INTRO DEVICE PHYSICS
INTRO DEVICE PHYSICS PHYS 3313
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kendrick Wilderman on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHYS 3313 at Oklahoma State University taught by Yin Guo in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see /class/232922/phys-3313-oklahoma-state-university in Physics 2 at Oklahoma State University.
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Date Created: 11/01/15
PHYS 3313 SEMICONDUCTOR PHYSICS Course Website httpphysicscoursesokstateeduyguoindexhtm syllabus lecture notes homework solutions What are semiconductors Materials with electrical conductivities between those of insulators and conductors Examples Si Ge GaAs Energy band pictures of conductors insulators and semiconductors Semiconductor devices Transistors switches diodes detectors etc Overview of the Course Ch1 The crystal structure of solids Describing crystal structure of solids Ch2 Introduction to quantum mechanics 0 Waveparticle duality 0 Discrete energy levels 0 Schrodinger39s equation Ch3 Introduction to the quantum theory of solids 0 Energy bands 0 Concept of the hole 0 Statistical mechanics Ch4 The semiconductor in equilibrium 0 Statistics of p type and n type semiconductors Ch5 Carrier transport phenomena Ch6 Nonequilibrium excess carriers in semiconductors Ch7 The pn junction Ch8 The pn junction diode Chapter 1 The Crystal Structure of Solids 11 Semiconductor Materials Two classifications Elemental semiconductor materials group IV elements 0 Compound semiconductor materials groups IIIV IIVI elements Table 11 Table 12 III IV V elementary semiconductor B C Si Al Si P Ge Ga Ge As compound semiconductors In Sb AlP AIAs GaP GaAs InP 12 Types of Solids Three general Types 1 Amorphouswith order only wi rhin a few a romic and molecular dimensions 2 Single crystalwith geome rric periodici ry Throughout The en rire ma rerial 3 Polycrystallinewith mul riple singlecrystal regions called grains separated by grain boundary Fig 11 1 3 Space lattices Lattice a regular periodic array of lattice points in space to represent the structure of a single crystal Lattice point a structural unit repeated periodically to form the lattice Example Fig 12 131 Primitive and unit cell Unit cell a small volume that can be repeated to fill form the entire crystal Primitive unit cell the smallest unit cell There is one lattice point per cell A unit cell is not unique for a given crystal Example Fig 13 A pr39imi rive uni r cell in a 2D structure is defined by Two vec ror39s a95axis Every equivalen r la r rice poin r in The 2D crystal can be found by 1 p5 615 p and q are integers Example Fig 13 A pr39imi rive uni r cell in a 3D structure is defined by Three vec ror39s 61 b C axis Ever39y equivalen r la r rice poin r in The 3D crystal can be found by VPaqbSC pqs are integers Example Fig 14 132 Basic crystal structures Three common types 0 Simple cubic o Bodycentered cubic bcc Facecentered cubic fcc Fig 15 structure and conventional unit cells of simple cubic bcc oncl fcc lattice Volume of the unit cello3 olottice constant edge of the cell it a 39I Ques rion Wha r are The number of a roms per uni r cell in a simple cubic bcc and fcc la r rice E11 The la r rice cons ran r of a fcc s rruc rure is a475l Wha r is The volume densi ry of a roms Prob 13a Assume rha r each a rom is a hard sphere wi rh The surface of each a rom in con rac r wi rh The surface of its neares r neighbor De rermine rhe percen rage of ro ral uni r cell volume rha r is occupied in a simple cubic la r rice 133 CrysTal planes and Miller indices To describe The orienTaTion of a crysTal surface planes we use Miller indices 0 Find The inTercest of The plane on The axes The values of pqs 0 Take The reciprocals of These numbers MulTiply Them by The lowesT common denominaTor To obTain smallesT Three inTegers th Miller indices The plane is referred as th plane Example Fig 17 I I quot r f ll quotv If i r a 39 39 I39 K V x r z39 z I I n x l r I 39 I I39 I quot393 quot l w p 39 I II I I A 39 a J I A a x Knowing The indices hkl one can de rermine o The dis rance be rween parallel planes 0 Surface concentration of a roms E13 De rermine rhe dis rance be rween neares r 110 planes in a simple cubic la r rice wi rh a la r rice cons ran r of ao483 ll Ans 342 ll E14 The la r rice cons ran r of a fcc s rruc rure is 475 ll Calcula re The surface densi ry of a roms for a a 100 plane and b a 110 plane 134 The diamond structure 0 Two fcc s rr39uc rur39es displaced from each other along The body diagonal by onefourth of its leng rh Fig 110 gmc s ME 0 Each a rom has four nearestneighbor a roms in a re rr ahedr al structure Fig 111 Examples C Si Ge 0 The conventional uni r cell con rains 8 a roms The zincblende sfr39ucfure two different Types of atoms in The luffice Example compound semiconducfor s such as GuAs Fig 113 I i 1 W 1 u 31quot 3 4 I I 14 Atomic bonding What holds a crystal together The attractive electrostatic interaction between electrons and nuclei Why one particular crystal structure is favored over another for a given type of atoms Total energy of the system tends to reach a minimum value Thus the crystal structure is closed related to atomic interactionsbonding Four types of bonds Ionic bond Elemen r in group I elemen r in group VII Example NaCl 0 Covalent bond Example diamond s rr39uc rur39e CSiGe Fig 116 0 Metallic bond Example me ral a roms Van der39 Waals bond weakest bond Example inert gas a roms 15 Imperfections and impurities in solids 151 Imperfections in solids Point defects 0 Vacancy a missing atom Fig 117a o Interstitial an extra atom Fig 117b Line dislocationa row of atoms missing Fig 118 152 Impurities in solids Substitutional impurities located at normal lattice sites Fig 119a o Interstitial impurities located between normal sites Fig 119b Doping adding impurities to change conductivity of the semiconductor material
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