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by: Luna Bauch


Luna Bauch
OK State
GPA 3.92


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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Luna Bauch on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 1014 at Oklahoma State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see /class/232945/chem-1014-oklahoma-state-university in Chemistry at Oklahoma State University.




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Date Created: 11/01/15
CHEM 1014 Lecture Outline and Notes Text Chemistry in Context 6 h edition American Chemical Society CHAPTER 9 The World of Polymers and Plastics Synthetic polymers are everywhere There are natural polymers such as proteins and cellulose but we are going to focus mainly on synthetic polymers in this chapter Many polymers come from petroleum in principle polymers can be made from any carboncontaining starting material Polymers Long Long Chains Polymers Polymers can be composed of thousands of atoms and have very large molecular weights They are called macromolecules Monomers The polymer can be from one type of monomer or from a combination of monomers Synthetic polymers are sometimes called plastics Adding up the Monomers Let s look at polyethylene Polyethylene is formed from the monomer ethylene or ethene H2CCH2 n HccH L T T H H T T Molecular weights for polyethylene generally fall between 10000 and 100000 gmol but they can be bigger The ethylene molecules add to one another to form long chains Addition polymerization monomers add to the growing chain in such a way that the product contains all the atoms of the starting material No other products are formed The R is a catalyst to start the polymerization reaction It is a free radical and therefore highly reactive Initiating freeiradical catalyst i H iii RCC cc RCCCC l HH H HHHH Two growing chains can add and stop the process or capping compounds can be added 1 Polyethylene A Closer Look Found in plastic milkjugs detergent containers baggies and packing material Why the different properties It is due to how the molecules are connected HDPE high density polyethylene Has no branching so the molecules can pack closer together This provides more intermolecular attractive force an attraction between two molecules resulting from the interactions ofthe electron clouds and nuclei These forces are much weaker than covalent bonds When the electron clouds interact dispersion forces are created which are attractions between the molecules that result from a distortion ofthe electron cloud that causes an uneven distribution ofthe negative charge LDPE low density polyethylene Has branching so the molecules do not pack close together llll llm39r ll39l W g The quotBig Sixquot Themes and Variations The llBig Sixquot are polyethylene low density and high density polypropylene polystyrene polyvinyl chloride and polyethylene terephthalate Table 91 51319 5M Polymer Monomer Properties pi anymer Uses of Pulyrner polyethylene lLDPEl Ethylene TransllKelll lfnol pigmented Sol Bags lilms sheets bubble H H and Flexible lJnvc ICINE m and wrap loyr Wire insulation and bases5rmnq and laugh 0 at LDPE H l i Polyethylene HDPE Ethylene Slnlllal ll LDPL Mute llgld Opaque lrlllh iulee delclgenn A H H tougher iliglltly more dense and shamuoo bottles Buckets crates and reneihq LL ltlt HDPE H 39 Pol vm l hlmlde Vln lclvlurlde Variable I39ll ld if not softened with Rl ld Plumbin l 1 house y y y g g 9 v r H a plasticizer Clem and shlny laill sidingi charge enres haltl Dherl pigmented Resistant to most roam keys L3 c c chemicals including oils Softened Garden hoses r Ids and tinsel welerproal tram shown WC 39V H 39 curtains lv lublilg PIIylylene Styiene VJlllllIle 39Clysu 39Dllll llllllspdlt lll 39Clyshll39 mun mod wrap o A palkllng somewhat til I as5 trensnelcnr cups Exnandlmle lolmllghleIglll xmndnhle lnrlll roaiiltune L0 c c loam autli loinit girl and mum lnsuulcd comaquotcu 100d In many urganlt mlvenls packaging mys egg Mums quotS H i milllying peniiun l Polypropylene Propylene anemic VEYY louuhi good Dollie caps Voqlln main end H wuaihcumllly High clung itwgenne tenuintn Luuallng 0an lkJlshml la eilt cdsudl lliinllure luggage La 2 PP H i i Elhyiene glycol pulyethylene 39ep39m ame Tldluulvel VilollgallilHDlYr lmai Stillurinlluolllmltleei lead A law39le am impeiyioet to now no imotpnw conuinm bayonet glasses o g gases Mun mnly eline n lleeternurirsearpel yam L J lmNIH Insulnlmn c c PETE V or PE Hu Note that LDPE HDPE PVC PS and PP all have similar structures and will go through addition polymerization to make longchains H H H H quot quot R i i quot c gt ll n cc gt cc H l H R H H R39 n where R is the area of difference For polystyrene The molecules can add in different ways when R is not equal to H c c The connections can be headtotail headtohead or tailtotail H R This will give variety to the polymers properties head tail Thermoplastic Crystalline regions Amorphous regions Many of these polymers are very rigid and hard but they can be made softer and more pliable by the addition of plasticizers Condensing the Monomers The monomers make the polymers The monomers have different functional groups which are distinctive arrangements of groups of atoms that impart characteristic chemical properties to the molecules that contain them Some examples are given in Table 92 page 383 Polyethylene terephthalate PET or PETE is formed by condensation polymerization PET is also a copolymer 1 H H l 0 0 0 0 I l 0 C H C c H II c c e I x l n 0 H n n O C C H n u 0 H U 0 0 o Ii c C H H c an 1 l I A C 0 c 0 11 l l l H H I ll Sik I m Zldillll lllll Cllilill gHHHlI Sm Ilrl mlrlilinnul L liuin gnmlll Ester bonds are formed so this is one type of polyester 3 Polyamides Natural and Nylon Proteins are natural polymers made from chains of amino acids Amino acids the monomers from which our body builds proteins Each amino acid molecule contains two functional groups an amine group NH2 and a carboxylic acid group COOH Twenty different amino acids occur naturally each differing by the group attached to the central carbon R H 0 II N C H H c o R H The amino acids form polyamides condensation polymers that contain the amide functional group O i i H H C 0 T R H H 0 R H Ill g 11 H C O H C N C H O II R H H O peptide bond Peptide bond also called amide bond the covalent bond that forms when the COOH group of one amino acid reacts with the NH2 group of another thus joining the two amino acids A synthetic compound with amide peptide bonds is nylon Copyright The McGrawHill Companies Inc Permission reqLured for reproduction or display silc for additional 0 0 chain gm lh O C CH24 C C CH24 C ll H O 0 H H H H V N 7 CHw N N CH3 N I130 H H H H me for additionle zidipic acid hexamethylenediamine chmquot grmlh CHEM 1014 Lecture Outline and Notes Text Chemistry in Context 6 h edition American Chemical Society CHAPTER 6 Neutralizing the Threat of Acid Rain What is an Acid Acid HCI g gt Haq CI39aq this reaction is in water What is really going on HCI g H20 I gt H3O aq Cl39 aq H3O is the hydronium ion We write H to simplify the reaction but H is much too reactive and exists as H3O in solution What is a Base Base NaOH s gt Na aq OH39 aq this reaction is in water What about ammonia NH3 in water NH3 g i NH3 aCII ammonia is a gas that can be dissolved in water NH3 aq H20 I gt NH4OH aq NH4OH will dissociate in water to form NH4I and OH39 ions Thus we form OH39 to make a base Most of the NH3 does not react only about 1 Neutralization Bases are Antacids Neutralization HCI aq NaOH aq gt NaCI aq HZOI a salt and water are formed The overall reaction is H aq OH39 aq gt H20 I Remember that HCI and NaOH completely dissociate into ions when dissolved in water so that the overall equation is H aq Cl39 aq Na aq OH39 aq gt NaI aq Cl39 aq H20 I Na and CI39 are present in the same form on both sides so they are spectator ions Write chemical equations balanced complete ionic and net ionic for the acid and base pair HBr aq and BaOH2 aq First get a balanced equation 1 Write the reaction out HBr aq BaOH2 aq gt Ba Br2 aq H20 I 2 Then balance the equation 2 HBr aq BaOH2 aq gt BaBrz aq 2 H20 I 1 Now we write the complete ionic equation 1 All aqueous compounds dissolve into ions 2 HI aq 2 Br 39 aq Ball aq 2 OH39 aq gt Ball aq 2 Br 39 aq 2 H20 I Make sure everything stays balanced Now we get the net ionic reaction 1 Cross out any common ions same on the left and right sides These are the spectator ions and are not actually reacting since they are not changing 2 Haq2 Br39aq Ba2aq20H aq gt Ba2aq2 Br39aq2 H20 I 2 Write what is left 2 H aq 2 OH39 aq gt 2 H20 I 3 If needed you can simplify or reduce Haq OH39aq gt H20 I Neutral solutions Acidic solutions contain more HI ions than OH39 ions Basic solutions contain more OH39 ions than HI ions H OH39 1 x 1039 where shows the concentration in molarity Hland OH are both present in an aqueous solution and their concentrations are related by this equation For example if a rain sample has an H concentration of 1 x 10395 M 1 x 10395OH39 1 x 1039 OH39 1x 10399 M This solution is acidic since the concentration of H is greater than that of OH39 In a neutral solution HI OH39 1 x 10397 M Introducing pH pH power of hydrogen PH 0gH A neutral solution would have a pH of 7 Acidic solutions have pH lt 7 Basic solutions have pH gt 7 quot in quot 1n ll 3 in quot II H m39 10 1 10 II III Nculml Normal rain is already slightly acidic but acid rain is much more CHEM 1014 Lecture Outline and Notes Text Chemistry in Context 6 h edition American Chemical Society CHAPTER 5 The Water We Drink We depend on water for our very existence But what properties of water make it so important Most of the water is located in the oceans Only a very small amount is potable water fit for human consumption Water as a Solvent Water acts as a solvent Solutes Solution Aqueous solutions Solute Concentration in Aqueous Solutions Concentration the ratio ofamount of solute to amount of solution Some forms of concentration 1 Percent parts per hundred such as 5 g of sodium chloride in 100 g of water 5 solution by weight This is often used for high solute concentrations 2 Parts per million ppm 1 part per million For example 1 g ofsodium chloride in 1 million grams of water Instead of measuring 1 million grams of water we use liter L the volume occupied by 1000 g of water at 4 C This is from the fact that the density for pure water is 1 g1 mL at 4 C This will mean that for 1 ppm ofa substance in water will equal 1 mg of that substance per 1 L of water 3 Parts per billion ppb 1 part per billion For example 1 gram of sodium chloride in 1 billion grams of water We could also look at 1 microgram 1 pg of sodium chloride in 1 L of water 4 Molarity M the number of moles of solute present in one liter of solution I f I Molanty mo eso so ute 1 llter of solutlon The advantage of molarity is that solutions of the same molarity all contain exactly the same number of chemical units atoms ions or molecules The mass of one molecule of a substance can be very different depending on the molar mass but for all 1 M solutions the number of chemical units will be the same To prepare a 1 M solution of sodium chloride NaCl we would dissolve 585 g the molar mass of NaCl in 1 L of water We could also do the same thing by dissolving 293 g 05 mol of NaCl in 500 mL 0500 L of water The molarity is a ratio The Molecular Structure and Physical Properties of Water Water has some unusual physical properties 0 Liquid at room temperature and normal atmospheric pressure most compounds of similar molecular weight molar mass are not such as C02 0 Has an anomalously high boiling point Expands upon freezing so it is less dense floats on liquid water These properties derive from water39s chemical composition and molecular structure 0 g HQ2H H H H HOH 1045quot 397 a b c Electronegativiw EN a measure of an atom39s attraction for the electrons it shares in a covalent bond Electronegativib causes the electrons not to be shared equally between molecules Table 51 V at 1A an 4 SA 5A 7A 8A On periodic H table EN u a a c N F NE increases y u l 5 20 2 s so 3 s 40 Na M A 5K 5 El A o 7 IE is y 2 5 30 Polar covalent bond A molecule that contains only nonpolar covalent bonds such as Clz or Hz must be nonpolar However a molecule might contain polar bonds but still be nonpolar this depends on the shape of the molecule Because water is bentthe molecule has an overall polariw C02 is not polar although it contains polar bonds The Role of Hydrogen Bonding Intermolecularforce Hydrogen bonds electrostatic attractions between a hydrogen atom bearing a partial positive charge in one molecule and an O N or F atom bearing a partial negative charge in a neighboring molecule Hydrogen bonds are about 110 the strength of a covalent bond but these add up The densib of liquid water is greater than that of ice The densib for liquid water 100 gcm3 100 gmL The densib for ice 092 gcm3 092 gmL Water also has an uncommonly high capacityto absorb and release heat Specific heat the quantity of heat energythat must be absorbed to increase the temperature of 1 g of a substance by 1 C A Close Look at Solutes Nonelectrolyte Electrolytes Why does salt become a conducting solution but sugar does not The electric current is due to the presence of charged species in solution lon NaCl Na and Cl39 ions that are together to make table salt but in water the water molecules will pull them apart to make Na and Cl39 ions in solution Cation Anion No such separation occurs with covalently bonded molecules such as sugar The bonding that occurs in the crystals of table salt is an ionic bond a chemical bond formed by the attraction between oppositely charged ions Ionic compound made up of electrically charged ions that are present in fixed proportions and are arranged in a regular geometric patter a crystal In an ionic compound the electrons are transferred from one atom to the other to form positive and negative ions The electrons are not shared as in a covalent bond The atoms are losing or gaining electrons to try and obtain an octet in their outer shell Na gt Na e39 Now Na has an octet in its outer shell Cl e39 gt Cl39 Now Cl39 has an octet in its outer shell Metals tend to form cations positive charge by losing their valence electrons Nonmetals tend to form anions negative charge by gaining electrons Names and Formulas of Ionic Compounds Name the positively charged ion first as the element name leave a space and then name the negatively charged ion second but modify the end with the suffice ide Therefore NaCl becomes sodium chloride Notice that the charges balance for NaCl formed from Na and Cl39 and that the charges are not shown for the ionic compound Most elements only form a single type of ion Because of this we do not need to tell how many there are as we did with covalently bonded molecules such as C02 is carbon dioxide but CaClZ is calcium chloride and not calcium dichloride However some metals transition metals in the center of the periodic table can have multiple charges For those we tell the charge by using a Roman numeral FeO iron oxide FeZO3 ironlll oxide There are also polyatomic ions ions that are made up of two or more atoms covalently bound together Note that they have specific names so they do not end in ide This way you can distinguish sulfide 5239 from sulfate 504239 The formula for aluminum sulfate Al2SO43 This shows that it takes 2 Al3 ions to balance the 3 504239 ions Sulfate group stays together and are shown in parentheses If the subscript on the polyatomic ion is 1 it will not be marked off by parentheses Water Solutions of Ionic Compounds The salts that dissolve in water are separated and surrounded by water molecules For a polyatomic ion it stays together in the aqueous solution H o NaCl s L Nal aq Cl aq NaZSO4s 3 2 Na aq so2 aq Some salts are highly soluble but others are insoluble or only slightly There are many factors affecting this but the bottom line is do the ions attract each other more strongly than their ability to be solvated by water molecules Covalent Compounds and Their Solutions Other types of compounds dissolve in water such as table sugar sucrose Sucrose CHHZZOH is a covalently bonded molecule The same reason for salts to dissolve applies If water can solvate the molecules of the compound then it will dissolve The difference is that the sucrose molecules stay together water does not break the covalent bonds Like dissolves like CHEM 1014 Lecture Outline and Notes Text Chemistry in Context 6th edition American Chemical Society CHAPTER 2 Protecting the Ozone Layer Ozone is an allotrope of oxygen that is formed from by the following equation energy 3 O a 2 03 Allotropes Remember ozone in the troposphere is bad but in the stratosphere it is important for absorbing most ofthe ultraviolet UV radiation that hits the earth Ozone Layer The Atom Nucleus 10 4A Nucleus Protons Neutrons Electrons 1600 Atomic number Neutral atoms have the same number of protons and electrons Mass number Atomic mass or better known as atomic weight Isotopes Carbon has 3 isotopes carbon 1212C carbon 13 13C and carbon 1414C Periodic properties Outer valence electrons Molecules and Models Lewis structure We can represent the covalent bonds using Lewis symbols Covalent bond For example the formation of the H2 molecule from two H atoms has the single electrons from each atom coming together and being shared by the two H atoms in a bond H H The same idea shows how Cl atoms come together each with 7 valence electrons to share an electron pair and thus fill the octet and produce the diatomic molecule Clz We can represent this as a Lewis structure SEr lg or We get ClCl with each Cl surrounded by dots on the other 3 sides Octet rule Some examples of Lewis structures for HF H20 NH3 and CH4 We notice that the valence electrons are the same as the group number of the element We would expect that 7A elements such as Cl and F would form one covalent bond to achieve an octet 6A elements such as 0 would form 2 5A elements such as N would form 3 and 4A elements such as C would form 4 This is what we observe for most compounds H H E H b H ii H H C H H Example Given the Lewis symbols for the elements N and F predict the formula of the stable compound formed by reaction of nitrogen with fluorine and draw its Lewis structure The sharing of a pair of electrons constitutes a single covalent bond Sometimes atoms will share more than one pair of electrons when 2 electron pairs share between 2 atoms we get double bonds represented by 2 lines We also see triple bonds the sharing of 3 pairs of electrons which are represented by three lines drawn between the atoms H H H H cc or c c NN OI39 N N H 39 39 H H H Structural formula Polyatomic molecules How to represent molecules with Lewis structures Consider water H20 1 Find sum of valence electrons 1 O atom x 6 valence electrons per atom 6 2 H atoms x 1 valence electron per atom 2 Total valence electrons 8 2 Arrange the electrons in pairs use whatever electron pairs needed to connect the atoms then distribute the remaining electron pairs so that the octet rule is satisfied lone pair bonding pair The Lewis structure gives a good indication of the attachment between atoms and the bonds that attach the atoms but not the three dimensional orientation such as water being a bent molecule Resonance Structures When the Lewis structure doesn t quite adequately describe the arrangement of the atoms we could be looking at a resonance structure or resonance form Resonance forms This is the resonance structure of ozone 03 We can shift the double bond to either side of the central 0 but the true structure lies somewhere between because in 03 the 0 0 distances are the same b b39 0 9 Q r o o The double headed arrow indicates that the structures are resonance structures In resonance structures the atoms that are bonded to each other remains the same only the placement of the electrons differ 99 9 0 9 oxygen oxygen ozone hydroxyl atom molecule molecule free radical Figure 23 different forms of oxygen The wave nature of light 0 We are concerned with light because atoms absorb or emit light 0 Light that we see is visible light and it is a type of electromagnetic radiation 0 All electromagnetic radiation moves through a vacuum at the speed of light 300 x 108 ms and all have wavelike characteristics Wavelength Wow W This IS like a wave In water Wave trough 3 For a light wave we represent it with a sine wave w vtImi A w Amplllmlr L I quot l quot A A1 Ah nl In vvvv m min0mm yclt snl rm INmIungmmnm mm m a Sanmlmqumtynslbl mtIungih A I fnquvm y mm a mmllvrampllhulu grml n III A Frequency vk c v c Mr 10 III 7 Inquot Inquot 10quot In 10 l l l l l l l l l l I I I I I I K I 9 quot3 x rays In Lnirared lMicruwaves Radio frequency lays I II mlul I i l 1 I I I l l I l l l V l l l l 102 10 3 10 10 10 10 U 10quot Itquot 10 lt Frequency 5 I Visible region I I I 400 500 600 700 750 n m This means that wavelength and frequency are inversely proportional so as wavelength increases frequency decreases 1 nanometer nm one billionth ofa meter m 1nm1x10399m or 1m1x109nm Electromagnetic spectrum Radiant energy Ultraviolet UV region Infrared IR region Quantum Energy and Photons Through examination of hot objects Max Planck determined that atoms can only absorb or release energy in discrete chunks The smallest chunk is a quantum with energy E hv h is Planck s constant 6626 x 103934Js Therefore energy is always emitted or absorbed by defined steps E nhv where n 1 2 3 therefore E hv 2hv 3hv If the amount of energy emitted is 3hv then 3 quanta of energy have been emitted Photoelectric effect light shining on a clean metal surface causes the metal to emit electrons For each metal there is a minimum frequency of light below which no electrons are emitted Einstein explained it by assuming a stream of tiny energy packets hit the metal surface the packets which he called photons act like tiny particles Energy of photon E hv The energy of a photon can also be absorbed by covalent bonds and cause them to break 4 Energy and frequency are directly related higherfrequency means higher energy The Oxygen Ozone Screen The double bond of oxygen is broken with a UV photon wavelength of 242 nm or less 02 a 2 o The bonds in ozone are broken with a UV photon wavelength of 320 nm or less 03 gt 02 0 That means most ofthe UV range can be absorbed by 02 and O3 molecules UV A 320 nm 4OO nm UV B 280 nm 320 nm UV C 200 nm 280 nm UV photons 2 Or new 0 fed into cycle 02 lt 242 nm collisions fast 0 07 C 0 subcycle UV photons 320 nm collisions 03 O gt 2 OZ 5 low 03 removed from cycle Figure 29 the Chapman cycle showing the interplay of oxygen and ozone Refers to the natural steady state reactions for stratospheric ozone Steady state Biological Effects of Ultraviolet Radiation Increased skin cancer risk Stratospheric Ozone Destruction Global Observations and Causes Free radical H20 gt H OH Anotherfree radical arises naturally from the combustion of nitrogen N2 02 gt 2 39NO Chlorofluorocarbons CFCs These are often known as freons Freon 1 1 CFC1 1 Freon 1 2 CFC1 2 l5 l5 EI c oi EI c k c CI CCI3F CCI2F2 trichlorofluoromethane dichlorodifluoromethane Halons compounds similar to CFCs in which bromine or fluorine atoms replace some or all of the chlorine atoms The CCl bond can be broken easily by light The CBr is easier to break This gives another source of free radicals but these come from manmade chemicals The CI radical is also not consumed it can act as a catalyst for the destruction of ozone Catalyst CHEM 1014 Lecture Outline and Notes Text Chemistry in Context 6 h edition American Chemical Society CHAPTER 4 Energy Chemistry and Society How to supply our energy needs Energy Work and Heat Energy Work Workforcexdistance w de Heat Temperature Temperature and heat are not the same things Temperature is a statistical measure of the average speed of the molecular motion heat c F 32 F c32 Energy Transformation Units calorie cal Joule J The joule is more often used 1 cal 4184 J Calorie Cal 1 kcal 1000 cal this is the term used for the Calories in food First law of thermodynamics also called the law of conservation of mass Potential energy Kinetic energy Entropy Second law of thermodynamics Sometimes order appears in one area so that more overall randomness can be obtained Measuring Energy Changes Combustion CH4 g 202 g gt C02 g 2 H20 g energy Exothermic Endothermic Calorimeter Heat of combustion These are usually tabulated and are often shown as positive numbers such as klmol even though heat is released For the combustion of 1 mol of CH4 with 2 mol of 02 the heat of combustion is 8023 kl or 8023 kl is given off 8023 kl Note that this value is specific for the amount of material If you have 2 mol of CH4 then it would release twice as much energy 16046 kl Energy Changes at the Molecular Level Chemical reactions involve a rearrangement of atoms chemical bonds are broken and formed Energy is needed to break bonds endothermic and energy is released upon the formation of bonds exothermic Bond energy We can use the bond energies to estimate the energy of reaction in which bonds are broken and new bonds are formed We can quickly determine if the reaction will be endothermic or exothermic We know that breaking bonds is an endothermic process positive energy energy is needed and bond formation is exothermic negative energy energy is released Reaction Energy total energy to break bonds total energy to form bonds The energy change that accompanies a chemical reaction depends on the energy difference between the products and the reactants not on the particular process mechanism or individual steps that connect the two Remember a catalyst is a chemical component that helps speed up a reaction but is not consumed in the reaction The way that it speeds up the reaction is by lowering the activation energy nnrrllv eri reaction AL Catalyzed reaction Reactants Energy gt Products Reaction pathway gt CHEM 1014 Lecture Outline and Notes Text Chemistry in Context 6 H edition American Chemical Society CHAPTER 10 39 39 39 39 Iquot and Designing Drugs Pharmaceuticals drugs Medicinal chemistr Use of herbal and folk remedies can be traced to antiquity Human history has been marked with drug use and abuse A Classic Wonder Drug Observed healing properties of Willow bark isolate small amounts of salicin which could be separated into two compounds One ofthese reduced fever and inflammation and was converted to an acid in the body There were some side effects such as unpleasant taste and acute stomach irritation for some individuals The compound is aspirin with the chemical name of 2acetyloxybenzoic acid or more commonly acetylsalicylic acid 0 OH O OH O O O OH O Aok I H AOH O salicylic acid acetic acid acetylsalicylic acid acetic acid anhydride aspirin Chemists worked on a derivative that reduced side effects but kept or enhanced the curative properties The Study of CarbonContaining Molecules Organic chemistry Carbon can form a wide variety of molecules Most carbon compounds combine with hydrogen oxygen nitrogen sulfur chlorine phosphorous and bromine through covalent bonds Specific naming rules nomenclature from an international committee called IUPAC International Union of Pure and Applied Chemists Some compounds have common names that are also recognized Carbon follows the octet rule makes covalent bonds Thus single double and triple bonds can form I C CC CC CCC 0C Chemical formulas such as C4Hlu normal butane or nibutane indicates the kinds and numbers of atoms present in a molecule Structural formulas show the atoms and their arrangement with respect to one another in a molecule H H H H C C C H l H H nib utane Condensed structural formulas where carbonitoihydrogen bonds are not drawn out explicitly but simply understood to be single bonds CH37CH27CH27CH3 or CH3CH2CH2CH3 Note the carbons are bonded to each other Isomers molecules with the same chemical formula same number and kinds of atoms but with different structures and properties Structural Formula D quot quot cquot 39 Model SpaceFilling Model Humane c4HJD mnhumuu lCAH ml sobutane as a condensed structural formula CH 3 CHCH30r CH3CHCH3CH3 or CH3CHCH32 or CHCH33 or CH33CH Lineiangle drawing a simplified version of a structural formula that is most useful for representing larger molecules nibutane isobutene A C at each end and each bend fill in with H to form an octet other atom types are shown The names The first 4 are mes rest are on system The ending iane means that there are only single bonds between the carbons Functional Groups Functional groups distinctive arrangements of groups of atoms that impart characteristic physical and chemical properties to the molecules that contain them Tabla no3 Sonialmpdrimforginlciuncil nilGroups Functional therlt Structural Snuuuml Gmup Farmula Name39 Formula Formula hydmxyl 0 mm H lvlliylvvlcoliulr f r H 1 ohmor umel 0 mumnyleuw CHQCH c c CHVUCl mlqu 0 pmpmyml I 4 y u i V quot cum 3 H H H C m v m L crucmmn k lcm 390 1 Drop WWW CR H 2 Iiquot wiffmv H H cImocH mm o W r u N l m m g on o m CHICO H m mum u w l melhyl r 3 ll Mummmhyi H V I1 H RoC Hi2 HH Marat H mmmm Muirquot H ullvylammu ll I V I N H mama H H H MM amide 0 pmpmlmmde H l 0 g H Hg H H CH NH N C N A v i A WWW mam inmmnnnwmvavnnM NhIwt Functional groups in aspirin 2 1 H H 1 benzene ring 0 2 carboxylic acid I 3 3 ester 0 CH3 Handedness in Molecules Chiral or optical isomers have the same chemical formula but they differ in their threedimensional molecular structure and their interactions with polarized light Occurs when 4 different atoms or groups of atoms are attached to a carbon atom When 2 different molecules can be formed that are not superimposable able to be rotated so that they are identical and can be placed on top of one another Example right and left hands They rotate polarized light in different directions Chiral molecule Lcll lanl Mirror image m in lnml appears h hen I I 1g u bum Need for structurefunction relationships including chirality shape and location of functional groups to create an ideal drug candidate Steroids A common backbone structure is used by biological systems to create many different compounds with diverse functionality This is the basic carbon skeleton OH Some exam pes I cnmlu M llummnc Mule wx hummin Exlrmlml Tuxiuslumllc O cCll0ll 0 VCH 0amp0 a Mmhum rcpulalur Mammy linmmm lngvuclmic IIIUM mt 0H COOH HO H HO 0H 131 m M m mgwmu n11 quotmumquot Lumlmlwlll lmllr irld 39hulmlrml 4 CHEM 1014 Lecture Outline and Notes Text Chemistry in Context 6 h edition American Chemical Society CHAPTER 1 The Air We Breathe Overview of Chemistry Let s start by examining the air we breathe Not a vacuum devoid of all material but composed of molecules and atoms in a mixture Bad Gases 0 carbon monoxide o ozone o sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides o particulate matter PM Air pollutants and risk assessment 0 Risk assessment 0 o Toxicity 0 Exposure Some Math Concentration Terms 0 Parts per hundred pph aso called percent 0 Parts per million ppm 0 Parts per billion ppb 21 means 21 parts per hundred means 210 parts per thousand means 2100 parts per ten thousand means 21000 parts per hundred thousand means 210000 parts per million Scientific Notation 11000 000021 0001021 1730 0022x103 602200000000000000000000 More information in Appendix 2 The Power of Exponents page 531 Significant Figures Units of Measurement Mass kilogram kg or gram g Length m eter m Vol u me liter 1 Ti m e seco nd s Pre x Exponential Prefix Symbol Word Conventional Notation Notation rem T trillion 1000000000000 1 gtlt10l2 giga G billion 1000000000 1gtlt109 mega M million 1000000 1gtlt106 kilo k lhousand 1000 I x 103 heclo h hundred 100 1 x 102 dska da ten 10 gtlt1039 one 1 1 X 10quot den 1 tenth 01 1x10quot centi c liundiedlli 001 1gtlt10 2 milli m lhousandlh 0001 gtlt1073 micro p millionth 0000001 I X 10 396 nano r1 billionlh 0000000001 X 10 9 pico p lrillionth 0000000000001 IX 10 39f 1611110 1 quadrillionlh 0000000000000001 I X 10quot3 The prefixes most frequently used by chemists appear in bold type Appendix 1 Measure for Measure Conversion Factors and Constants page 529 Conversion factors are used to change the units from one form to another We can use more than one conversion factor the goal is to get from the units the number is currently in to units that we desire Convert 34 miles to km Classifying Matter 0 Matter 0 Elements 0 Compounds 0 Mixtures o Homogeneous o Heterogeneous NO YES Can it be separated by Pure a physlcal process Substances NO Can it be broken YES down into simpler ones by chemical quot72mmquot w Examples Carbon dioxide compound nickel element cocaine compound water compound fluorine element table salt compound soap mixture sea water mixture Periodic table of the elements Group Pe od Metals Nonmetals Metaloids The chemical symbol is derived from many sources 0 English one letter O for oxygen N for nitrogen C for carbon 5 for sulfur 0 English two letters Ni for nickel CI for chlorine Ca for calcium 0 Ancient names Fe for iron ferrum Pb for lead plumbum Hg for mercury hydrargyrum 0 After properties planets places and people Np for neptunium Pu for plutonium Bk for berkelium Cf for californium Es for einsteinium Md for mendelevium Molecule The space filling model of water Chemical formula HZO for water Diatomic molecules two atoms together to form a molecule Seven nonmetal elements occur in nature as homodiatomic molecules hydrogen H2 nitrogen N2 oxygen 02 fluorine F2 chlorine Clz bromine Brz iodine I2 Naming of binary nonmetal compounds 1 Prefixes are used to the number of each of element LDOOIO 1U39IJgtUJNH nona deca H O 2 Prefixes are used to designate the number of each type of element Notes 1 mono is omitted from the first element 2 the end of the second element is modified with the suffix ide COZ CO NZO P205 Chemical reactions Reacta nts gt Products For example the combustion reaction C 02 gt CO But the number of atoms on each side of the arrow must equal Law of Conservation of Mass 2COZHZCO Pictorially Balancing eguations if an element is present in just one compound on each side balance itfirst balance anything that exists as a free element last balance polyatomic ions as a unit check when done same number of atoms and same total charge ifany on both sides C3Hg 02 H C02 H20 CHEM 1014 Lecture Outline and Notes Text Chemistry in Context 6th edition American Chemical Society CHAPTER 3 The Chemistry of Global Warming Global warming Carbon dioxide is a major player but the reason is farfrom obvious Earth s Energy Balance Greenhouse gases Greenhouse effect A steady state of heat exchange is established to give about a constant average terrestrial temperature Enhanced greenhouse effect CO2 is used by plants to produce energy and glucose 6C02 6 H20 a C6H1206 602 glucose Molecular Shape Carbon dioxide water and methane are greenhouse gases nitrogen and oxygen are not The reason has to do with molecular structure and shape For a two atom molecule such as 02 and N2 the shape has to be a straight line 00 and NEN We can tell the shape of molecules that contain more than 2 atoms by first drawing the Lewis structure and seeing where the electrons are at Cl 325 I 172m cI lt ltI W gl 1n95 The most stable arrangement is the one in which the mutually repelling electron groups are as far apart as possible man 1 Eleumnr amalu Ocailmlrlu ma u or quotIn Nummr u munm mum m minor imam nmmnmrn mm Electron Domain geometry tells where the electron Izluilmnllmnains mmmnunmins Grimm NnndAn Ins I W W 5 groups are located The only possIbIlItIes that we Will 2 Linmr 1w I 39 explore are shown In the table The molecular geometry shows where the atoms are and they will be categorized 1 r nu pit starting from one of the electron domaIn grou ps In th Is ta ble A lnlmhvilml UN 5 rr m hymn r Uduhmiml m 1 Determine the number of outer electrons associated with each atom in the molecule 2 Arrange the outer electrons in pairs to satisfy the octet rule This is drawing the Lewis structure 3 Assume that the most stable molecular shape has the bonding electron pairs or groups such as double bonds and triple bonds and nonbonding or lone pairs as far apart as possible reroup alrangumonl no 01 groupsl quotEa 939 Tllganal planar 3 Tarmnenmi a 39I quotr v 2 7 Molecular snap O i e I i class J V ma 0 U o d o W Trigonal v shaped Yeltahmiral Trlganai v shaped planar or hen rAx4 pvwmdal ur benl lAXn AXgEl leJE Mtg ND 01 banning 2 3 2 a 3 2 groups gig IBD ram 120 was mass was Gmun armngemenl mo ol gmups 4 Manama 6 539 Molecular e I shape class I v J r r a Trignnal Seesaw T shaped Llneal Oclahedral Square Square hip ramrdal MAE AxaEzl Axis AXH pyramldal planar M5 7 AXEE AXE No D bonding 5 4 a 2 5 5 4 groups Bond 90 rax an r axl 190 ax 150 EU 90 an angle r20 eq mo rem The shape of a molecule is defined by the position of the atoms and not the electrons Tetrahedron a fourcornered figure with four equal triangular sides Example CH4 Trigonal pyramidal Example NH3 Bent Example H20 Lone pairs take up more space than bonding pairs Vibrating Molecules and the Greenhouse Effect Photons in the IR range are not energetically enough to break bonds but can add energy to the vibrations in a molecule The greenhouse gases stretch and vibrate so that there are different overall electric charge distributions to allow it to absorb IR heat and reemit it N2 and 02 do not change their electric charge distributions so they do not absorb IR radiation Quantitative Concepts Mass Atomic mass 1 amu 166x 103924g The atomic mass or atomic weight shown in the periodic table reflects the weighted atomic mass for the different isotopes For carbon there is 012 9890 C13 110 and C14 a trace Atomic mass further can be defined This is a very large number called Avogadro s number 602 x 1023 Calculate the average mass in grams of an individual atom of oxygen Quantitative Concepts Molecules and Moles mole mol 1 mol of carbon atoms 602 x 1023 C atoms 1 mol of carbon dioxide molecules 602 x 1023 C02 molecules From reactions C 02 9 CO2 This says 1 atom of C reacts with 1 molecule of OZ to yield 1 molecule of C02 this shows the ratios of the different components of the reaction You can also say 1 mol of C reacts with 1 mol of OZ to yield 1 mol of C02 The mol is a practical way to relate the number of particles to the mass Molar mass or molecular weight The mass of a mole of carbon atoms 120 g We can say the molar mass or molecular weight of carbon 120 gmol A mol of OZ molecules 320 g What is the molar mass of C02 Mass Ratios and Percents Calculate the mass ratio ofS in 02 Find the mass percent ofS in 02 CHEM 1014 Lecture Outline and Notes Text Chemistry in Context 6 h edition American Chemical Society CHAPTER 8 Energy from Electron Transfer We depend on batteries for our portable electronic gadgets Electron transfer is important for batteries to operate Electrons Cells and Batteries The Basics Battery Types 1 Galvanic cell 2 Electrolytic cell Halfreaction type of chemical equation that shows the electrons that are either lost or gained Oxidation halfreaction Reduction halfreaction Oxidation loss of electrons Reduction gain of electrons LEO the lion says GER OILRIG Nickelcadmium battery NiCad Oxidation halfreaction Cd gt Cd Ze39 Reduction haf reaction 2 Ni3 2 e39 gt 2 Nip Overall cell reaction Cd 2 Ni3 gt Cd2 2 Nip The electrons are transferred from the Cd to the Ni they cancel in the overall equation Electricity Electrodes Anode Cathode Voltage The reaction in the NiCad battery is more complicated as the Cd and Ni are in different forms but the overall reaction shows a transfer ofelectrons between the Cd to the Ni Anode oxidation halfreaction Cd s 2 OH39 aq gt CdOH2 s 2 e39 Cathode reduction halfreaction 2 NiOOH s 2 H20 I 2 e39 gt 2 NiOH2 s 2 OH39 aq Overall cell reaction Cd s 2 NiOOH s 2 H20 I gt 2 NiOH2 s CdOH2 s Oxidation aways occurs with reduction there are chemical changes occurring at both electrodes The NiCad battery is rechargeable diammin Cd s 2 NiOOH s 2 HZOI I39mwin 2 NiOH2 s CdOH2s The accumulation of impurities and breakdown of the separators in the battery will lead to the end of the useful life of the battery Some Common Batteries LeadAcid storage Batteries storage battery because they quotstorequot electrical energy Can think of the typical car battery dictmg Pb s PbOz s ZHZSO4aq W ZPbSO4s 2H20I lead leadVoxide sulfuricacid lead sulfate water lead dioxide Fuel cell a galvanic cell that produces electricity by converting the chemical energy of a fuel directly into electricity without burning the fuel It is also called a quotflowquot battery because a constant external supply of fuel such as hydrogen and oxidant such as oxygen in air must flow through the battery CHEM 1014 Lecture Outline and Notes Text Chemistry in Context 6 h edition American Chemical Society CHAPTER 7 The Fires of Nuclear Fission About 20 of the electrical power in the US comes from nuclear plants How Fission Produces Energy E mc Energy mass x speed of light2 speed of light 30 x 108 ms Since we are looking at the speed of light squared that is a large number Should be able to produce a lot ofenergy from a small mass Nuclear fission was discovered by observing that when uranium was bombarded with neutrons a small amount of barium which is a smaller atom was produced Nuclear fission Energy is released because the total mass of the products is slightly less than the total mass of the reactants Neither matter nor energy is individually conserved Matter disappears and replaced by energy Only the nuclei of certain elements undergo fission and only under certain conditions Uranium isotopes ZSEU ZSE U 23 U For ZSEU 92 is the atomic number number of protons and 238 is the mass number number of protons neutrons in this case 92 protons and 146 neutrons U238 does not undergo fission yet U235 does sn Zsau a Zssu a l sazzxrssn The neutron n has a mass of 1 but no charge It also has no protons thus the subscript equals zero U235 captures the neutron and forms U236 U236 is in because it is unstable and only lasts a very short time before it splits into the products Notice that 3 neutrons are released We do not cancel the neutrons out All the subscripts and superscripts must agree on all sides of the equations The neutrons that are produced can cause more reactions to occur starting a chain reaction Chain reaction Critical mass From the above reaction no mass loss is apparent but the actual mass does decrease slightly We have to look at actual masses For example a U235 atom weighs 235043924 amu the products weigh about 11000 h less This difference in mass is what produces the energy If we want to know how much energy could be released from 10 kg of U235 if it were to undergo fission we use a derivation of E mc2 AE Amc2 where A means the change in Since 11000 of the mass is loss Am 10 kg x 11000 1 x 10393 kg AE Amc2 10 x 10393 kg x 30 x 108 ms2 90 x 1013 kg mZs2 1 joule J 1 kg mZs2 90 x 1013 kg mZs2 90 x 10131 1 kJ1000 J 90 x 1010 k In a nuclear bomb the initial blast blows the material away so the chain reaction does not continue to consume all the U235 How Nuclear Reactors Produce Electricity The uranium fuel in the reactor core is in the form of uranium dioxide U02 better known as uraniumV oxide pellets Neutrons are produced one way is by a multistep reaction Zg pu ZSQU Z He The alpha particle created strikes beryllium releasing a neutron and a gamma ray Z He ZBe 1c 3n 3y The neutrons produced can initiate nuclear fission of U235 Control rods composed primarily of an excellent neutron absorber such as cadmium or boron can be slid up or down to absorb fewer or more neutrons They are needed to capture extra neutrons generated from the reaction You want only enough to continue the reaction but not let it get out of control What is Radioactivity Radioactivity the spontaneous emission of radiation by certain elements 2 major types 1 beta B particle 2 alpha on particle Another type of particle is the gamma y ray Electromagnetic radiation refers to all the different types of light Nuclear radiation refers to the radiation emitted by the nucleus such as X B and y radiation y rays fit into both types of radiation ocdecay ZSEU 9 233m ZlHe uranium thorium ocparticle Bdecay 233m 9 23 Pa 3e thorium protactinium Bparticle atomic number increased by 1 2 How can we understand where the Bparticle comes from 0 n gt p 1e neutron proton electron We can look at a neutron as a combination ofa proton and electron Can use this to understand the reaction although this might not be exactly what is occurring All isotopes of all elements with atomic number 84 and higher are radioactive Most lighter elements are not radioactive but a few are like carbon14 hydrogen3 tritium and potassium40 Radioactive decay a characteristic pathway of radioactive decay that begins with a radioisotope and progresses through a series of steps to eventually produce a stable isotope Radioactivity and You We are worried about ionizing radiation because it strips electrons off and makes free radicals which are very reactive Rapidly dividing cells are particularly susceptible to radiation which is why radiation is used to treat certain kinds of cancer but also why it affects some organs more than others Nuclear Waste Here Today Here Tomorrow Halflifet12 the time required for the level of radioactivity to fall to one half of its initial value Example Hydrogen3 tritium H3 is sometimes formed in the primary coolant water ofa nuclear reactor Tritium is a betaemitter with tlz 123 years For a given sample containing tritium after how many years will only about 12 of the radioactivity remain


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