief that men and women are not equal 0 What are some differences and inequalities that you are aware of Gender Role stereotypes 0 Men s Job women s Jobs 0 Name a few construction etc 0 Children rearing Whose job is it o Rape and sexual assault are sexist attitudes carried to a violent extreme 0 Sexual harassment includes I Name calling innuendo insults absence gestures gender bashingjokes physical threats and actual physical violence Gender Stereotypes limit 0 Gender stereotypes 0 Limit growth and development Deny experience during youth Create anxiety in children 000 Create barriers to the development of interests goals and talents I Engineering I Outdoor adventure education leadership I Politics Power in Society 0 The gender movement seeks to put more women in policy making decisions in governemtn positions business religion and education 0 111 h congress 0 House of Representatives 435 members I 78 women 18 0 Senate 100 members I 18 women 18 o Oklahoma s current 2010 Senate 48 members 0 4 women 8 Traditional Roles o Homemaker rights 0 Little recognition of economic value of homemaking o Is a marriage and equal economic partnership I Tiger woods 0 Men the rest of them 0 Comparativer only a few men hold the majority of power in the world 0 Therefore the majority of men are suffering some level of oppression 0 Do you agree Gender Wage Gap 0 Does the Gender wage Gap involve a zerosum gain Equal Rights Amendment 0 Equal rights Amendment was written by Alice Paul Founder of National Women s Party in 1923 0 Section 1 Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of sex 0 Section 2 the congress shall have the power to enforce by appropriate legislation the provisions of this article Section 3 The amendment shall take effect two years after the date of the ratification The equal rights amendment was first introduced to congress in 1923 Amendment sough equal rights under the law for women 0 Has yet to be ratified o Portions have I Right for women to serve in combat O The equal rights amendment was reintroduced in the House of Representatives on July 21 2009 Lead sponsors are congresswomen Carolyn Maloney DNY and Congresswomen Judy Biggert The ERA was introduced into every session of Congress between 1923 and 1972 Passed in 1972 0 Sent to the states for ratification o The 7 year time limit in the ERAS proposing cause was extended by congress to June 30 1982 o The ERA has been ratified by 35 states Leaving it three states short of the 38 required for ratification It has been reintroduced into every congress since that time Parental Leave Legislation 0 Seeks to give working parents the right to take time off from work to care for their children 0 Congresswomen Maloney NY proposed 0 Federal employees pain parental leave act of 2009 o Sought 4 of 12 weeks for parental leave be made available as paid leave 0 Australia 2010 proposed 18 weeks of paid leave to either parent Interactions 0 Help stop sexist behavior 0 Use appropriate pronouns 0 Avoid patronizing 0 Demonstrate change Gender and Leisure 0 Play can reinforce gender role stereotypes 0 Boys play with toy guns and wreste 0 Boys pay pretend doctors firefighters or airline piots 0 Girls play with dos 0 Girls pay pretend taking care of babies cooking or sewing nurse or flight attendant Women and Leisure 0 Victorian Prudery and misconceptions 0 Contribute to perceptions of women as I Inferior in skills I Lack drive confidence and ability to compete 0 Physical activity detracts from womaniness has a negative effect on motherhood and is detrimental to a women s health 0 Joan Benoit 1984 first winner of Women s Olympic Marathon 0 Women experience inequality in leisure compared to men 0 Women have less time for leisure than men due to disproportionate amount of housework 0 Women have unequal participation for example outdoor recreation 0 Despite increases in participation rates fewer post secondary coege opportunities exist in sport 0 Women combine roles 0 Family wife roles combine with leisure pursuits 0 Women put others needs before their own leisure potentially based on guilt 0 Family defines leisure for women Women s leisure more likely to take place at home 0 Unstructured o Squeezed in o Tends to include activities like reading or gardening Women do not feel entitled to leisure Homemakers do not quotcontributequot financially they haven t earned the right to have leisure Second shift is their responsibility Constraint on Leisure An individual is unable to participate in a leisure activity Unable to participate as much as the individual would like The quality of the experience is diminished for some reason Three categories of constraints 0 Interpersonal lack another person s to participate with or participate in an activity because of other people s desire o ntrapersonal individual preference for an activity skill belief can effect decisions to participate including self consciousness eg body image 0 Structural factors intervene to influence participation Most commons is lack of time also transportation money or opportunity Culture of Niceness Discrimination 0 Making distinction against a person not according to his or her actual merit but upon a categorical basis Sexual Orientation Discrimination Heteosexism o Discrimination based upon the assumption that heterosexuality is the only viable or acceptable sexual orientation Homophobia o A dislike or distrust stemming from feelings about a person s sexual orientation or lifestyle 0 Deep seated dislike distrust or hatred A learned behavior Typically from myths about sexual orientation Myths 0 Child Abuse homosexuality o 95 of all incidents of child sexual abuse are committed by straight men 0 Men who wear women s clothes are homosexual o Transvestites are predominately heterosexual o Transsexualism has to do with physiology 0 Gay men are quotfemininequot and lesbian women are quotmasculinequot 0 Lesbian and straight women are maore alike that different as are gay men and straight men 0 It s a quotchoicequot 0 It s a quotlifestylequot 0 GLTB people live a gay quotlifestyle 0 GLTB people live life just like everyone else 0 Same sex marriages don t last 0 Some last some don t just like everyone else 0 GLTB people can t have families 0 1 million children are being raised by same sex couples nationwide o GLTB people aren t happy 0 1994 AMA stated emotional disturbances primarily due to sense of alienation form an unaccepting environment Labeling o Labeling promotes prejudice 0 With regards to sexual orientation 0 Labeling is pointless because it is impossible to know what someone feels or what is his her point of view is unless you are told by that person Sexual Identity 0 Sexual identity is invisible unless we choose to reveal it o Differing from scientific views of the definition and roots of sexual orientation 0 Complex issue Full of emotion 0 We are all sexual beings 0 We all have the right to accept acknowledge and live in accordance with our sexual identity Cultures of Sexuality 0 Sexual impulse is a powerful force in culture Ancient Gods 0 Important not to confuse sexuality with pornography and perversion Sexual Orientation 0 Sexual Identity 0 An inner sense of oneself as a sexual being including how one identifies in terms of gender and sexual orientation 0 Sexual Preference 0 An outdated term as a sexual orientation is no longer considered to be one s conscious individual preference or choice But based instead on a complicated network of social culture biological economic and political factors 0 HRC what a person likes or prefers to do sexually a conscious recognition or choice not to be confused with sexual orientation 0 Sexual Orientation 0 General way a person identifies his or her own sexual identity based upon feelings of attraction towards other people 0 HRC an enduring emotional romantic attraction to another person Terms 0 Homosexual label used to describe sexual activities between people of the same gender 0 Gay 0 Lesbian o Transgender term used to describe a broad range of people who express their gender differently from what most people expect 0 Bisexual label used to describe 0 GLTB stands for Gay Lesbian Transgendered amp Bisexual Sexual Orientation o Heterosexual 0 Label used to describe sexual activities between people of different genders o Asexual o No sexual feelings for either men or women 0 Heterosexual and homosexual are activities not people 0 Think continuum not dichotomy 0 Many people fall in between the two polar extremes heterosexual homosexual 0 Sexual behavior and sexual orientation are NOT the same thing Iquot 0 There is no quotnormalquot or llabnorma orientation 0 Homosexuality is NOT a disease Incidence of Homosexuality 0 According to your text 0 4 of us in this room are not straight 440 o 1948 Kinsey Report 10 of adult population was Gar or Lesbian o Currents Estimates 2000 310 depending on definition 0 Same sex couples live in 993 of all US countries 2000 census 0 Over 1 million gay and lesbian veterans in US urban institute Religion and Diversity 0 Belief and Identity 0 Faith a belief in God or teachings of particular religion I Conviction earnest and profound belief in something 0 Doctrine a principle taught by a religion 0 Principle basic law or rule at the foundation of the belief system 0 Tenet a doctrine that a person or religion holds as true 0 Dogma a set of doctrines Religion deep loyalties 0 Powerful and Emotional o Persecution Religion in History 0 Old 0 Wars 0 Discoveries 0 Conflict resolution Why know about other people s beliefs Religion 0 Institutionalized set of beliefs and practices 0 Moral in nature 0 Community driven o Deepest convictions o Addressed the BIG questions Culture of Religion 0 Not all survive 0 Greek Gods 0 People keep religion alive 0 How holidays rituals with religion attachments Play Ritual amp Religion 0 Play is the basis for culture Huizinga o Ritual 0 Set or series of acts with a sequence established by tradition and steeming from the life of people 0 For example 0 Thanksgiving 0 Roman celebrations Ritual o Vital for quotmansquot quest for understanding mysterious concepts 0 Ceremonial act for a sacred purpose 0 Conducted individually or collectively Rituals may include o Affirmations mission statements recitations of texts chanting singing or prayer 0 Movement dancing or special postures 0 Costumes candles incense smoke or fire 0 Food drink or fasting purification o Offering or sacrifice Purpose of rituals o Celebrate endings beginnings or transitions 0 Define relationships marriage 0 Understand place in the world 0 Come in contact with God or supernatural forces 0 Confirm a shared goal or desire 0 They are deeply rooted in tradition and are very powerful Religion and Family 0 llReligious identity has its strongest roots in the family and many families not only encourage but demand their children follow in their religious traditions Religious and Politics 0 Religious groups and political activists o Boycotts 0 Promote candidates 0 Gods law in superior to those of the government Religious Prejudice 0 Religion can fuel strife 0 Unlike like race or Gender people quotchoosequot religion 0 Stems from belief one s own faith is favored by God 0 Despite teaching in most religions of tolerance unity and love 0 Agreement should NOT be the goal 0 Rather 0 Respect for all 0 Same journey 0 Same Big questions Interactions 0 Respect other belief systems 0 Remember humans are trying to make sense of their life just like you 0 Ask questions Take an interest in learning about other beliefs 0 Engage in discussions about religious persecution Recap What is it about What does religion seek to provide Major Religions of the World Hindu Hinduism amp Jainism Buddist Judeo Christian Islamic Hindu o Hinduism 0 Location India 0 Founder Rig Veda holy scripture 4000 BC 0 Beliefs 0 God Sustains universe Karma Reincarnation Eternal Web of Universe 000 Janism 0 Location India 0 Founder Mahavira o Beliefs 0 Karma 0 Reincarnation o No meat harming soul 0 Seek moksha salvation through self discipline knowledge faith and right conduct Buddhism 0 Location Primarily Eastern Asia 0 Founder Buddha o Beliefs Desires trap us in llwheel of lifequota cycle of rebirths 0 Nirvana 0 State of complete peace and bliss in which one is free form the inability to fulfill desire Judeo Christian Islamic Judaism 0 Location global North America 0 Founders Prophets Abraham Moses Elijah Isaish o Beliefs 0 Permanent covenant with God and his choose people allows heaven to come to earth Talmud and Torah o Synagogue Christianity 0 Location Global 0 Founder Jesus Christ 0 Beliefs 0 Jesus is the messiah savior 0 Jesus death and resurrection made up for the origins sin thus redeeming the world and allowing all who believe in him to enter heaven 0 The bible is the inspired word of God Islamic 0 Location global o Founder Muhammad o Beliefs 0 Only one God Muhammad is his prophet messenger 0 Islam means submission to the will of God 0 Pray 5 times per day 0 Avoid pork and alcohol 0 Give to the poor 0 Make pilgrimage to Mecca Other major religions and combinations Animism 0 Location tribal societies of Africa Australia North and South America 0 Founder varies o Beliefs 0 God is present everywhere 0 All beings were created by God capable of both good and bad 0 Shaman are priests prophets and medicine people Confucianism 0 Location Asia China 0 Founder Confucius o Beliefs o Moral perfection 0 World harmony through Loyalty respect integrity piety righteousness wisdom benevolence courage o Nota religion 0 Goodness in nature comes from Heaven Shinto o The way of the Gods o Honors many Gods which include Natural forces ancestors former emperors and national heroes 0 Over 1000 shrines in Japan not for worship but dwellings for the Gods o Promotes national loyalty Sikhism 0 Location India 0 Founder Nanak o Beliefs 0 Features Islam and Hinduism Equality of Humankind Salvation through bhakti devotion Worship Hari God Reincarnation Granth sacred book 000 Taoism 0 Location China 0 Founder Lao Tse Philosopher o Beliefs o Tao the way 0 Peaceful Inactive and quiet o Tao Te Ching book of the way 0 Chinese Folk Religion 0 Combined Taoism Buddhism and Confucianism No Religion FINISH THIS 0 Agnosticism o Denial of knowledge about hweare or ot there is a god 0 Open to possibility o Atheist Demoninations 0 Major Religions systems have numerous demoniations 0 Al have own special belief 0 Ex Christianity 0 Catholic 0 Protestant o Orthodox o Anglican Minor Religions 0 Book features 17 minor religions 0 Not quotcrazyquot 0 Community driven o Often associated with misperceptions 0 Many common themes REVIEW ALL OF THIS This is on nal not upcoming test Disabiltiy vs Handicap 0 Disability 0 Refers to an interference with mobility coordination communication or behavior 0 Handicap 0 Means disadvantage Acquired vs Congenital 0 Acquired Disability 0 Condition resulting from illness or injury 0 Congenital Disability 0 Condition a person has from birth which limits ability Acquired Disability examples 0 Multiple Sclerosis o Traumatic Brain Injury TBI o PostTraumatic Stress Disorder PTSD Congenital Disability Examples 0 SpinalBifida o Muscular Dystrophy Impariment o Monoplegia o Hemiplegia paralysis on one side of body o Paraplegia paralysis of lower part of body 0 Quadriplegia paralisis of body from neck down Fear of Difference 0 Sometimes people are frightened by physical difference 0 Fear it might be contagious o Afraid of how to act 0 Afraid something unfamiliar will happen 0 Simply curious about the disability Size and Stature 0 Individuals whose body size is significantly varies from the average may be isolated physically and emotionally Obesity 0 Obesity can lead to discrimination in 0 Employment 0 Access to medical care 0 Public accommodations o Brunt of jokes 0 Heredity plays a contributing role 0 llFat gene leads to genetic predisposition to be overweight Thinness 0 Thin doesn t equal health 0 Stable weight sensible diet and exercise 0 Thinness associated with metabolism rather that eating disorder I Genetic predisposition o Anorexia 0 Specific disease involving a lack of appetite or inability to eat 0 Term should be not used without proper training Height 0 Pituitary gland growth hormone o Gigantism over secretion 7 to 8 feet tall 0 Dwarfism under secretion under 5 h percentile on an incremental chart Ideal Image 0 Serves a stereotype for both selfcomparison and judgment of others 0 Images changes over time and context Pressure for sameness 0 Differences first person second 0 Differences source for humor Inclusion 0 Physical barriers include furniture designed for the average 0 Desks water fountains toilets sinks doorways 0 Setting up socia barriers however truly turn those with disabilityes into quothandicappedquot people 0 Supportive services 0 Adaptive ski school CFU check for understanding 0 Does the origin of a disability effect how you perceive an individual with a disability 0 If they were in an accident because of what they did or if they were hit by a drunk driver 0 What can people do to truly make people feel like they are handicapped 0 Act norma around them treat them like they do not have a disability Don t go out of your way to help them but help them if you are right by them 0 What role does heredity play in body shape and size Genes Pituitary gland metabolic rate Conclusion 0 All people deserve respect 0 Many of your best qualities are invisible personality imagination ability to love 0 Physical body is first thing noticed Chapters on test 4 5 6 7 Diversity Test Review Vocabulary Chapter 1 Cosmopolitanism society is home to diverse types of people whose differences are respected Social rewards are granted on a n individual basis not according to group identities or af liations Discrimination to make a distinction means making a distinction against a person not according to his or her actual merit but upon a categorical basis Such distinctions typically lead to prejudiced actions or treatments Diversity a point of difference commonly implies a variety ofdifferences contained within a larger society Exceptionality state of being different in a particular situation or context Heterogeneity state of being composed from dissimilar parts implies many different elements operating together Prejudice means passing judgment prematurely refers to forming unfavorable opinions or attitudes without reason or knowledge Segregation to separate or set apart from another group Often refers to a specific racial religious or cultural group forced to withdraw from the general body of society Stigma to strain on one s reputation a stigma implies disgrace discredit and reproach Tolerance an active affirmation of human rights an acceptance of human rights an acceptance of diversity and a practice of peaceful co existence Chapter 2 Acculturation process by which members of a society are taught the element of that society s culture is known as acculturation Centrism refers to movements which focus on a particular subculture or perspective Movements often promote the achievements of people who stand out from their group CultureHirsch 1993 defined culture as the common body of knowledge that allows diverse people to communicate to work together and to live together Counter Culturerefers to the protest movement in the late 1960s in which young people formed their own culture in opposition of the culture of Middle America This movement was epitomized by hippies and the Woodstock festival Cultural Encapsulation Similar to ethnocentrism this is a closing off of one culture from others Cultural Literacy refers to the names phrases events and other items that are familiarto most educated persons in a given culture Cultural Pluralism the beliefthat diverse groups coexist within American Society and maintain a culturally distinct identity is known as cultural pluralism Cultural Understanding process of learning about others cultures in order to foster social harmony and growth Enculturationpart of every child s socialization process enculturation is the process of acquiring a culture Ethnocentrism some people believe that their cultural ways are not only valid and superior to other peoples but also universally applicable in evaluation and judging human behavior Heritage something that belongs to a person by reason of birth Intercultural meaning between or among cultures intercultural interactions involve mutual or reciprocal exchanges Macroculture the larger political society Melting Pot the concept that many cultures can blend into one Microculture a miniature culture that implies a greater linkage with the larger culture Emphasis is often put on the degree to which the microculture acts to interpret express and or mediate the ideas values and institutions ofthe political community MonoculturalismIndividualism assumes that his or her culture is universal Multicultural refers to a number ofdiverse traditions customs arts languages values and beliefs existing side by side Salad bowl concept that many cultures may be tossed together into a larger whole without losing their uniqueness This revises the idea of the melting pot Subculture refers to a social group that shares characteristics that distinguish it in some way from the larger political society Youth Culture leisure lifestyles clothing styles musical tastes and peer group values typically define youth cultures They exhibit particular rules of behavior which are often considers as deviant or in opposition to the dominant group Chapter 3 Advocacy someone who supports and defense the cause of another Anti discrimination legislation seeks to prevent the unfair treatment of people based upon super cial categorization Civil Rights these are the rights to personal liberty established in the 13th and the 14th Amendments to the Constitution Human Rights often used as a synonym for civil rights It is based upon fundamental human values and dignity Letter of the Lawthis expression refers to strict adherence to the actual wording ofthe law Spirit of the law refers to an interpretation ofwhat a law seems to mean Diversity Test Review Chapter 13 Chapter 1 Human Diversity Diversity requires both a subject and an object Gwendolyn Morgan 1997 divided several dimensions of human diversity into two main categories Primary and Secondary Primary Aspects Age Gender Racial background Ethnic background Sexual orientation Secondary Aspects Educational background Geographic location Language Income Social class Marital status Religious beliefs Vocation What Constitutes Exceptionality Exceptional Individuals persons who are different How people are viewed and accepted depends largely upon the situation in which we find ourselves The exceptionality is only one of their characteristics They each have their own unique goals dreams hopes and needs People who have disabilities are not disabled but differently abled Historical Perspectives Confucius Buddha Mohammed and Jesus all wrote or spoke the need to show compassion The sacred texts ofthe great religions advocate humane and sympathetic treatment for every individual Earliest recorded history there have been instances of humane treatment of those who were different or disabled 0 Athens SOOBC Solon was a famous Iawgiver He designed a system for providing care for soldiers who had been disabled in war 0 Martin Luther and John Calvin strong Christian reformers in the 16th Century They stated their belief that disable individuals had no souls and that therefore society had no responsibility to them at all Many who were deaf mentally retarded epileptic and blind were often thought to be possessed by demons and sometimes were subjected to exorcism to purge the devils from them 0 18th and 19th century brought beginnings of efforts to educate and to care for exceptional people Diversity with Categories There are overlapping issues of human diversity 0 Diversity in general is a public health issue The quality of health care is dependent upon a person s socioeconomic status 0 Socioeconomicstatus is typically linked to issues ofage race and gender 0 A persons racial background may influence his or her ethnic identity 0 Ethnicity is typically tied to cultural religious and linguistic traditions 0 Communication behavior and learning differences may be rooted in cultural and ethnic backgrounds 0 People with disabilities tend to face more obstacles if they are also from racial minorities or live in poverty 0 Religion which may be tied to culture ethnicity and nationality comes to play in political policy 0 Political power influences the laws which protect human diversity and determines the extent to which a person can fight for his or her rights The 11 Attitudes 1 Always display your respect and comfort 2 Don t worry about what other people may or may not be thinking 3 Stop someone who is ridiculing or joking about people who are different 4 Tell children about differences 5 Expect normal behaviors and achievements from diverse individuals 6 Be yourself around those who stand out as different 7 Use your common everyday vocabulary 8 Suggest activities in which you are interested 9 Be aware that eye contact patters are profoundly cultural in nature and the rules for such contact vary from culture to culture 10Talk to the person who is exceptional and not just to his or her companion 11Wear a plaid ribbon shows that all people are unique and diverse Chapter 2 Culture Culture is a subjective rather than universal human quality All cultures have a history and a heritage Cultures are identifiable because they share certain characteristics People within the group have ways oftelling who is and who is not a member Members share a language through which cultural interactions take place certain group values are shared and various social and behavioral patterns are followed 0 Remember that individuals may not accept all the symbols oftheir culture any more then you do Individuals may not conform to the stereotypic patterns of the culture they belong to Cultural Distinctions Aspects of ideal culture are frequently expressed in proverbs stories myths and jokes Implicit covert culture includes elements hidden or taken for granted to the extent that they are not easily observable or consciously recognized by individuals Explicit overt is visible and can be described verbally It includes speech tools styles of dress and concrete behaviors Rethinking Culture Cultures keep rede ning themselves by mixing and matching with other cultures Reciprocity to imaginatively place oneself in the shoes of others often diverse in thought from ourselves to consider strengths and weaknesses ofopposing cultural and political points of view and to overcome our sometimes egocentric tendencies to wed ourselves blindly and uncritically to one beliefor another without the bene t of self examination and critical analysis Chapter 3 Laws and Legislation Age All people have the right to life liberty security and dignity They also have the responsibility to act toward one another in a spirit of brotherhood and sisterhood Legislative Knowledge Every citizen should be aware of the laws protecting our rights and the rights of others This allow us to know more about Avoiding legal problems Know their own legal rights Understand the language of the law Know how to report a violation of rights Know what constitutes a crime Avoid becoming a victim of a crime 0 00000 Age discrimination in Employment of 1978 prohibits employers with 20 or more employees from basing hiring decisions on a persons age when the persons age is between 40 and 70 Older Americans Act of 1965 OAA designed to safeguard the rights of senior citizens Communication Article 19 of Universal Declarations of Human Rights states that everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek receive and impact information and ideas through any media sand regardless of frontiers Article 1 of the Bill of Rights says that Congress shall not abridge the freedom of speech or the press People may not take advantage of the freedom to communicate when they speak a language not of the majority Bilingual Education Act of 1968 provided funding for bilingual programs in schools Equal Educational Opportunities Act of 1974 speci ed that any educational agency failing to take action to overcome language barriers impeding equal participation by students would be guilty of denying equal educational opportunity Culture 0 Culture is the means by which people express their views of life 0 Article 27 of the Universal Declaration of the Human Rights states that everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community to enjoy the arts and to share in scientific advancement and its benefits Disability 0 Rehabilitation Act of 1973provided a barrier free environment for people with disabilities 0 The disorders the qualify is people with cancer heart disease diabetes cerebral palsy epilepsy mental illness mental retardation muscular dystrophy multiple sclerosis drug addiction and alcoholism visual hearing and communication disorders Americans with Disabilities Act ADA of 1990 is considered the civil rights bill the ADA granted civil rights protection with disabilities in all public places Facilities that are affected are auditoriums restaurants hotels stores banks doctors of ces museums libraries parks zoos schools recreation facilities Education 0 Brown vs Board of Education of Topeka Kansas 1954 o Plyervs Doe 1982 o IDEA Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Formally the Education of All Handicapped Children Act became a law in 1990 Equal Protection 0 Article 7 of Universal Declaration of Human Rights says that all are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal protection 0 People who qualify are all people are protected including the poor children prisoners noncitizens and minorities Families 0 They focus on basic income and family support child welfare juvenile justice nutrition education and child care programs No speci c number of person is necessary to make up a legal family In other laws family included relatives who may or may not live in the same household It can also mean that two people or groups of people who stay committed to one another in a domestic setting for an unlimited period of time sharing a home and responsibility for financial support and household duties Gender 0 Title VII of 1964 Civil Rights Act prohibits sexual discrimination in employment 0 Equal Pay Act of 1963 prohibits discrimination in the form of different compensation forjobs 0 Pregnancy Discrimination Acts of 1978 prohibits discrimination against employees on the basis of pregnancy and childbirth with respect to employment and benefits Nationality o It is illegal to classify a citizen by his or her national origin since foreigners is entitled to equal protection underthe law once that individual has been a naturalized citizen 0 Arizona State Bill 1070 Race Color and Ethnicity 0 People ofall different ethnic racial and national origins now have legal protection form discrimination 0 Title VII ofthe 1964 Civil Rights Act prohibits discrimination based upon an employee s race or color Religion 0 The US Constitution guarantees that all American are free to follow the religion of their choice or none at all 0 The Government can neither establish a state religion nor force anyone to attend to support any religious institution Title VII ofthe 1964 Civil Rights Act prohibits discrimination on the basis of employee s religion Sexual Orientation o Antihomosexual laws treat gay men and lesbians as a class of criminals who are not entitled to assert their civil rights 0 Bowers v Hardwick 1986 Socioeconomic Levels 0 Article 22 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights states that everybody is entitled to the economic social and cultural rights indispensable for this dignity and the free development of his personality 0 The Commodities Distribution Act distributes surplus staple foods to needy families and the food stamp act of 1904 distributes coupons that may be exchanged for food 0 Job Training and Partnership Act JTPA of 1982 authorize federal funds administered by the Department of Labor to support local and regional employment assistance efforts Diversity Within Categories Educational disputes may be tied to age disability religion culture sexual orientation gender race or communication concerns Gender disputes may be tied to issues of race socioeconomics or equal opportunities Health care disputes may be tied to issues of race socioeconomic status or age Economic disputes may be tied to issues of gender age race ethnicity or communication Religious disputes may be tied to cultural ethnic or communication issues Racial disputes may be tied to issues of gender socioeconomics culture or equal opportunity Family disputes may be tied to gender age or sexual orientation issues 3 questions short answer 15 true false 15 multiple choice 10 matching 8 or so from ch 1 22 from ch 2 15from ch 3 READ the chapters and have good understanding of terms Implicit and explicit culture IDEA Don t ask don t tenot in notes Rehab act of 1972 Salad bowl and melting pot No scantron needed