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by: Louisa O'Kon I


Louisa O'Kon I
OK State
GPA 3.58

Weili Zhang

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Weili Zhang
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Louisa O'Kon I on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ECEN 5843 at Oklahoma State University taught by Weili Zhang in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see /class/232893/ecen-5843-oklahoma-state-university in ELECTRICAL AND COMPUTER ENGINEERING at Oklahoma State University.

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Date Created: 11/01/15
ECEN 5843 Microelectronic Fabrication Semiconductor Materials Weili Zhang School of Electrical and Computer Engineering Oklahoma State University httpwzhangokstateedu Atomic Structure amp Periodic Table ConductorlDielectriclSemiconductor Semiconductor materials Crystal Orientation Band Model Doping ElectronHole Conductivity PN Junction DDDDDDDD quot7735 Microelectronic Fabrication WeiliZhng 1913 Niels Bohr 639 Quantized shell model 0 To describe the basic structure of atoms Unfilled electron o Nucleus vacancy o Electrons in orbits around nucleus 0 protons electrons o protons atomic number 0 Attractive rorce between protons and electrons balanced by outward centrifugal force of the electrons The Bohr Atom model moving in their orbits Microelectronic Fabrication Weili Zhung Atomic Structure 0 The nth orbit can hold 2n2 electrons 0 Elements with the same number of outer orbit electrons have similar properties Cu 29 Ag 47 Au 79 0 Column of periodic table v r in outer orbit Microelectronic Fabrication Weili Zhang Semiconductor Lithium Atomic number 3 Na Sodium Atomic number 11 Periodic Table 1i2 i3i4567i8 5 39 iii 7 nun nn nn Element Groups Families Microelectronic Fabrication Weili Zhang Stable Atomic Structure CI Elements with a lled outer ring or eight electrons in the outer ring stable CI Atoms seek to combine with other atoms to create the stable conditions of full orbits or eight electrons in their outer ring through sharing He Neon Argon Atomic 2 Atomic 10 Atomic 18 Silicon Atomic number 14 H Microelectronic Fabrication WeiliZhimg CI Outer orbit is less than half filled CI Attractive hold on outer orbit electrons is weak CI Electrons are easy to be moved to create an electrical current flow CI Most metals are conductors Lithium Atomic number 3 httpwwwchemicalelementscom Microelectronic Fabrication Weili Zhung CI Outer orbit is more than half filled CI Attractive hold on outer orbit electrons is strong CI Dielectrics are electrical insulators Neon Atomic 10 Microelectronic Fabrication Weili Zhung Resistivity Q cm 1E15 1E12 1E09 1000000 1000 1 0001 0000001 Microelectronic Fabrication WeiliZhang Intrinsic Semiconductors An intrinsic pure semiconductor has an electrical resistance between that of an dielectric eg glassSiOz and an conductor eg Au Ag Cu Elemental B 111 C Ge Si ocSn Gray tin IV P V Se Te VI Coml ound GaAs GaP GaN InP 111 V SiGe SiC VI GaAsP 111 V V GaAlAs InGaP III 111 V ZnSe ZnO HgTe II VI 10 i Microelectronic Fabrication WeiliZhung Predicted in 1871 discovered in 1886 First Transistor Ge Diamond structure Melting point 937 C high temperature processing limit DUDE CI Electrical Leakage Lack of natural occurrlng 0Xlle ueu lieu2 1000K 11 Microelectronic Fabrication Weili Zhung El EGS Purity of 999999999 Diamond structure CI Melting point 1415 C high temperature processing allowed 3 CI SiliconSiO2 Planar processing electrical leakage solved CI gt 90 of wafers 12 Microelectronic Fabrication WeiliZhung CI Material of the future Zincblende structure l3 CI High carrier mobility 23 times faster than Si devices reacts to high frequency microwave THz transmitter CI Naturally radiation hardened No natural Oxide l3 CI Dangerous to human beings 13 H Microelectronic Fabrication WeiliZhng CI Pure form of Carbon CI 0 eration at high teml erature 500 C better conductor of heat Si 150 C CI High resistance heat radiation chemical attack CI High thermal conductivity Transistor speed 32 times faster than Si El Withstands high voltage wo breakdown Cl Better semi wafer for new technology Microelectronic Fabrication WeiliZhung CI Direct semiconductor D42K 1OLE 1n v 77K CI WurtZIte structure vvv V ltgt RT 3 1 r V CI Melting point 1231 C A 01 06000 I I lt vv 049 ht CI Wlde energy gap 337 eV potential for 001 VV optoelectronlc anu electronlc ueV1ces s 9 1E3 I I I 364 368 372 376 380 CI Candldate for UV dlode laser 368nm Wavelengmnm CI THz generation 25 I I I I E El ZnO lm high electrical c0nduct1v1ty a 20 5 15 I J o CI ZnO ceramics doped nonlinear 10 o I I 393 voltagecurrent characteristics g 5 0 l n 00 05 10 15 20 25 30 35 w Zhang et al Appl Phys Lett Vol 75 3321 1999 Frequency THZ A K Azad et al Appl Phys Lett Vol 88 021103 2006 1 5 Microelectronic Fabrication Weili Zhung GaN Semiconductor Wide band Uap 54 eV High Break down eld Large electron saturation velocity 13 X 10397 cms Chemically stable at high T Operate at 400 C high temperature Short wavelength light emission and high power electronic applications Gallium Nitride FieldEffect Transistor Positive voltage Scum 71319 Gate Jar Naqailu voltage Drain Aluminum gallium nitride Current Gallium I nitride 16 Microelectronic Fabrication Weill Zhang Kc EJc 250 d Power Absorption 1cm y Refractive Indy 0 Freestanding Hydridevaporphase epitaxy HVPE it Unintentionally doped ntype 1quot 5 mm X 5 mm X 180 Mm 3900 075 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Fre uencv THZV Conductivity 19 C11 W Zhang et al Appl Phys Lett Vol 82 2841 2003 17 Microelectronic Fabrication Weili Zhang Semiconductor Crystal 0 Amorphous no crystalline order PolyCrystalline crystalline order over short range 10100 cells SingleCrystalline Monolithic crystalline order over long range Diamond Structure Silicon 18 Microelectronic Fabrication WeiliZhang Crystal Structure Si Diamond Structure GaAs Zincblende Structure htt 39asen buffalocdu education solid unitCell homehtm1 1 9 739 Microelectronic Fabrication WeiliZhng Miller Indices ltXXXgt Miller Indices hkl hkl 1s1 152 153 11 100 100 100 a3 Emil if K E m gab n quot a2 lt100gt 20 Microelectronic Fabrication WeiliZhang Crystal Orientation Orientation Slice the single crystalline unit lt100gt in vertical plane lt1 1 lgt cornertocorner Application lt100gt MOS devices ltlllgt Bipolar devices 21 Microelectronic Fabrication Weili Zhang CI Electron shells 1s2s2p3s3p3d4s4p4du CI Each shell corresponds to a certain energy energy levels CI Many atoms Energy band CI High energy band corresponds higher energy 22 i Microelectronic Fabrication WeiliZhng Energy 1 atom Many atoms 23 Microelectronic Fabrication WeiliZhang empty conduction ba d 4 hand Energy empty 3 orbitals H fine valence electronvforbital H band 4 band manyr atoms soHid 1 atom 24 Microelectronic Fabrication Weili Zhang em ptv band 9quotquot my a cond uction 332 band 9 IlIbmdII IlIIIlllImd IIIIlIIIIII IIIIII III M band a Band gap 1 Fermi level band ap I 9 P 9 7 filled valence lled 32 hand baa nd gt band Dielectnc Semiconductor Metal El Conduction band empty El Conduction band empty El Conduction band partly lled El Valence band lled El Valence band lled El Valence band lled El Large band gap El Small band gap httpwwwchembiouoguelphcaeducmatchm729band htm 2 5 Microelectronic Fabrication Weili Zhang Conduction Band partially filled Conduc on Band un ed Energy Electrons Promoted Valence Band partially filled Valence Band filled Band gap is small enough that electrons can be moved from Valence Wild 0 the conduction band by applying a voltage illumination heating etc 9 Both bands partly filled 9 material can conduct electricity 26 Microelectronic Fabrication Weili Zhang Semiconductor Doping El Increases the conductivity of intrinsic semiconductors 9 Precise resistivity control through doping El Resistivity range 10393 to 103 ohmcm depending on the amount and type of dopant El Dopant concentration 10396 01 27 Microelectronic Fabrication WeiliZhng Semiconductor Bonding CI Ge 32 and Si 14 have 4 electrons in the outer orbital CI Covalent bond Atoms are sharing their electrons 28 Microelectronic Fabrication WeiliZhng Silicon crystal Silicon crystal Boron atom H019 Arsenic atom ACCEPTOR DOPING DONOR DOPING P type Semiconductor N type Semiconductor Dopants B Al Dopants As P Sb 29 Microelectronic Fabrication Weili Zhung ptype amp ntype Band Model cogduction empty uniliiga band band gap I Valence filled band Band partially lled Semiconductor El Conduction band empty El Valence band lled El Small band gap Aluminum doped silicon ptype Microelectronic Fabrication Weill Zhang Conduction an partially lled Valence Band lled Si Si Si l P S39 k A Phosphorus doped silicon ntype 30 Semiconductor ElectronHole Conductivity Electron conduction in ntype semiconductors and metals Hole conduction in ptype semiconductor h MicroelectronicFabrication WeiliZhng 31 Resistivity vs Carrier Concentration Si 103 102 10 E f E i9 1 0 z 2 10quot ad 102 103 10 4 1013 10M 1015 10I6 10I7 1018 low 1020 Impurity concentration NA or ND atomscm3 32 Microelectronic Fabrication Weili Zhang Mobility vs Carrier Concentration Si 2400 I g 1 2000 1 e f 095m iii E 3 0 21600 33209 E quotI 393 H 5 as 53 V 39 c 1200 E z E 085 8 1 E Q p g 800 g 08 a 1 39gt L5 o 400 3 0750 0 14 39IS E I 0397 10 10 10I6 310i7 10is Carrier Density lcm T Jeon et al Phys Rev Lett Vol 78 1106 1997 33 Microelectronic Fabrication Weili Zhung pn junction 1940 Russell Ohl Si pn junction The region that is formed by adjoining a ptype semiconductor to an ntype semiconductor The line dividin the two reions where dopants and ndopants have equal concentration is the metallurgical junction 34 i Microelectronic Fabrication WeiliZhng P pin Conduction Band Conduction Band Conduction Band Conduction Band S a B i I i g B electrons Band gap 3 i g EFp EFn Band gap Band gap ho39es Band gap 61 U Valence Band D Valence Band 3 Valence Band 3 Valence Band 3 D S 3 ill httpj aseng buffalo edueducationpnpnform ationpnform ationhtml 3 5 Microelectronic Fabrication Weili Zhang Forward Biased Junction v quot a m an m m zit I Conduction Band 5 II II I ll 3 I i Conduction Band Conduction Band Conduction Band electrons Band gap 2 sis holes Band gap holes 2 U Valence Band Valence Band Valence Band Valence Band EEEIEDDDUDEDDDD INN iQEEEEBQDEE http j asengbuffalo edueducationpnbiasedPNindexhtml 3 6 Microelectronic Fabrication Weili Zhang Reverse Biased Junction 9 i s g n l Conduction Band conduaio Band Conduction Band 3 Band 3 3 holes Band gap holes E electrons Valence Band Band gap Valence Band Valence Band Valence Band http j asengbuffalo edueducationpnbiasedPNindexhtml 3 7 Microelectronic Fabrication Weili Zhang Characteristic Curve Current mA Reverse Forward Voltage Voltage A pn junction is a DIODE 38 Microelectronic Fabrication WeiliZhang Why Semiconductor for Microelectronics CI Electrical conductivity can be varied by doping 9 precise resistivity control 9Wafers can be both dielectric and a conductor at the same time CI The most pure material known 1 unintentional impurity in 1011 atoms CI Can be grown in large monolithic crystals and diced in thin slices 9 wafers CI Surface can be perfectly ponsneo x 200 nm variation over 1X1 inch 39 Microelectronic Fabrication WeiliZhng Why Silicon for Microelectronics CI Elements are easier to fabricate than compounds 9 Si or Ge CI Ge s melting 937 C doesn t allow high temp processing Si 1415 0C CI SiO2 is the main component of sand 9 lots of it CI An electrically mechanically and chemically stable dielectric SiOz is available not for Ge CI Tremendous technological WW and infrastructure eXists for Si 40 Microelectronic Fabrication WeiliZhng Reading Assignment Textbook Microchip Fabrication 5th Edition 2004 by Peter Van Zant McGraw Hill ISBN 0071432418 PAGE 25 49 41 Microelectronic Fabrication WeiliZhng ECEN 5843 Microelectronic Fabrication Evolution of Semiconductor Fabrication Weili Zhang School of Electrical and Computer Engineering Oklahoma State University httpwzhangokstateedu MicrolNanoelectronic Devices MINE Devices Integrated Circuits lC ASIC etc Memory Chips RAM DRAM ROM etc Digital Signal Processing DSP Microprocessor CPU etc Applications Computers Office Equipment Fax Copier Printer etc Automobile TelephoneCell Phones ATM Entertainment Electronics TV VCR Game Bo Electric Appliances Microwave Stove Hairdryer 9 Almost any electronic Device Microelectronic Fabrication Weili Zhung Overview CI Early Years 1950 a The Development Decade 1951 1960 a The Processing Decade 1961 1970 a The Production Decade 1971 1980 a The Automation Decade 1981 1990 CI The Production Era 1991 2000 CI The Nano Era 2001 Microelectronic Fabrication WeiliZhng Early Years 1 950 Birth of semiconductor industry in 1950 s First Mechanical computer 1886 Vacuum tube 1906 PN Junction 1940 ENIAC 1946 Transistor 1947 UUUUUU Microelectronic Fabrication WeiliZhng First Mechanical Computer EIF F I 1896 Hollerith founded the ComputingTabulatingRecording Co later known as International Business Machines Corp IBM Microelectronic Fabrication Weili Zhang 1886 Hermann Hollerith invented the Mechanical Tabulatinc Machine 1890 The counting of US census would take 2 years by hand Houerith completed it in 3 months Herman Hollerith 18601929 Columbia University School of Mines EM 1879 Columbia University PhD 1890 Photo IBM i any i Fiiii i 39 4y quot M iii iii quoti Microelectronic Fabrication Weili Zhang John Mauchly and J Presper Eckert U Penn created ENIAC Electronic Number Integrator and Calculator 400000 3000 sqft 30 tons 150 kW 18K vaci mm tribes 70K resistors 10K capacitors 6K switches Vacuum Tubes Vacuum Tube 1906 Lee Deforest Three elements device used as electronic switch and amplifier two electrodes separated by a grid in a vacuum glass enclosure I Principle Cathode emits electrons Plate anode receives electrons Grid with negative bias voltage repels some of the electrons and prevents them from reaching the plate resulting in less current flow A changing negative charge on the Cathode grid modulates the plate current Microelectronic Fabrication Weili Zhung William Bradford Shockley William B Shockley 1910 London 1989 1932 BS CalTech 1936 PhD Physics from MIT 1947 Invention of transistor w John Bardeen Walter Brattain of Bell Labs 1951 Invention of FieldEffect lrans1stor 1954 Founded Shockley Semiconductors and Silicon Valley in Palo Alto 1956 Nobel Prize in physics w John Bardeen Walter Brattain William Shockley Walter Brattain John Bardeen Microelectronic Fabrication Weill Zhung Transistors Transistor Three elements solidstate device for amplifying controlling electrical signals 397 PrInclple Emitter Current flows from emitter Base D 4 through base into collector C quote t r 1 5 Switching Base current on collector current flows 5 Switching Amplification Base current regulates large amount of collector current Microelectronic Fabrication Weili Zl lLng First Transistor 1947 Shocklev s Transistor Triangular block of polystyrene with 2 contacts is 1 ressed ha a spring against a Ge crystal Applying current amp voltage to Ge results in ampli cation 1 htti www fortunecitr comireenfleldswami r 1transist0r htm Microelectronic Fabrication Weili Zhang The Development Decade 1951 1960 a Golden age El Discovery of basic processes and materials FET transistor 1951 Si transistor 1954 Gordon Teal Tl Integrated Circuit 1958 Planar Technology 1958 First IC wlPlanar Technology 1959 El New Companies Shockley Semiconductors Silicon Valley Fairchild Semiconductor Microelectronic Fabrication WeiliZhng First FET Transistor 1951 FET Transistor A Transistor consisting of a source gate and drain whose action depends on the flow of majority carriers past the gate from the source to drain The flow is controlled by the transverse electric field under the gate Principle Field effect when gate voltage is applied buildup or depletion of charge creates a channel under the gate which connect the source and drain Source biased with a voltage Drain grounded relative to the source The higher gate volt the more current flow http WWW intel comeducationtransworks at7 htm Microelectronic Fabrication Weili Zhung 63 Killojv 19232005 C L 1923 born in Jefferson City Missouri 1947 BS University of Illinois 1950 MS University of Wisconsin 195870 Researcher at T1 over 60 US patents 1958 Invention of Hmtegratcdl Circuit 19781985 Professor at Texas AampM 2000 Nobel Prize in physics Microelectronic Fabrication Weili Zhung Integrated Circuit Inteqrated Circuit A circuit in which many elements are fabricated and interconnected on a single chip of semiconductor material as opposed to a nonintegrated circuit in which the transistors diodes resistors etc are fabricated separately and then assembled Microelectronic Fabrication Weili Zl lLlng First lClMicrochip Plateaus 1958 Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments formed the rst Integrated Circuit consisting of 5 components on a 716 x 1 16 Germanium slice Transist0rs Di0des Capacit0rs Microelectronic Fabrication WeiliZhang Fairchild Semiconductor 1957 Eight collaborators of William Shockley were leaving Shockley Semiconductors and were founding the Silicon semiconductor company F airchild Semiconductor Photo Gordon Moore Sheldon Roberts Eugene Kliner Robert Nov ce Victor Ginrich Julius Blank Jean Hoerni Jay Last Microelectronic Fabrication Weili Zhang Jean Hoemi Jean Hoerni 1924 Geneva 1997 1952 PhD Physics from Cambridge University amp University of Greg Mortenszln Sir Edmund Hillary Geneva and Dr39 Jean HUEFW39 19 19541957 Shockley Semiconductors 1957 CoFounder of F airchild Semiconductor 1958 Invented the Planar Technology Microelectronic Fabrication Weili Zhung Planar Technology Planar Technology Using Silicon Dioxide as an insulating layer dielectric of choice and evaporating Aluminum for electrical contacts Microelectronic Fabrication WeiliZhung Robert Noyce Robert Noyce 1927 Iowa 1990 1953 PhD Physics from MIT 19541957 Shockley Semiconductors 1957 CoFounder of F airchild b emtconauctor 1959 Built rst IC with Planar Technology 1968 CoFounder of Intel Corp Microelectronic Fabrication Weili Zhung ICs with Planar Technology 1 wafer of planar transistors The Planar IC 1961 20 Microelectronic Fabrication Weili Zhang The Processing Decade 1961 1970 CI PI39OCGSS Engineers and startup companies CI Development of highyield volume processes to fab chips at ever lower prices CI Price erosion drove many companies out of business CI Moore s Law 1965 El 4004 Microprocessor 1969 El New Companies Intel National Semiconductor Siegnetics lC s 21 Microelectronic Fabrication WeiliZhng Gordon E Moore Gordon E Moore 1929 born in San Francisco CA 1950 BS in Chemistry 1954 PhD from Cal Tech 19541957 Shockley Semiconductors 1957 CoFounder of F uirchild Semiconductor Moore s 11a w 1968 Moore Noyce and Grove left F uirchild Semiconductor and founded Intel Corp 19681997 Intel s President 1990 National Medal of Technology 22 Microelectronic Fabrication Weili Zhung Moore39s Law 1000000000 100000000 10000000 1000000 100000 10000 1000 100 10 1 Moore s Law 1965 Circuits per chip 2 year1975 15 Number of Transistors 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Year Each new chip contains roughly twice as much capacity as its predecessor and is released within 1824 months of the previous chip httpwwwintelcomtechnologymooreslawindexhtm 23 Microelectronic Fabrication Weili Zhung Marcian Ed Hoff Marcian Edward quotTedquot Hoff Jr 1937 Rochester NY 1958 BEE Rensselaer Polytechnic lnstitute 1962 PhD EE from Stanford 19681983 Research amp Management at Intel 1969 Hoff created the rst Microprocessor 4004 1980 First Intel Fellow 24 Microelectronic Fabrication Weili Zhang The Production Decade 1971 1980 CI Laboratory batch processes to nighvolume CI Introduction of new tech Introauctlon or Ion Implantation Ebeam Improvement of Cleanroom Automation of process started with SpinBake and developbake systems CI IC product at MSI level gt LSI level CI 10 billion a year for sale El El 4004 Product 1971 First PC 8800 1974 25 Microelectronic Fabrication WeiliZhng Integration of Devices Discrete Device Capac1tor ReSIStor TranSIStor 1 Diode Fuse SSI SmallScale Integration 250 MSI MediumScale Integration 505000 LSI LargeScale Integration 5000100000 VLSI VeryLargeScale Integration 1000001000000 UltraLargeScale Integration ULSIVVLSI VeryVeryLargeScale Integration gt 1 000 000 26 Microelectronic Fabrication Weili Zhung First Microprocessor Evolution 1969 The rst Microprocessor CPU 1971 The rst commercial 4 bit microprocessor 4004 2300 transistors 10 um features 10 mm2 die 108 kHz 27 Microelectronic Fabrication WeiliZhang First Microprocessor Evolution 2 4004 vs 12 Core 2 Duo wafer Fun Facts Powerful and small This revolutionary microprocessor measuring 18th by 16th of an inch the size of a fingernail delivered the same computing power as the first electronic computer the ENIAC built in 1946 which filled an entire room and used 18000 vacuum tubes Transistor count Today39s nte CoreTM2 Duo processors contain over 291 million transistors This is 100000 times the number of transistors than were in the 4004 which had 2300 transistors when itwas introduced in 1971 A human hair The Intel 4004 microprocessor circuit line width was 10 microns or 10000 nanometers Toda Intel39s micror rocessors have circuit line widths of 065 microns or 65 nanometers A nanometer is one billionth of a meter By comparison a human hair is approximately 100 microns or 100000 nanometers Manufacturing The Intel 4004 microprocessor was produced on 2quot wafers initially and then on 3quot wafers Today39s microprocessors are produced on 12quot or 300mm wafers The Intel 4004 microprocessor is unique in that if it is not the smallest it is one of the smallest microprocessor designs that ever went into commercial production The 4004 microprocessor is composed of 5 layers ht t vwvwintelcommuseumarchiveshistordocsindexhtm4004 28 Microelectronic Fabrication WeiliZhang First Personal Computer H Edward Roberts 1968 OSU graduate BS ECEN 1968 Research Officer for Special weapons Albuquerque NM started his own company MITS Micro Instrumentation Telemetry Systems 1974 Roberts created the rst PC 8800 Altair 1977 Sold MITS to Pertec VP of Pertec 1986 Medial Degree from Mercer University in Macon 2002 Lohmann Award 29 Microelectronic Fabrication WeiliZhang


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