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# GENERAL CHEMISTRY CHEM 1314

OK State

GPA 3.92

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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Luna Bauch on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 1314 at Oklahoma State University taught by Stacy Benson in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see /class/232943/chem-1314-oklahoma-state-university in Chemistry at Oklahoma State University.

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Date Created: 11/01/15

CHEM 1314 Lecture Outline and Notes Text Chemistry The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change 5th edition Martin S Silberberg Chapter 1 Keys to the Study of Chemistry Overview of Chemistry Chemistry is the study of matter the changes that it undergoes and the energy associated with those changes Properties of Matter 0 Material 0 composition 0 substance 0 Properties of Matter 0 Physical Properties I Physical Change 0 Chemical Properties I Chemical Change 0 Properties can be further categorized 0 Intensive Properties 0 Extensive Properties Three States of Matter 0 Solid 0 Liquid 0 Gas H a ma um 5 nmgmumw rmmmxmm amen CV Important to look at chemical changes macroscopically and microscopically Changes in energy are important for understanding chemistry The two main types of energy are 0 Potential energy 0 Kinetic energy The total energy is the sum of these energies less mm trunk in 39 Lass mm WWW W Wqu WWW was WWW mm mm m 3 quotmm a n lynlnngmmlenmnmgy A Aaml mummmmmu gmmm mam m m mm energy y n a a A lynnm a l Ml h a is mum in mm a m a in my an gamed wnm m satiny I mum is m ma mm balls man u is reigned i Lewm E b Lesssahle 5 z cmw mm E mmmmm WWW g equals 2 m in mm unmgy mm may 09 quot am y Mm smil 39 More sunl c Asym m mommaw plnldu mewwnnal mom a Asymmnllmm1mwal Mualuhighurinwumiml mm mm mum snpnmimtsccmvnnm mm unnng mm m mm nummm hums 50m m hm unmgy Manual mu mum mgmmmum pulls Ihnm loyal lsmmmlmne m lumizanlrgy aimz mum The Scientific Approach Monk alum 7 ul upen mynml mum do mum1pm do not nippnn 139 Jimquotminus we39llm mw Vlltul 11 plmnmnm 1 p 1 5 quot quot quotquot anlnr 39 39 liypnmuh nn ml mumml mm anlnn 1n Iul 1cnllil39c owlllllzlllun 1cm 1 c n m 1m pmlicnnm inn ll aluminium mn mint11mm 1nm1mnnnlu1 mile tn plik nnlntnn Observullnu Hypnllmis Experiment Model rum Milkmilids ann39l llnving mumelm inlenllonnlly expm necnm Ilild slid 11m zxncrtmnnl canlmmmallpux any lllilknlnilii n mun child he mwnmi mumct sinnllpom Mully more hlmlnlu lnocltlnlcd will tnsmllpox have mslllted 1mm cowpox vimscnnl39lrllling wwpox CW lwmoacl Units of Measurement Units of scientific measurement are based on the metric system The internationally agreed upon units for the measure of physical quantity are called SI units Physical Quantity Dimension Unit Name Unit Abbreviation Mass kilogram kg Length meter In Time second 3 Temperature kelvin K Electric current ampere A Amount of substance mole mol Luminous intensity candela Cd Pre 1x Exponential Pre x Symbol Word Conventional Notation Notation tera T trillion 1000000000000 1 X 1012 giga G billion 1000000000 1 x109 mega M million 1000000 1gtlt 106 kilo k thousand 1000 I gtlt103 hecto h hundred 100 l X 102 deka da ten 10 1gtlt 1039 one 1 l X 100 deci d tenth 01 1gtlt10 l centi c hundredth 001 1gtlt 10392 milli m thousandth 0001 1 gtlt10 3 micro n millionth 0000001 1gtlt10 6 nano n billionth 0000000001 1 gtlt10 9 pico p trillionth 0000000000001 1 gtlt10 392 l emto 1 quadrillionth 0000000000000001 1 gtlt 10quot5 The prefixes most frequently used by chemists appear in bold type Temperature The SI unit is the Kelvin 373K 77 v iZIZQF r r y 7 Watcrboils l l l 1 1 39 i 2 i a r a i I E l 2 l a 2 i 5 E E 1 s a a i a e E i 3w K75 3 7 936 7 lNormnlbodylcmpcrnlum i E lquot E E 1 i l i l t l 77 273 K 32 F Water eszes i i Kelvin scale Celsius smlc Fuhrcn hcit sca in K C 27315 C 5 9F 32 F95C32 Other quantities can be derived from the SI units 0 Basic unit ofvolume is m3 More useful measurements are cm3 1 mL and dm3 1 L 0 Density massvolume or the amount of mass in a unit volume Usually expressed as gcm3 or gmL For gases we often use gL Uncertainty in Measurement Two kinds of numbers 0 Exact numbers 0 Inexact numbers Precision and Accuracy 0 Precision o Accu racy Significant Figures 0 Measured quantities are usually reported in such a way that the last digit is uncertain if it is 1 otherwise state the uncertainty 0 All digits of a measured quantity are called significant figures The greater the number of significant figures the greater the certainty implied for the measurement Examples 1 Numbers after the decimal are significant 250 m and 2500 m Zeroes between digits are significant 10005 Exponential format signifies the number of significant figures 6022 x 1023 These zeroes could or could not be significant 10000 Zeroes that fall at the end ofa decimal number are significant but the ones before the digits but after the decimal are just place holders and are not significant 00004100 WPquot n calculations the least certain measurement limits the certainty of the calculation The answer should contain only one uncertain digit Addition and subtraction the result can have no more decimal places than the measurement with the fewest number of decimal places 1 2033 51 2 46 38 2555 3 546 x 102 4991 x 103 Multiplication and division the result must be reported with the same number of significant figures as the measurement with the fewest significant numbers 1 592 x 46 2 2134 Round the following numbers to a whole number 1 2040 2 2060 3 2050000001 4 2050 5 2150 In calculations that require more than one step carry additional digits with the calculation and round at the end Dimensional Analysis in calculations carry the units along to make sure that the calculation is correct For example to convert 26 into cm We know that 1 in 254 cm exactly 1in254 cm1 and 254cm1in1 This relationship is a conversion factor and if they are divided into each other we get 1 so if we use it it is like multiplying by 1 Since we want to cancel in and obtain cm in the answer we will use We can use more than one conversion factor the goal is to get from the units the number is currently in to units that we desire Convert 34 miles to km Conversion of volumes Suppose that we wish to know the mass in grams of 200 cubic inches of gold given that the density of gold is 193 gcm3 Conversion factors that we should know 254 cm 1 in and 1 cm3 193 g gold Calculation To keep in mind 0 What data are we given 0 What quantity do we need 0 What conversion factors are available to take us from what we are given to what we need

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