Introduction to Geography
Introduction to Geography GEOG 1000
pellissippi state community college
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Geography Midterm Exam Study Guide Ch 1 3 4 5 amp 11 Fall 2010 Questions on exam will be worth 2 points each unless n0ted Total 200 POINTS Exam Questions will be based on the studv guide below Chapter One 1 N V W V 4 V U V The de nition of a geographical region a is not universally agreed upon by all people defining the region a region is defined by an individual or group for a speci c purpose For example a region as defined by FedEx will be different than the de nition of the region by a climate expert b uses a unique set of indicators Ex there is only one place in the world that has the characteristics of 1 in the continental USA and 2 includes college teams that can qualify as members of the SEC football conference c contains patterns of physical features human activities and environmental issues that are NOT typical of other regions at similar latitudes d includes a very limited number of speci c criteria about a place Ex 1 all points which can be reached by truck within 4 hours when starting from Atlanta Ex 2 the only place in the world where one can find at least 30 restaurants that serve southern style sweet tea in every major urban center The Equator passes through See map to study this topic a The waters just north of the island of New Guinea b a few miles south of the city state of Singapore c Ecuador Colombia and Brazil d the Democratic Republic of the Congo Uganda Kenya and the southern tip of Somalia in SubSaharan Africa e is south of India and Sri Lanka f the Indonesian islands of Sumatra and Borneo in Southeast Asia Factors exerting a strong in uence on weather conditions include a the tendency for air to be pulled into areas of low pressure bc low pressure forms a vacuum at the earth s surface b the redistribution of solar energy from tropical latitudes to polar regions c the movement of moisture from oceans to continents to oceans d the effects of atmospheric pressure on wind wind blows away from areas of high pressure Hurricanes a Consequences of hurricanes are increasing as coastal population densities increase b Hurricanes are large tropical lowpressure storm systems that form annually in the Atlantic Ocean not high pressure systems amp not in the Paci c those are cyclones c Hurricanes gain more energy as they move over cooler water or over land Lose energy d Hurricane winds move across the earth s surface from east to west Atmospheric pressure a causes winds to blow away from areas where atmospheric pressure is high b mixes between high and low pressure zones at midlatitudes c is lower at high altitudesbc there are fewer air molecules pressing down on something 5 miles above the earth s surface l V 00 V V d varies with latitude due to movement of air due to heat or cold Ex air pressure is low at Equator at 0 latitude but is high at 90 latitude at the poles Nevada is so dry a because air blowing east not west from the Sierra Nevada Mountains is dry b as a result of orographic precipitation in California not frontal or convectional precip c because it is on the leeward not windward side of the Sierra Nevada Mountains d because it is in a rainshadow Most of the world s major deserts see map for this topic a are located at about 2430 north and south latitudes not at the equator or poles b are a result of cold dry air that moves at high altitudes toward the poles from the Equator and sinks into subtropical zones c are NOT caused by rain shadows some deserts are caused by rain shadows but not the world39s major desert d occur in zones typi ed by high atmospheric pressure and clear skies Earth tilt see lecture notes and map for this topic a The Topic of Cancer is the northernmost point at which the Sun strikes the Earth at a 90 angle The Tropic of Capricorn is south of the Equator Tropic of Cancer is north of Equator Seasonal features such as solstices and equinoxes have a widespread and historic effect on cultures Example all major cultures in the Northern hemisphere have some holiday centered around the winter solstice on December 21 Example Christmas Satumalia ancient Rome During the Southern Hemisphere s Summer Solstice on December 21 the South Pole receives almost 24 hours of sunlight On the Northern Hemisphere s Vernal Equinox the sun is at a 90 angle to the Equator so the day is the same length as the night on that day b c d V Earth tilt seasons ITCZ amp the Torrid Zone a The sun is never directly overhead at noon in Knoxville on the Northern Hemisphere s Summer Solstice b The Intertropical Convergence Zone ITCZ is a band of atmospheric currents circling the globe roughly at the equator where warm winds from both north and south converge c The Tropic of Cancer marks the point of the Sun s northernmost 90 angle to Earth which occurs on June 21 d The Torrid Zone is located south of Florida 10 According to some theories the emergence of agricultural production for trade had what effect on human societies EXTRA CREDIT a Famine became more common b Societies became more hierarchical c Gender equality decreased as inheritance became more important d Social inequalities and income disparities increased 11 Modern agriculture EXTRA CREDIT a When rich countries send food aid to faminestricken countries it discourages farmers in the famine zone who are still producing food from producing more food b Through the use of modern agriculture techniques food production by rich countries decreases food prices worldwide prevents farmers in poor countries from entering the global market does NOT INCREASE prices amp does not Encourage poor farmers c Modern agriculture produces enough food to feed everyone in the world d New agricultural research is developing perennial grainproducing crops which recycle soil nutrients and will decrease the need for plowing and fertilizer Questions on GDPpc amp HDI GDI amp GEM see Ch 1 lecture notes amp textbook Questions below are sample questions they will be similar but not the same on the exam true statements are in italics 12 Select the TRUE statement The statistical measures that indicates the social aspects of development separately for males and females is the a Human Development Index measures both males amp females but does not separate the results by gender Gender Development ndex c Gender Empowerment Measure d GDPpc 13 Select the TRUE statement GDPpc indicates a country s a distribution of wealth b literacy rates c environmental and economic sustainability d average per person total domestic product data in a b amp c are all social measures amp GDPpc does NOT measure any social data 14 Select the TRUE statement The HDI can provide information about a country39s a literacy rates for females b gross domestic production by males c income distribution for the overall population d average income for females e income distribution The answers to the following questions are ALL TRUE unless noted 15 Restrictions on trade a usually take the form of tariffs and import quotas b are used by a government to protect its country from foreign competition c are not supported by trade blocs such as NAFTA they support free trade with NO tariffs d are discouraged by advocates of free trade 16 When a country s population statistics are missing a considerable number of females a it may indicate a high societal preference for males b it may indicate female infanticide c it is more difficult to assess the size of its informal economy bc the informal economy includes so much work done by females especially child care amp subsistence farming if you don t know how many females there are in a country it is more difficult to design policies that can help them with small business loans education health care etc d it is dif cult to assess how much to invest in education for females 17 Fertility rates a The total fertility rate in the US is NOT the lowest in the world US 207 Average in some European countries 18 b The highest total fertility rate in the world is around 69 like in Somalia this means the average woman of childbearing age in Somalia has about 7 children c The total fertility rate is a good indicator of other conditions such as access to health care education for females and even GNPpc Know why d Ninety percent of the world39s population is located north of the equator between 20 to 60 latitude bc most of the world s land mass is in the north hemisphere 18 The connection between population growth and wealth a Places with slow population growth rates tend to have low poverty rates b In places where families rely on subsistence agriculture families tend to be large c Poor countries may or may not have good income distribution Poverty determines the size of the economy not how it is divided among the population it s like having a large pizza large economy but not sharing it fairly or a small pizza small poor economy that is shared more fairly d Countries with a high fertility rate tend to have poor income distribution e Population growth decreases when women have access to education and jobs 19 Population amp urbanization a As people move from rural agricultural work to jobs in cities they begin to use MORE resources per capita and draw their resources from a LARGER area b Urbanization increases erosion problems b c urban areas have many large paved surfaces which increases the quotenergyquot of runoff water bc the water can39t be absorbed by the paved surfaces so there s more ooding or more need for storm sewers vegetated surfaces absorb water better c Urbanization increases the tendency to overconsume d In 1700 less than 10 of the world population lived in cities but by 2003 about 48 lived in cities 20 Poverty race and population a Poverty makes it more dif cult for people to contribute to their country39s economy bc they have more health problems amp less education b High population density is NOT strongly correlated with high levels of poverty EX lower Manhattan New York City has high population density but the average income in that area is high c A culture39s perceptions of race has a great effect on human rights politics economics architecture and other aspects of life in that culture it affects population location restricted neighborhoods accessibility to health care employment etc d In agricultural economies children usually contribute to a family s income bc they work on the family farm 21 Income disparity a High income disparity decreases the potential for a nation s economic growth bc more people have less access to wealth especially in the form of health care education small business loans b In countries where income disparity is high wealth is less evenly distributed c High income disparity decreases the multiplier effect bc where most of the population is poor there is less money to spend to support local businesses d Income disparity is high when there is a great difference between the income of the wealthiest 20 of the population and the poorest 20 22 In the global economy a the service sector is strongly affected by global eventssee notes amp book b purchasing power parity can make a big difference in lifestyle between one country and another workers dependent on the global economy usually have less control over their income bc prices can be affected by what happens in another part of the world d workers in different countries are often paid much differently for jobs that require similar skills pay is affected by local living standards amp costs a janitor in New York City will be paid more than one in rural Puerto Rico but the cost of living is much less in Puerto Rico C V 23 An externality a is not the same as a NllVlBY quotNot In My Back Yardquot see de nition in notes b is a consequence or costs of an economic activity that is experienced by unrelated third parties c is not always negative d is the cost of an activity that is NOT included in the market price 24 Orientalism a is related to quotstandpoint theoryquot bc standpoint theory points out how one39s perspective changes depending on where you stand b refers to a perspective that is often used to justify taking power from marginal groups c is related to the concept of quotconstruction of the Otherquot d refers to the way the British colonists perceived the people of India and the lVIiddle East as exotic but not as intelligent or civilized as the British e is found in some form in all human interactions it just takes different forms in different places amp times 25 The concept of quotnarcissism of the minor differences a is not the same as quotline of sightquot know de nition see lecture notes b is based on the observation that the most vicious and irreconcilable conflicts often arise between groups of people who appear to outsiders as being very similar to each other c occurs only in places where the population is culturally homogeneous 26 An example of quotperformancequot in the service sector a music shows using stereotypes of the local culture even if done for altruistic reasons to raise money for charities b pictures of hillbillies on menus in a restaurant in Pigeon F orge c would NOT include all shows done at Dollywood in Sevier County only those that use stereotypes of local culture This kind of quotperformancequot is almost always used to attract business especially from tourists Example tourists want to see hula dancers when they go to Hawaii so many hotels provide such entertainment even though most native Hawaiians no longer perform those dances or dress in grass skirts except for tourists d V 27 Global warming and greenhouse gases a Forests absorb large amounts of greenhouse gases b Greenhouse gases are produced by human activities and ALSO exist naturally in the atmosphere c Human activities that produce greenhouse gases include the burning of fossil fuels use of nitrogen fertilizers growing paddy rice and largescale animal farms d Greenhouse gases trap only SOME of the heat from sunlight Chapter Eleven Oceania 28 The symbols on Australia39s coat of arms see Ch 11 notes in D2L a The Red Kangaroo and the Emu a smaller version of the ostrich that support Australia39s shield are the of cial animal emblems of the nation b The red kangaroo and emu are endemic species of Australia c These animals were probably chosen because they are the only native Australian animals that are large enough to hold up a shield d The choice of Kangaroo and Dingo is often attributed to the believe that neither animal can move backward but this is not true they can move backward but usually do not 29 Convicts in Australian history a During the period between 1788 and 1868 about 160000 convicts were sent to Australia b During this period the colony of New South Wales was of cially a party colony comprised mainly of convicts c The majority of the 165000 convicts transported to Australia were poor and illiterate victims of the Poor Laws and social conditions in Georgian England d Eight out of ten prisoners sent to Australia during this period had been convicted for petty larceny like stealing a loaf of bread etc 30 Sports as a unifying force in Oceania a In Australia and most Pacific islands sports such as rugby volleyball and soccer are widespread and very popular b lVIicronesian islanders still hold competitions to practice their traditional tests of skill such as spear shing climbing coconut trees and racing outrigger canoes c In New Zealand rugby is the favored game of the Maori and Samoan cultures and they often participate in intemational games d The Maori quothaka dancequot is often used to open rugby games 31 Oceania39s climate a Nearly all of the inhabited parts of the region have few climate changes throughout the year b Most of the continent of Australia is warm and dry year round c Most of the islands of Oceania lie within or close to the tropics d New Zealand s climate has colder amp wetter seasons than Australia 32 Human migration the dingo fence political units in Oceania a The dingo fence in Australia is the world39s longest fence and is 3200 miles long b The dingo fence was erected to separate the dingo from the sheep raised by British Australians c Humans used water craft to move into Oceania but many other land animals had migrated south from Southeast Asia to New Guinea and Australia when the prehistoric land bridge was still in place The 25 political units shown in the book s chapter on Oceania comprise only a small portion of the political units in this region G V 33 Dingo fence marsupials a The dingo fence stretches from the south coast of South Australia to Queensland on the North Coast b Kangaroos the dingoes39 natural prey have learned to live on the quotsheep sidequot of the fence where kangaroo populations have boomed beyond sustainable levels c On the quotsheep side of the dingo fence grass and water is scarce and kangaroos compete with sheep for both d The main marsupials found in Australia include kangaroos wallabies wombats tiger cats koalas numbats bandicoots 34 Island groups see map to study this topic a The three larger island groupings of OceaniaiMicronesia Melanesia amp Polynesiaiare NOT of cial political units and are based only on ethnic and cultural links b lVIicronesia refers to the small islands lying east of the Philippines and north of the equator c Melanesia refers to New Guinea and the islands south of the equator and west of Tonga including Fiji the Solomon Islands New Caledonia and Vanuatu d Polynesia refers to the many islands situated inside a large triangle formed by New Zealand Hawaii and Easter Island in the far eastern Paci c 35 Regional identity trade nuclear testing sea levels a Although Oceania is so fragmented the various island populations have a strong sense of regional identity see g 112 in book b Trade and social interaction with Asia is increasing because the region looks more to Asia for trade amp culture as emphasis on European cultural roots declines c Pacific island leaders have long protested nuclear testing in the area d Some of the most dangerous environmental risks to the region are the result of global trends beyond the control of the people of the region Yes rising sea levels from global warming amp depletion of the ozone layer 36 High islands atolls low islands tourism New Guinea a The high islands of Oceania include New Zealand Easter Island the Samoa Islands Tahiti atolls are low islands only amp do not include mountains b The Hawaiian Islands are considered high islands amp are composed of volcanic mountains c Tourism is very important to the economy of Oceania and the largest group of tourists are from Japan d Oceania does not include the western half of the island of New Guinea which is called West Papua West Papua is part of Indonesiagin the Southeast Asian world region The eastern part of the island is called Papua New Guinea and IS part of Oceania due to similar culture amp shared trade 37 Dominance of the Pacific Ocean in Oceania a The dominant factor in Oceania is the Pacific Ocean b In Oceania the ocean serves as a main source of food and although it limits communication between islands it also provides an avenue for trave c The wide expanses of water in Oceania greatly limits the natural diffusion of plant and animal species d Because Paci c Islanders are relatively isolated from one another they have tended to be selfsuf cient and have relied on subsistence economies well into the modern era 38 Oceania land mass a Oceania contains the continent of Australia and about 20000 islands many of which are uninhabited atolls barely rising above the surface of the sea b M including Australia the single island of New Guinea and the two islands of New Zealand make up 90 of the land area in Oceania c The Paci c Ocean covers about 14 11 of the earth s surface d Most of Oceania is located in the South Paci c with a few islands notably Hawaii in the North Pacific 39 Time Zones in Oceania See Notes on times zones below a lVIidway Island is part of the Hawaiian Island chain and is 1 time zone to the west of Honolulu but still in the western hemisphere b Samoa is in the same time zone as Midway Island c The island of Guam is east of the Philippines about 23rds of the way from Hawaii to the Philippines north of the Equator and west of the international dateline d When it is 345 pm on October 3 in Honolulu it is 145 pm on October 4 in Wellington New Zealand Notes on time zones in Oceania for Oceania section Midway Island part of the Hawaiian Islands chain Honolulu 22 north 158 west Midway 28 north 178 west Note still in western hemisphere Tokyo 46 north 139 east Note in eastern hemisphere Time zones of islands in Western Hemisphere When it is 245 pm on 10309 it is 345 pm on 10309 in Honolulu 245 pm on 10309 on Midway island 245 pmon 10309 on Samoa Compare to Time zones in the Eastern Hemisphere When it is 245 on 10309 it is 145 pm on 10 4 09 in Wellington New Zealand 1145 am on 10409 in Sydney Australia 1245 pm on 10409 in Okhotsk Russia WEST of Japan 1145 pm on 10409 on Guam east of the Philippines 23rds of the way from Hawaii to the Philippines north of the Equator amp WEST of the International date line amp west of Hawaii 1045 am on 10409 in Tokyo Japan Chapter Three Middle amp South America 40 The world region of Middle and South America a is located partly in the Torrid Zone except for those regions north of the Tropic of Cancer northern Mexico northern parts of the Caribbean and south of the Tropic of Capricorn most of Chile amp Argentina all of Paraguay and the southern regions of Uruguay amp Brazil See map b is west of the Prime Meridian c reaches to about 1000 miles from Antarctica d is east of the intemational date line 41 Physical geography in Middle and South America is characterized by a a chain of mountains about 1000 miles long that begins in Alaska and ends in Tierra del F uego the mountain chain begins in Alaska although that is in a different world region b many rainshadow regions on the west side of Middle amp South America due to the mountains along the west coast with orographic precipitation wringing the moisture of the air on the western side of the mountains so their eastern slopes are dry c many deserts on the west side of Middle amp South America most are from rainshadows although some are also due to the SubTropical High Pressure Zone d the Ring of Fire along its Paci c coast 42 Physical geography in Middle and South America includes a the world s largest expanse of tropical rain forests b The Lesser Antilles islands in the Caribbean including Barbados Trinidad St Kitts Monserrat and others are southeast of the Greater Antilles c subduction zones along the west coast causing volcanoes amp earthquakes in that region such as the recent earthquakes in Chile Grasslands cover huge at expanses in some regions of South America including the llanos of Venezuela and the pampas of Argentina these are some of the region s most productive agricultural zones d V 43 Physical geography amp Native Americans The largest feature of the lowlands is the Amazon basin drained by the Amazon River and is located in Brazil amp the eastern regions of Colombia Peru and Bolivia Parts of the interior especially in Brazil are home to the last remaining undisturbed Native American cultures they were left unexplored for centuries because was too hard for Europeans to exploit this area for pro t In the 1800s mining lumbering amp ranching spread to the area amp many tribes died off due to disease or harsh living conditions on plantations or in mines U 3 V V O V 44 Major in uences on precipitation in South America include a cold waters of the Peru current these fish ourish in cold waters b differences in latitude and altitude c warm waters of the Peru current under El Nino conditions See book El Nino 7 the shing industry of South America s west coast Chile etc is hurt by El Nino because sh do not thrive in warm waters warm waters are low in nutrients d the SubTropical High Pressure Zone at approximately 235 30 degrees south latitude e the mountain chain along its western coast 45 The three phases of economic development in lVIiddle and South America a did not follow the ying geese pattern of economic development unlike North America which DID follow this pattern b included an extractive phase that lasted several centuries c an Import Substitution Industrialization phase begun in the 20 h century 1 included the Structural Adjustment Programs started in response to the debt crisis of the 1970s 46 The history of armed conflicts in lVIiddle amp South America a includes extreme inequality and violent repression of the poor as well as rebellions against this repression organized by leaders of the poor b has resulted in many large refugee populations through the centuries which has hindered economic growth in these situations c has occurred in both rural and urban areas and has resulted in the deaths of hundreds of thousands of people d has included aid both covert and explicit to repressive regimes from the USA 47 The legacy of underdevelopment in the region today includes a poorly developed backward and forward linkages b social attitudes and policies that quot local A ial 39 39 r c policies that favor the export of primary goods d policies that allow foreign investors to dominate the economy 48 Urbanization Migration and poverty a The large government debts incurred in the l970sl980s affected the poor more than any other group in the region b The legacy of underdevelopment in the region includes effects that have kept the region from being very competitive in the global marketplace due to dependence on the export of many primary goods so they have no value added 0 This region is not as poor on average as subSaharan Africa South Asia or Southeast Asia but has the world 39s highest income disparity d Economic modernization and transformation from rural to urban society has not led to a low income disparity throughout the region 49 Regional trade agreements a Dumping of agricultural surplus from the US has dereased the multiplier effect in many villages in Mexico b NAFTA has greatly increased exports from Mexico to the US c NAFTA s economic bene ts have not spread very much throughout Mexico d The colonizers discouraged the formation of trade agreements between countries in this region 50 Early economic development in Middle amp South America a was greatly hindered by mercantilism which involves managing all aspects of production transport and trade in order to bene t the economic development of the colonizer countries b was hindered by an overreliance on the export of primary goods c was hindered by colonial prohibitions against local manufacturing d included a weak multiplier effect in the region due to widespread reliance on slave labor 7 so most of the population had no money to spend at local businesses 51 Economic development in Middle amp South America a has been hindered by the development of a culture of corruption starting with colonial restrictions on trade between countries in the region b has not been improved by the digital divide in the region ie many people still do not have access to the internet 0 has been hindered by SAP requirements for the elimination of tariffs bc tariffs were removed before regional industries could become strong enough to be competitive globally 52 Restrictions on land ownership a Sharecroppers are less likely to participate in government and social improvements b Sharecroppers are less productive than poor landowners because they have no incentive to work harder since they cannot earn a pro t from their work c Large landowners rarely invest in social programs and infrastructure that ultimately increase the GNPpc d When there are few land owners in a region the multiplier effect is small 53 Import Substitution Industrialization ISI policies in Middle amp South America a were not in place long enough to result in a dramatic and longlasting reduction in income disparity b began with rebellions against poverty which resulted in the breakup of large plantations into small landholdings for peasants c involved government programs and government jobs for public health education and infrastructure d ended with the debt crisis of the 1970s 54 ISI policies a created industries that could not compete globally but which would probably have been successful if tariffs had been in place as long as they had been during the early economic development of the United States b involved the creation of manufacturing industries by governments in the region c put tariffs on imported manufactured goods 55 Structural Adjustment Programs SAPs in lVIiddle amp South America a were imposed so Latin American countries could repay the large loans they had received from international banks b SAPS required debtor countries to dramatically decrease public spending on health education and infrastructure c SAPS required private industries to replace governmentfunded industries d SAPS encouraged free trade in Latin America beginning with the removal of tariffs 56 Effects of SAPS in lVIiddle and South America a Economic restructuring under SAPS was aimed at making Latin American countries competitive in the technological global economy 7 but this aim was not achieved in most countries when SAPS removed tariffs that were protecting new local industries many failed so business owners went back to the export of primary goods and foreign investors took over the industries amp siphoned most of the profits to other countries b Due to the longterm effects of SAPS on the region39s poorest countries many experts now advocate debtrelief c The informal economy increased under SAPS b c so many people lost their jobs so began to sell products and services in the informal sector d Under SAPS Mexico Brazil and Chile experienced high economic growth rates during the 1990s but most countries in the region experienced very little growth 57 Results of SAPS in Middle and South America a I obs for government workers decreased b The predictions for Trickle down prosperity from SAPS did not occur 0 Most Latin American countries still rely on the primary sector and so are now more vulnerable to rapid price changes in global markets d Under SAPS many multinational corporations gained control over industries in Latin America 58 Overall SAPS in Middle amp South America resulted in a increases in income dispar1ty b decreases in education and public health c decreased spending on infrastructure d decreased multiplier effect 59 The history of the Roman Catholic Church in Middle and South America a Most church members in Latin America were poor b The Spanish and Portuguese colonial governments shared much of the wealth taken from this region with the Catholic Church c The Church has been 7 and continues to be a very powerful institutions in this world region d The Church encouraged class differences in this region 60 Population growth in Latin America a is high in part due to the in uence of the Catholic Church b is high due to high infant mortality rates c is still high even after decades of demographic transition where families move from rural to urban areas d Is still high even though many more people in the region live in cities 61 Maquiladora zones a The maquiladoras provide foreignowned industries along the USMexico border with an inexpensive labor pool 13 b Family incomes are increased by remittances from workers in maquiladora zones but this has not in a great decrease in poverty throughout Mexico c Maquiladora zones pay low taxes but have very few regulations for the protection of workers and the environment d Maquiladora zones are located only along the USMexico border and employ mostly women 62 Democracy in the region a Most countries in this world region now have multiparty political systems and democratically elected governments b Political differences between powerful elites and the poor majority have often fueled con ict in this region c In most countries in this region democracy is not strong and governments are not very transparent d Corruption is widespread in the region and but this has had a strong effect on the inflow of investment capital and on the democratic choices of voters b c investors tend to avoid places where bribery discourages trust 63 Venezuela a Hugo Chavez won a landslide election in 1998 with promises that he would restructure the government in order to spread the country s oil well to all b President Hugo Chavez has weakened Structural Adjustment Policies SAPs by increasing public spending on social programs c Venezuela s rich oil deposits have brought large pro ts to the country d As Chavez predicted Venezuela s oil pro ts have not trickled down to benefit the majority of Venezuelans 80 still live in poverty 64 Venezuela a Venezuela s new policies have resulted in increases in governmentrelated jobs health care and food availability b Due to recent policy changes in Venezuela Venezuela s PPP basically the cost of living has fallen dramatically c Middle class support for Chavez has fallen every year since his election d Some health indicators in Venezuela have risen but economic productivity has fallen 65 The drug trade a Most smallscale farmers in remote locations get into the drug trade because they cannot make a better income from other cash crops b The main countries in this region that supply raw materials for the drug trade include Columbia MexicoVenezuela Bolivia Peru Ecuador Argentina Brazil c Some North American banks have benefited from the highlevel corruption in Latin America because they have allowed crime money into their banks d A centuries39 long history of corruption has contributed to the continuation of the drug trade in this world region 66 The 25year war on drugs sponsored by the US a has not been effective in reducing the demand for illegal drugs in the US where most of the market s consumers are located b has encouraged military rule which has had the effect of discouraging democracy in Middle amp South America c has not focused on economic and social programs that get at the root causes of the drug trade d has not made much progress in stopping the drug trade because of the quotbubble effect see notes 67 Common themes of the Middle amp South American world region include a early capitalism that discouraged economic development in the region b a history of economic reliance on the primary sector c Spanish is the main language of the region although Portuguese 7 and other languages 7 can be found there d a strong social and political role for the Catholic Church 68 Main themes of the world region of Middle amp South America include a high rural to urban migration b a history of problems arising from outsiders c recently lowering the barriers to free trade that began with the colonists d the highest income disparity in the world 69 Middle amp South America is rich in resources but has had centuries of inefficient development due to a various limitations on multiplier effects b Spain s restrictions on regional trade during the colonial era c foreign business owners who siphoned off profits from this region to their home countries elsewhere d too many restrictions on land ownership 70 Social capital a Social capital is interrelated with human and physical capital b As a result of low social capital construction of residential buildings in Cuba is of high quality c Overall productivity in Cuba has been discouraged by the low levels of social capital in Cuba d Social capital in Cuba has been weakened by years of Castro39s restrictions on freedom of assembly 71 US involvement see notes amp p 13 1 a In 1973 in Chile the US CIA helped overthrow the democratically elected government of Salvador Allende and supported the military dictator General Augusto Pinochet b In the l930sl950s the US backed the installation of several violently repressive dictators in this region c The USA has been and continues to be the most active foreign power in the lVIiddle and South American region d Democracy has not always been strengthened in this region by the US 72 Urbanization amp migration a Most new urban migrants do not nd jobs and housing because demand for labor is so low and jobs are scarce 15 b Since power and wealth have not spread to the majority of the population in this world region the economic modernization of recent years has not brought much prosperity to the poor majority c Once established favelas are extremely difficult to dislodge because the impoverished are such a large portion of the urban population that even those in positions of power will not challenge them directly d The huge rural to urban migration of recent decades has not been accompanied by a general rise in productivity and prosperity or 39 39 l 39 39 r in 39 f and social services 73 Primate cities amp conurbations see notes 7 Ch 3 a Sao Paolo Brazil is a conurbation but Cancun Mexico is not bc it s too small b Mexico City Mexico Quito Ecuador and Lima Peru are primate cities c The United States has no primate cities d Corporate headquarters and centers of national governments are located in primate cities Chapter Four Europe 74 Circle the TRUE statement about the climate of the subregions of Europe a The climate of Eastern Europe is strongly in uenced by the continental effect b In summers warm dry air from North Africa shifts north over the Mediterranean bringing high temperatures clear skies from high pressure and dry weather c North and West Europe are affected by the North Atlantic Drift which brings milder weather to these regions than is found at the same latitudes elsewhere d The Mediterranean climate of Italy is strongly influenced by the Mediterranean Sea and has a climate that in hot and dry in summers and cool and moist in winters the California coast has a Mediterranean climate most places have no rain during the summer months then have daily rains from November to early March 75 The physical geography of Europe includes a volcanoes in Iceland southern Italy etc b the Grampian mountains in Scotland c the Kjolen mountains in Norway d the Pyrennes mountains between Spain and France leading to the Iberian peninsula 76 The physical geography of Europe includes a The Apennine mountains in Italy b The Balkan mountains in Greece Bulgaria and the former Yugoslavian countries c The Adriatic Sea between Italy and Croatia amp northern Albania d The Ionian Sea between southern Italy and Greece 77 The physical geography of Europe includes a The Aegean Sea between Greece and Turkey b The Tyrrhenian Sea between Italy and the islands of Sicily Italy Sardinia Italy and Corsica France c The Bay of Biscay along the southwest coast of France and the northwest coast of Spain Know your subregions see Countries Required list in the map assignment Examples of questions in this section true answers are in italics 78 The South Europe subregion includes the country of a Serbia b Germany 0 Portugal d Denmark 79 The country most likely to have only an hour or so of darkness in the summer months is a Spain b Finland c Ireland d Slovakia 80 No European country has a coastline on the a North Sea b Baltic Sea c Adriatic Sea d Caspian Sea Red Sea 0r Persian Gulf All answer choices are true for the following questions unless noted 81 The Danube and Rhine Rivers a The Danube ows to the south of the Carpathian Mountains into the Black Sea b The Danube ows from Germany through Austria and Hungary and along the border of Romania and Bulgaria c The Rhine River connects the center of Europe with the North Sea d Although it is shorter than the Danube the Rhine River carries the most traffic in Europe and serves as the economic core of Europe Extra in bonus The Seine River 7 through Paris the Thames 7 through London 82 The mountains of Europe include a several volcanoes 7 in Iceland Sicily southern Italy etc b the Pyrennes Mountains along the border of Spain and France on the Iberian peninsula c The Apennines which extend down the length of Italy from north to south d The Alps e The Caldonian Range the northernmost mountain chain shared by Scotland Norway and Sweden as old as the Appalachians and now worn down by glaciers 83 The Alps a are the highest and most central part of the largest mountain region of Europe b stretch through the middle of the continent starting in the French Alps of southern France c stretch through the Italian Alps near Torino including Sestriere where the 2006 Winter Olympics were held d include the Milky Way 7 a set of ski runs on the ItalianFrench border where one can ski to three countries in one day France Italy and Switzerland e stretch through Austria and Slovakia f curve southeast into Romania and include the Carpathian Mtns of Count Dracula fame 84 European subregions Central Europe is the term sometimes used to refer to the region formerly known as Yugoslavia aka the Balkan states b Although the Balkans are in the south of Europe their cultural history and recent political experience link them more to Central Europe and is the designation they prefer g c Western Europe is the term often used to refer to most of the countries in the combined subregions of North Europe West Europe and South Europe d The Balkans is another term for countries in South Europe that are located between the Black and the Adriatic Seas 85 Social welfare a The value of social welfare is more widely accepted in Europe than in the US b Social welfare bene ts in the US and Canada include widespread bene ts for the middle class including public schools amp universities Medicare amp Medicaid social security etc c Europe s level of social welfare bene ts result in high taxes and some hindrances to global economic competitiveness d The high standard of living found in many European countries is partly related to the social contract to take care of basic human needs for all 86 Subregional differences in social welfare policies in Europe a Most formerly Communist countries had to discontinue many social welfare programs when the Soviet Union collapsed but some are beginning to provide these bene ts again including free university education universal health care b The United Kingdom s modest welfare system has not been very successful in encouraging an increase in individual responsibility and the work ethic c Most of Western Europe follows the conservative welfare system which does not aim to assist people in achieving upward mobility d All of the Scandinavian countries follow the social democratic version of European welfare systems which aims to help all citizens be productive e Southern Europe follows a rudimentary welfare system which is based on the idea that citizens have no inherent rights to governmentsponsored education and health care 87 NATO a The North Atlantic Treaty Organization NATO began after World War H WW2 as a system of collective security that aimed to prevent war between its rival nations b NATO includes 28 countries including Turkey Canada Germany Bulgaria and the USA see entire list in Europe lecture notes c After the breakup of the Soviet Union NATO aimed to reconfigure itself as a stabilizing institution to encourage the cooperation needed to expand the EU d NATO countries cooperated militarily and shared authority during the Cold War 88 Sample question Which of the following is a member of the EU Just know the nonEU members 7 see list below a Switzerland b Iceland c Turkey d Belgium NonEU members 12010 include Iceland Norway Switzerland Croatia Bosnia amp Herzegovina Montenegro Albania Macedonia Serbia and Turkey although Turkey is not considered to be in the European world region according to this textbook 89 European prosperity in uence governments and trade a Europe s overall prosperity has continued to grow even though it no longer bene ts from the cheap labor and resources of its former colonies b Europe s strong global in uence extends back only over the last 500 years c Most European governments play a strong role in shaping the social landscape d The EU is the world39s largest trading alliance 90 The EU a Standards for EU membership are high and require political stability democratically elected governments human rights and respect for minorities Countries in eastern Europe benefit from the social programs and funds of EU members c Membership in the EU is highly likely to attract foreign investment d Standards for EU membership include having a functioning market economy and the capacity to cope with competition from within the EU Based on the course material on the Geographic Advantages of Europe see D2L Course Contents 91 Physical features that provided geographic advantages for Europe included a many rivers and mountain ranges in the region b the North Atlantic Drift c complex coastlines d many peninsulas unlike Africa which had many long escarpments cliffs along most of its coastlines 92 Geographic advantages for Europe included a high population growth b immunity to certain diseases c horses enabled military advantage in North and South America and other colonies d domesticated animals facilitated plowing for growing grains 93 Geographic advantages for Europe were directly related to a The Mediterranean Sea sailing technology advantages of trade 7 including increased technological knowledge etc b The Atlantic Ocean sailing technology c Highprotein grains 94 Geographic advantages of Europe a The complex coastlines of Europe provided many harbors which encouraged the development of seafaring skills and related technologies and trade The North Atlantic Drift was a key factor in providing geographic advantages for Europe because it provided a climate that was good for the growth of hardwood forests and high protein grains The numerous mountains of Europe isolated different groups encouraged different solutions to problems shared by other groups in the region which in turn improved trade and technological development Europeans enjoyed a good food supply due to the climate good soils abundant meat sources and highprotein grains b V O V G V 95 Population growth in the early development of Europe a Population growth was high because there was an abundance of protein sources b Population growth was high because as people became more agricultural famines were more common 7 so fertility rates rose remember fertility rates increase when infant mortality rates increase c Population growth was high enough to provide a large knowledge base 7 which provides more solutions to common problems d A high population growth gave Europeans a military advantage over cultures with smaller populations 96 Domesticated animals Mediterranean Sea a Many animals in the European region were able to be domesticated which encouraged the development of agriculture and facilitated the growth of highprotein grains b Several species of animals in Europe facilitated trade and provided Europeans with a military advantage and immunity to disease c Europe was more likely to have a great variety of plants and animals and thus more food sources and animal labor because of its large uninterrupted land mass stretching from east to west across many longitudes d The Mediterranean Sea provided opportunities to develop seafaring skills 97 The New World North and South America a Columbus set out to the New World because he was looking for a passage to India he didn t know the New World was there b The New World provided an abundant source of gold and other metals to Europe c The pro ts gained through colonization of the New World by the Europeans helped finance the Industrial Revolution d Most of the raw materials found in the New World were useful for manufacturing so helped spur the development of the Industrial Revolution Russia and the CIS 98 Subregions of the CIS a Fifteen former Soviet countries joined in a loose economic alliance when they became independent but Lithuania Latvia and Estonia soon ended their connection to Russia b Russia is still the largest country in the world with eleven time zones even after the breakup of the Soviet Union c The Soviet Union was also known as the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics USSR d The Soviet Union ie the USSR ceased to exist in 1991 99 Political cultural and economic realignment of countries in the RussiaCIS region a Central Asian republics may align themselves with neighbors in Southwest or South Asia because they share more cultural traditions and economic interests b Ukraine and Moldova are currently dependent on Russia for energy but have strong economic ties to Europe c The Central Asian republics include Turkmenistan Uzbekistan Kazakhstan Kyrgystan and Tajikistan but do not include Pakistan and Afghanistan d Moldova and Ukraine want closer association with Europe but also want to maintain connections with Russia 100 Subregions and trade a Far eastern subregions of Russia have strong trade connections to Japan and China b A majority of the population in Central Asian republics share religious and economic concerns with Southwest Asia Iran and South Asia Afghanistan Pakistan 20 c A majority of the population in Central Asian republics is Muslim d Republics of Caucasia Georgia Armenia Azerbaijan want more connection with Turkey Iraq Iran and Europe Bonus uestions 1 oint each Russia and the CIS l The countries located to the west of Russia and known as the republics of Caucasia mclu e a Georgia b Armenia c Azerbaijan 2 The countries located to the southwest of Russia and known as the republics of Central Asia include a Kazakhstan b Kyrgystan and Turkmenistan c Tajikistan and Uzbekistan d All the stan countries except Afghanistan amp Pakistan which are in the South Asian world region 3 Volga River Ural Mountains and population centers a The Volga river is also connectedivia many canals lakes and tributariesgto many parts of the North European Plain to the Baltic and White Seas in the north and to the Black Sea in the Southwest b The Ural Mountains mark the physical and cultural 7 but NOT the political border between Russia and Europe c The Volga River is a major transport route d European Russia the part of Russia to the west of the Ural mountains is the most densely settled part of the entire region and is the region39s agricultural and industrial core 4 West Siberian Plains Urals a The West Siberian Plain is mostly marshy lowland and is drained by the Ob River and its tributaries north into the Arctic Ocean b The Ural Mountains extend in a fairly straight line south from the Arctic Ocean to the Caspian Sea c The West Siberian Plain east of the Urals is the largest plain in the world d The Urals are not much of a barrier to humans or to nature there are several easy passes across the mountains 5 Useful rivers a Although it is not the longest river in this region the Dneiper River in Ukraine is one of the few quotusefulquot rivers in Russia because it ows into the Black Sea b In this world region the North European Plain extends from the Carpathian Mountains in Ukraine and Romania 1200 miles to the Ural Mountains c The Volga River ows into the Caspian Sea d The Ob is not a very quotusefulquot river in this region because it ows across the West Siberian Plain to the Kara Sea in the Arctic ocean many rivers in Russia ow into the Arctic Ocean but they are not useful because their ports are frozen year round so do not work for trade 21 6 West Siberian Plain 21 Many species breed in the tundra and migrate south for the winter b Average temperatures in January on the West Siberian Plain range between zero to ten degrees below zero Fahrenheit c Snow covers the permafrost throughout the year but in summer the top layer melts and attracts millions of migratory birds d A layer of permanently frozen soil lies just a few feet beneath the surface in most of the West Siberian Plain 7 Siberia a The taiga is a northern coniferous forest stretching across Siberia to the Pacific b The tundra is a treeless permafrost zone c Reindeer are tended in the far north beyond the taiga d The steppes are semiarid grasslands found primarily in Kazakhstan 8 Roads agriculture and natural resources a Roads are rare in the regions east of the Urals a transcontinental highway is being built but is far from complete b Agriculture is generally not possible in Siberia because of the cold climate and poorly drained soils c In the far north beyond the taiga the vegetation is small and does not withstand much grazing or trampling d The West Siberian Plain has some of the world39s largest reserves of oil and natural gas but their extraction is difficult because they are so far from large population centers amp few backwardforward linkages Siberia amp the steppes Islam is the most common religion found in the region south of the steppes but Christianity and Judaism can also be found there b The Central Siberian Plateau and the Pacific mountain zone are located in the far eastern region of Russia c The rugged terrain of mountain ranges found south of the steppes has not prevented people from exchanging cultural in uences between the north and south so populations in this region share many cultural traits d There are many active volcanoes on the Kamchatka Peninsula 8 10 Southern Siberia see p 191 ampFig 55 a The Altai mountain range is the not the highest mountain system in northern Siberia b Siberia meets Kazakhstan China amp Mongolia in the Altai mountain range c The Altai mountains are known for its beautiful diversity including taiga forest steppes snowy peaks deserts and the Katun d The Katun is the main river in Altai and is known for its great rafting 11 US SR a The USSR maintained its strong in uence over countries in Central Europe Caucasia and Central Asia through the use of political economic and military coercion b After World War H the Soviets diverted ever more resources to their military at the expense of muchneeded economic and social development 22 c Internationally the US SR spent scarce funds to promote the Communist model of economic development to China Mongolia North Korea Afghanistan Cuba Vietnam Nicaragua and various African nations d The political systems of Poland East Germany Hungary Georgia and Kazakhstan were tightly controlled from Moscow whose power was enforced by the presence of Soviet troops 12 NATO MAD Russia today a During the Cold War NATO and the Warsaw Pact followed the MAD policy of Mutually Assured Destruction b The MAD policy concerned the buildup of nuclear weapons during the Cold War between the alliance between the US and Europe versus the Soviet Union c Today most Russians are not concerned about tensions in Iran amp Iraq and do not want to support the US in its efforts to stabilize the region d Today most Russians are far more economically comfortable than they were ten years ago 13 Transition from USSR to RussiaNIS p 197 a By the late 1960s the economies and political systems of countries under Soviet in uence were steadily drifting toward the free market amp democratic model advocated by the USA and its allies In 1979 a war in Afghanistan launched to prop up a Sovietallied regime severely drained resources and morale in the Soviet Union as a whole In Afghanistan the quotmuj ahedeenquot4highly motivated Afghan freedom fighters aided by the US and Pakistan decisively beat the Soviets in the early 1980s d The Soviet situation in Afghanistan along with social and political changes already under way in the region made the 1980s a time of rapid and monumental change in the Soviet Union 6 V O V 14 Transition from USSR to RussiaNIS a In 1985 Mikhail Gorbachev then leader of the Soviet Union responded to pressures for change by opening up public discussions of social and economic problems b When Gorbachev also began to democratize decision making throughout the USSR in the late 1980s longsuppressed resentment of the Moscow government boiled over and many political and interethnic tensions emerged c As the region transitioned to a market economy crime and corruption have ourished d The Baltic states are the countries formerly known as Yugoslavia e After a failed military coup in August 1991 the Soviet Union dissolved in an atmosphere of economic and political chaos for a few years 15 Transition from USSR to RussiaNIS a The Soviet authoritarian government with economy controlled by government bureaucrats has now been replaced by one that is experimenting with democracy and capitalism b The transition from a centrallyplanned to a market economy is having uneven success in the region because the change left many without jobs or social services that had been provided by the government In the 1990s after the breakup of the Soviet Union quality of life was very difficult for many in the region 0 V 23 16 RussiaCIS 7 current economics amp government a The Russian public is prospering better than it has since the collapse of the USSR so most Russians do not want to speak out against the alarming increase in government control of the media b Vladamir Putin has been president of Russia since 2000 c Many Russians have access to the goods and services available in the US d Putin39s government has exerted increasing control over the media but denies that the government is responsible for the thirteen journalists murdered over the last ve years 17 Russian presidents leaders amp reforms a Former Russian President Dmitry Medvedev is now the President and Vladimir Putin is the Russian Prime Minister b Before his election to president Medvedev had been a midlevel bureaucrat who had not been elected to any office c Putin has now rolled back reforms that were brought about in the 1990s and has brought back Sovietstyle authoritarianism d Putin is likely to help suppress any opposition party candidates in future Russian elections 18 Environment amp agriculture a Serious environmental degradation resulted under Soviet rule due to many unwise economic decisions b Russia has an abundance of natural resources c Agriculture in the region is limited due to the large amount of territory in high latitudes d The best soils are in the region that includes the Ukraine stretching from Moscow south toward the Black and Caspian seas 19 Natural resources control of the media repression of opposition a Russia39s oil and gas reserves are so vast that the country has been described as quota cold Saudi Arabia quot b By the late 1990s capitalism was becoming more successful in Russia and the huge revenues from Russia s vast oil and gas reserves began to trickle down to all levels of society c When Putin formerly of the KGB became president of Russia around 2000 he began to control the media to insure his power d Since Putin has been president journalists who openly opposed him have been murdered including the spy Lytkenyenko in London in 2006 poisoned by polonium 210 a radioactive substance Note Russia hit hard economic times after the collapse of the Soviet Union USSR in 1989 because the transition from a centrallyplanned to a capitalist economy was difficult amp profits began trickle down1998 20 Ukraine Mongolia Moscow a Ukraine is located on the north coast of the Black Caspian Sea b Mongolia is south of the Russian Federation c Moscow is about the same latitude as Denmark d Berlin is about 1000 miles from Moscow 21 Exclaves enclaves and Kaliningrad a b c d 22 g V b ea 23 24 Europe 24 An quotexclavequot is a territory that is legally attached to a larger territory with which it is not physically contiguous Kaliningrad is a Russian exclave Kaliningrad is important economically because it is the only Russian port with access to the Baltic Sea which is an icefree port An quotenclavequot is a territory whose geographic boundaries lie entirely within another territory The dif cult physical environment in Russia presents challenges to trade because it is a huge continental territory with dif cult topography and harsh climate it has few rivers that are economically useful to Russia because most ow north into the Arctic Ocean it has large expanses of permafrost which limits the land that is useful for agriculture it has few icefree ports The mountain ranges that run from the Caspian Sea to Mongolia located south of the steppes and overlapping with South and East Asia include the Caucasus Mountains between the Black and the Caspian Seas the Altai mostly in Mongolia to the south the Pamirs in Tajikistan the West amp East Sayan mountains along the border with Mongolia 8833 Mountain ranges in Russia CIS include the Urals the mountains on the Kamchatka peninsula on the Bering Sea The Yablonovyy Range along the border with Mongolia and China to the south the Stanovoy Range stretching to the Sea of Okhotsk along the far eastern border of Russia 8833 Extra The Seine River 7 through Paris the Thames 7 through London 25 a b 333 26 U 3 V ea Antarctica LIKELY MISSED has no known vertebrates mammals etc native to the continent is NOT a territory of the United States it belongs to no country it is under a cooperative agreement between several nations including the USA for the purpose of scientific research is the best place in the world to view meteors contains the world s purest water now has a restaurant within sight of the South Pole which serves the growing number of tourists to the area Antarctica LIKE MISSEDH is populated by an intemational group of scientists but had no population before the 20 11 centu Is a continent mostly covered with ice although there are places where grasses amp wild plants can be found has worms amp insects which freeze themselves in winter months is a great place for whale watching Pstcc Geographv 1000 Intro amp Chapter 1 Spring 2010 Note to Students You do NOT need to print out these notes they are best used as reference You can use all D2L geography lecture notes to search for speci c topics by 0 Use ControlF or click on quotEditquot and quotFindquot 0 Enter a key word related to the topic you are searching eg quottariffquot 0 Using the lecture notes in this way can help you to study for Chapter Quizzes amp exams Chapter One 1 De nitions What is geography 1 Geography uses a range of analytical perspectives to help understand the complexity of earth s physical processes and the interactions of humans with those processes the study of our planet s surfaces amp processes that shape it p 2 4 The signi cant aspects of geography both physical amp cultural are referred to as quotmessyquot Overly simpli ed assessments that consider only one quotpoint of viewquot can blind us and cause us to miss important aspects of the larger picture 0 We will encounter amp discuss many such quotmessyquot concepts throughout the semester 0 See quotmultiple ways of knowingquot below Physical Geography the study of earth s physical processes to learn how they work how they affect humans amp how they are affected by humans in return 3 Human Geography the study of various aspects of human life that create the distinctive landscapes amp regions of the world amp includes the main features of culture Human amp Physical geography p3 To make geography meaningful to us as humans we must study of interactions between physical amp human forces because they are so tightly interrelated Both help us understand how amp why people came to occupy a particular place how they assess the physical aspects of that place climate etc amp then use amp modify them to suit their needs how they interact with other places near amp far Physical amp human geography are tightly interwoven amp hard to separate Geographers may combine different branches of geography EX Geomorphology branch of geography that studies landforms Combined with Economic geography 7 spatial analysis of economic activities and Cartography 7 depicting geographic knowledge graphically with maps Attitudes and perceptions play an important part in geography because people don t do anything to change the physical world without being motivated by attitudes and perceptions Culture affects how we perceive space EX how we perceive our town how we perceive the space between people waiting in line one39s comfort zone for quotpersonal spacequot differs from culture to culture 7 Geography is the study of variation over space ie variation in the physical world and in human cultures the interaction between humans amp landscape 7 diagram below 0 Humans shape the earth s surface through our efforts to survive in some specific environment and are in turn shaped by that environment Diagram humans valuesattitudesperceptions direct 9 action which affects 9environment which in turn affects 9 humans S 4 V U V 0 V Basic aspects of geography how things are related to each other in space Geography links the physical sciences like geology physics chemistry biology botany with social sciences like anthropology sociology history economics amp political science A key question of geography Why is this here See quotcultural markers below Geography ali ers from History History is like a line following the results of some factor over time although it also considers geographyspace Geography looks at the results of some factor over space although it also considers history time Geograghic Theory OPTIONAL TERMS or basic geogragh concgts Note These terms are not in the textbook unless indicated with page number but are terms or concepts I may use occasionally These are concepts I want you to be familiar with for class quot 39 But they will not be on quizzes or exams Sense 0fplace7an aspect of Cultural Geography Helps us understand what has contributed to the look amp feel of a place to the standard of living amp customs of the people of a place to the way people in one place relate to people in other places near amp far Di erence between quotspace quot and quotplacequot 0 Space nonspecific generic often relates to interactions power connection protection 0 Example how you experience the space in an elevator when alone when different people enter during an earthquake etc 0 Example cultural differences in personal space In some cultures eye contact is considered rudegindicating that even eye contact is considered personal space 0 Place speci c often related to a sense of personal connection or aversion to a speci c location eg Knoxville America 0 Our perceptions are a crucial element in both quotspacequot and quotplacequot 0 Perceptions of space amp place is in uenced by gender race values amp other aspects of culture 0 Sometimes the difference between space amp place is difficult to de ne 0 Example contesteal space p 126127 an area that several groups claim or want to use in different ways such as the Amazon or Palestine Multiple ways of knowing a Insights and perceptions of a particular place idea custom etc are enhanced by looking at it from different perspectives b The blind men amp the elephant story There is more than one valid way to look at or to experience something 0 Example One can examine marriage customs in terms of the drive to reproduce an objective scienti c point of view or in terms of quotlovequot from an emotional sentimental subjective or poetic point of view One of the key challenges we face is learning to get along with people from various backgrounds granting them validity although they value things differently Discuss Finding ways to do tolerate differences can be very difficult Where do you draw the line between accepting that others have different values and recognizing that something is harmful a violation of human rights See quotValues p 14 Standpoint theory related to quotmultiple ways of knowingquot Standpoint a In physical geography where you stand determines your view your line of sight Example using GIS for tourism when the US Forest Service determines where to locate the pullovers on a road to insure the best viewgthe best quotline of sightquot No b In cultural geography refers to one s personal perspective which is heavily in uenced by one s culture te quotline of sightquot WILL be on the Midterm exam END OF SECTION 0N quotOPTIONAL TERMS quot Ge 0 Reg 0 ogrnphic Regions What is a Region p68 a unit of the earth s surface that contains distinct environmental or cultural patterns see quotcultural landscapequot below Boundaries of a region are constructed by people 7 to help define spaces for different purposes so regional definitions are uid ie they change depending on one39s definition 0 Example are you looking for southern style sweet tea or for football games in the SEC No two regions are described by the same set of indicators 0 For example no other place in the world has a pattern of sweet tea where sweet tea is commonly served in many restaurants This is why sweet tea cannot be used as an indicator in any other region in the world Can vary greatly in size scale from the size of a small town to the size of a continent or even a hemisphere The boundaries of regions are usually quotfuzzyquot or quotmessyquot because they can be a hard to agree upon b there is interaction across boundaries c features that are predominant in one region can be found in other regions 0 Example Sweet tea is a distinctive feature of the southeastern US but it can be found in other regions It is much harder to find however in other regions It is a pattern ie found in many restaurants in the southeast US Example If a region is defined by its political makeup ie by its states or provinces then Hawaii would be included in the quotregionquot of the United States But if your de nition of quotregionquot is based on a shared history amp culture one would not include Hawaii in the world region of North America even though it is a state of one of the countries the USA in North America Political boundaries are also uid over time Examples 0 In 350 CE current era around the end of the Roman Empire the Euphrates River owed through what was then called Mesopotamia amp the Tigris owed through what was then called Persia Mesopotamia included Babylon amp the oncefamous quotHanging gardensquot quotAsiaquot was a small area of what is now western Turkey Germany included a large part of what is now western Russia What39s is now the part of Russia north of the Black Sea was then called quotSarmatiaquot Armenia was a very large country between the Black amp the Caspian Sea ional geography p 6 looks at connections between physical features and ways of life that are key to understanding the history and present conditions of a region and are essential in planning for the future is a way of dividing the world into manageable parts 0 An actual region has an infinite number of features But a definition of a region includes only a few of those features to make the definition useful A key characteristic of regional geography Boundaries between regions are blurred and debatable where you draw the boundary depends on what you re trying to do Ex boundary between North Africa and SubSaharan Africa 0 political boundary does not include Sudan o desert boundary levels of precipitation does include part of Sudan although the desert boundary keeps changing so the desert may soon include parts of SubSaharan Africa 0 commercial boundary Ifyou were setting up a truck dealership in this region you would de ne the region in terms of your market area Discuss Different ways to define our region Example Should Mexico be included in Middle or North America It depends on whether you are looking at physical or cultural features The Ten Main World Regions 7 According to Pulsipher Same as Brief Contents in text 1 North America 6 SubSaharan Africa 2 Middle and South America 7 South Asia 3 Europe 8 East Asia 4 North Africa amp Southwest Asia 9 Southeast Asia 5 Russia amp the NIS Newly Independent 10 Oceania Australia States also called CIS Commonwealth New Zealand amp the Paci c of Independent States 11 Culture p 1 119 7 affects customs technology resource use human interactions landscape Cultural Landscape 0 includes clothing architecture signage media customs holidays public spaces amp the people in them and other effects of human activity on the land agriculture urbanization etc 0 can include examples from the region39s history or current issues 0 re ects how a region chooses to deal with issues we all face aging education etc o is often in uenced by the predominant physical geography of the region also by predominant physical geography from other regions Example An American with a poster of Machu Picchu Peru on her wall 0 is often in uenced by predominant global issues Cultural Markers p 13 a characteristic that helps to define a certain culture or culture group 0 Cultural markers are the things we nd in a particular place that can give us insights into that place into that culture and even that physical landscape 0 This can be anything from an iPod food served in a local restaurant a particular custom clothing forms of transportation forms of marriage architecture etc 0 To understand a culture we should look at a cultural marker and ask why is this here 0 Notice how colonization amp modern communications are causing some cultural markers to disappear amp others to become more dominant Culture groups The concept of culture groups is like the concept of region cultural boundaries are quotfuzzyquot Where you set the boundary depends on the question you re asking 0 Because it s a human group it s a collection of individuals 7we can t assume that everyone in the same culture or ethnic group look think or act the same 0 We can assume that broadly speaking many not all of the individuals in a culture group share some general characteristics Construction of the quototherquot Con ict and difference This theme is found throughout the textbook but does not use these specific terms Note Examining the basic aspects of con ict amp difference helps us to step outside our own culture and ask ourselves quotHow do I want to think about that quot regarding aspects of our own culture and differences in other cultures Difference The construction 01 the other 0 has connections to our agricultural roots 0 is unconsciously patterned on the crucial difference between fertile and marginal poor or infertile land those who have the food vs outsiders quotothersquot people different from us who we think might take our food or force us onto marginal land the land outside the fertile lands 0 People tend to quotmarginalizequot people who are perceived as different ie perceived as a threat 0 Perceptions of quotdifferencequot are based on gender race foreign ethnicity o The concept was originally articulated by Edward Said 0 Is central to the phenomenon of oriental ism o Is also related to the masculine gaze Orientalism 0 Term coined by Edward Said 0 The framing by Europeans of the foreign as exotic uses stereotypes to do so 0 This way of seeing other cultures and their people evolved from Europe s worldwide colonialism and was applied especially to India and the Middle East 0 This stereotyping of those different from ourselves occurs in every culture in the world and is related to quotthe construction of the Otherquot above 0 Orientalism has always been an essential aspect of human interactions and is often used to justify taking power from those quotothersquot 0 Example the negative stereotyping of Arabians in movies in the US one of the central dramas in the show 24 uses an Arabian to portray a terrorist Masculine gaze a way of looking at someone as if from above 0 Can refer to objectivity 0 Not limited to males 0 Negatives related to power imposed on others as if quotfrom abovequot 0 Example the colonist holds the power amp looks down on the colonized o Positives taking a distanced view of a place as if quotfrom abovequot to gain a larger overall but less detailed view provides a different perspective 0 Considering the veil in Muslim society the quotmasculine gaze 39 o The veil is a cultural marker that re ects a cultural response to the masculine gaze o The masculine gaze used in this sense describes a way of looking at someone in a way that re ects desire in some form generally a desire to control andor possess o It is also an important aspect of reproduction and can have both positive and negative e ects The masculine gaze in uences cultural markers in all world cultures It has always been an essential aspect of human malefemale interactions It is an aspect of all cultures worldwide in customs related to dating marriage clothing home design laws the economy products on the market how women want to be perceived how men want women to be perceived etc 0 Examples Clothing designed to either repel or attract or control the masculine gaze o In some Muslim societies the veil and the practice of quotseclusionquot 0 In most Western cultures Europe USA etc short skirts high heels makeup Both males amp females use these customs to control or direct themselves or others even in situations far removed from customs related to reproduction 0 Example high heels are aimed at attracting the masculine gaze however in some businesses a business woman is expected to wear high heels even where there is no intention of attraction and such attraction is discouraged Con ict Narcissism of the minor di erenees A concept created by Sigmund Freud who observed that the most vicious and irreconcilable quarrels often arise between groups of people who are to most outward appearances nearly identical This tendency is observed in countries that outsiders regarded as culturally homogeneous that have nonetheless broken into civil war Outsiders do not see the cultural fault lines within that culture In other instances groups may appear to outsiders to be very different from each others but have strong bonds between them What they share is more important to them than their differences This is an important reason to investigate attitudes values and perceptions of culture groups because it can deepen understanding of their loyalties and their animosities Examples 1 Iraq con icts between Sunni and Shi39ite 2 the former Yugoslavia con icts between ethnic minorities Bosnians amp Serbs etc 3 Nazi Germany genocide of German Jews by German quotAryansquot 4 Latin America in their history of violent con icts Slightly different from quotnarcissism of the minor differencesquot are the justifications used by one group of people to grab power from another group often by portraying the other group as inferior 0 One of the issues that often arises in geography is the question What to do about those people This is a common theme in con icts around the world Often the idea of bringing something eg civilization democracy communism capitalism Christianity Islam is used to justify plunder and conquest of people defined by the invaders as somehow inferior quotuncleanquot andor evil Another less common twist on the question of iose people is the justi cation of land grabs and other forms of wealth by the landless and or powerless There may be very few nonviolent options for this kind of group but the justifications are similar to those from groups trying to bring something to another group In both cases violent seizure or violent imposition of some ideal rarely results in equality or in the actualization of the stated ideal The Six Features of Culture p 1319 A culture39s quotmarkersquot can be found in each of the six features of culture 1 Values 2 Religion amp Belief Systems 3 Language 4 Gender gender roles dating amp marriage customs sexuality etc 5 Race 6 Material Culture including technology Note People in all societies amp cultures have to make decisions about how to think about these main aspects of life 0 The ways they choose to think about these aspects are in uenced by history certain in uential individuals physical circumstances etc 0 These ways become customs over time 0 Customs are constantly changing but change is much slower in some places than in others 0 These customs can have a strong in uence on political policy and vice versa Values 0 What a culture determines to be of value 0 The actuality of what a culture values can differ in general from what it claims to value DISCUSS Examples 0 Effects of values on landscape Americans value shopping so our landscape features many malls in India Hindus regard cows as sacred so cows walk through the streets and are protected Religion amp Belief Systems p 1415 including what is considered right and wrong in a culture origins of life afterlife supreme beings Basic types 0 Proselytizing 7 try to extend in uence by seeking converts Islam Buddism Christianity Also known as universalizing religions Ethnic 7 accept converts only reluctantly Judaism Hinduism Bel ief systems 7 Informal religions have no formal central doctrine no policy on who may be a practitioner 0 Examples Animism syncretism p302303 including bananashaped coffins o Animism a belief system in which natural features carry spiritual meaning 0 Syncretism or fusion the blending of elements of a new faith with elements of an indigenous religious heritage see below 0 Secularism values that do not derive from religious tradition Syncretism p 302 0 NOT a formal religion but an INFORMAL combination of beliefs inc rituals prayers etc which may be in uenced by amp have some chars of formal religion 0 It39s what people DO not what missionaries or other outsiders want them to do Syncretism is often NOT the same as that which people do when the missionaries or other power holders are around Example 1 Voodoo When Africans were brought to America as slaves some of them kept their old beliefs amp practices but hid them under Christian beliefs amp practices when they were pressured to convert to Christianity Voodoo combined native ways with Spanish Catholicism 0 Example 2 Christian missionaries in US in 1800s tried to PREVENT syncretism when they took the Indian children to the mission schools made them leave all their native ways behind quotwhite manquot clothes language rituals some even had to take on the colonizer s names But when the Native American children grew up amp left the school some went back to their old ways or at least combined some of the old ways with the new ones syncretism 0 Example of what is NOT quotsyncretismquot The practices of US Catholics vs the Pope This is not really syncretism per se although US Catholics mix their own beliefs with those of the sanctioned beliefs as stated by the Pope Note Syncretism ranges from the informal like wishing on a rabbit39s foot while saying a prayer to the more formal like using a marriage sticka Native American customin a Christian marriage ceremony 0 Religion is constantly in ux even though religious leaders try to prevent or deny that 0 Virtually all religions syncretic ie they have some elements of previous religions or belief systems Change happens but it39s not instant often people who convert do not throw off all of their old ways instantly because these ways are too much a part of the culture interwoven with family gatherings amp celebrations amp what s considered sacred Example Easter Christians absorbed some of the pagan rituals amp symbols like Easter eggs which make it easier to convert nonChristians by allowing them to keep some of their old ways while putting a quotnew religionquot spin to it Many cultures have a sacred holiday centered around sacri ce and reward coinciding with the end of winter and the beginning of Spring Example Easter amp Lent Easter is based on sacri ce of the innocent lamb amp Lent includes the practice of quotgiving up something until Easter 0 Easter coincides with the Jewish Passover which is based on the story of protection against the slaughter of the innocents the lst born son German Eostara goddess of regeneration amp triumph over death a goddess of Spring her symbol a fertile egg 0 Lakota Native American During the Sundance ritual involving skin piercing men pray for the strength of women Women do not participate in the ceremony because the Lakota considers that they already go through physical sacri ce through birth and monthly menses DISCUSS Religion is often re ected in the landscape Haw DISCUSS Religion has also been used to wield power Haw Critical Thinking Seneca said quotReligion is regarded by the common people as true by the wise as false and by rulers as useful So who s Seneca amp how does he know And how does history or current events help us understand this perspective Note A world map is too small in scale to convey the complexity of actual patterns of religion because there are too many intersections between different religious traditions at the local level due to intermarriages etc Langyage p 1516 often the colonizer s language replaces the language of the colonized now with increasing trade and global communications some languages are becoming extinct while others predominate There are more languages in the world than can be counted For example over 300 languages can be heard spoken in London England In situations where there are a number of different languages spoken people use 0 Linguafranca 7 A language used for international trade used to communicate by people who don t speak each other s native language 0 A lingua franca is NOT a cultural marker because it is not a unique characteristic of a particular culture 7 it is a shared communication tool 0 Some culture groups put great value on language as a cultural marker they don t want to be absorbed completely into the wider culture Being same implies monotony loss of individuality We may encounter this in regions we study and this can help us understand why people would be passionate about preserving their language Main languages ofthe world not in textbook Language Millions of Speakers native plus nonnative English 1500 Mandarin China 1076 Hindi India Pakistan 497 Spanish 423 Russian 271 Arabic 257 Bengali Bangladesh India 216 Portuguese Portugal Brazil 195 MalayIndonesian 176 French inc former colonies 127 German inc former colonies 127 Japanese 126 Urdu Pakistan India 107 Hindi amp Urdu are basically the same language Hindustani 0 When it is written in the Devangari script it is called Hindi amp is the of cial language of India 0 When it is written in the Arabic script it is called Urdu the of cial language of Pakistan Source Human Geography 739h edition 2003 by F ellman Getis amp Getis DISCUSS Some research shows that the rst language you learn actually affects your brain development including the structure of the brain This means that there are actual differences between the brain of a native Russian speaker and a native English speaker This implies that our subconscious brain often drives our perceptions more than we realize It looks for patterns such as what we consider good or bad beautiful or ugly etc beyond our conscious choice which in turn affects our values Example When a native Chinese speaker is shown a picture of an object against a background he or she tends to notice the background far more than a native English speaker who tends to notice the object first Asian culture emphasizes the group indicated by such sayings as The raised nail gets hammered down whereas North American culture emphasizes the individual from The Hidden Brain How Our Unconscious Minds Elect Presidents Control markets Wage Wars and Save Our Lives by Shankar Vedantarn 2009 o How is this related to standpoint theory 0 What other differences might we attribute to this effect of first language Gender Issues g 1 7182 gender issues play out differently in every culture but understanding differences and similarities may lead to an understanding of why gender inequality exists world wide and how we can change that to better utilize our human resources 0 In all cultures for thousands of years the biological fact of maleness amp fernaleness has been translated into speci c roles for each sex Although the activities assigned to men and to women can vary greatly from culture to culture and across time there are dramatic consistencies 0 Men are usually expected to fulfill public roles animal hunters government business 0 Women are usually expected to ll private roles housekeeping childcare elder care In nearly all cultures women are de ned as dependent on men even in instances where women produce most of the family sustenance Because their activities are focused on the home women typically have less access to education and paid employment see p 18 Table 11 and hence less access to wealth amp political power Gendergthe sexual category of a personiis both a biological amp a cultural phenomenon Biological differences 0 Different reproductive roles 0 Men on average larger muscles can lift heavier weights can run faster than women 0 Women on average have more endurance may be able to run longer if not faster are capable of more precise movements and in places where all have access to good health care outlive men Although average physical gender differences exist in most cultures they are ampli ed to carry greater social signi cance than the biological facts would warrant Customary ideas about proper gender roles are passed down over time and have enormous effects on everyday lives throughout a culture Geographically amp through most recorded history women have had amp still have an inferior status 0 In nearly all cultures families prefer boys over girls because boys will have more earning capacity amp have more power in society largely as a result of discrimination against females 0 Females have less access to medical care are more likely to die in infancy g 133 p 39 start work at a younger age than males work longer hours amp eat less well In many countries traditional notions of female capabilities are now being challenged 0 Females are now acquiring education at higher rates than males so should become competitive with men for jobs 0 Female athletes have increased their participation in the Olympic games 40 in 2004 Disadvantages of limited gender expectations on men 0 Throughout history it is primarily young men who ght and die in wars migrate to distant lowpaying jobs etc Gender issues in uence nearly all aspects of life including 0 gender roles o origins in ancient history see quotagriculture gender inequalitiesquot below 0 differences worldwide political rights reproductive decisions see quotabortionquot below architecture clothing customs related to reproduction dating marriage family DISCUSS How are perceptions of gender in uenced by culture For example in Muslim countries men generally feel much freer to show affection for each other because not only are boys and girls raised separately from an early age but also the existence of homosexuality is denied most people in many predominantly Muslim countries deny that homosexuality exists in their country Race p 1819 Racial issues pervades all major world regions and often plays a role in con icts and exploitation But race is a social construct ie something we made up There is no biological basis for racial difference All humans now alive are members of the same species popular markers of what we call race skin color hair texture face amp body shapes have no biological signi cance Although we may look quite different biologically speaking we are all closely related All humans are descended from a family that originated in the Rift Valley in eastern Africa present day Kenya and Tanzania There is no evidence that any socalled quotracequot has particularly high math ability or athletic ability such characteristics are present in individuals in all human populations and may become enhanced by cultural practices But race often paired with culture or ethnicity has acquired great signi cance over the last several thousand years especially when humans from different parts of the world began to encounter each other in situations of unequal power Some researchers have suggested that European colonizers adopted racism the negative assessment of unfamiliar often darkerskinned peoplegto justify taking land and resources away from those supposedly inferior beings 0 Yet racism is not a particularly European trait it has occurred throughout human history 0 However humans have probably been so successful because of a strong inclination toward altruism the willingness to sacri ce one39s own wellbeing for the sake of others 0 A culture39s perceptions of race affects human rights politics economics architecture etc DISCUSS Perceptions of race determine quotwhy is this herequot 0 Examples prison populations poverty location and size of voting places etc Material culture and technology p 1617 particular materials and technology help define a culture and its 0 resource base 0 standard of living 0 trading patterns 0 belief systems Technological advances often affect culture amp occurs before changes in social attitudes Example stem cell research Technological advances can also result in sweeping changes in cultural behavior xamples air conditioning combustion engines private automobiles Globalization p 910 0 the growth of interregional amp worldwide linkages amp the changes they are bringing about 0 processes bringing all parts of the world into closer association 0 to make global or worldwide in scope or application 0 refers to the ways in which goods capital labor and resources are exchanged among distant but very di erentplaces Example In America the food from an average meal travels an average of 1200 miles to our plate in addition the backward and forward linkages to produce that food also involves transportation costs fuel etc involving more globalization o 39 39 the 39 Local 39 39 39 39 show the effects of worldwide trade amp resource consumption 0 When resources are moved from one region to serve the needs of another region environmental degradation often results in the first region 0 Air amp water pollution can ow across national borders 0 Globalization has multiple facets economic social political environmental that in uence one another Individuals can be harmed or empowered by its effects and sometimes both at once Globalization is partly a result of the fundamental change in human society that enables global wide communication via the Internet Globalization has decreased the friction of distance not in textbook the increased likelihood of encountering obstacles the farther you travel Example 1 you re more likely to run into a traffic jam if you re traveling 500 miles than if you re traveling 5 miles Example 2 It is easier to travel to India now than it was 50 years ago Corporations amp Globalization p9 p 31 amp g 110 p 10 Multinational or quotTransnationalquot corporations TNCs MNCs 0 As people goods amp capital increasingly ow across regional and national borders national governments must compete with international amp supranational organizations MNCs to control these ows and relationships 0 Often MNCs have the power to operate outside the laws of any particular nation MN Cs operate across international borders extracting resources from many places They produce products in factories carefully located to take advantage of cheap labor and transport facilities MN Cs market their products wherever they can make the most pro t Key characteristics of MN Cs include 0 Global influence 0 Enormous wealth 0 Importance to local economies This enables them to in uence the economic and political affairs of the countries in which they operate Their in uence extends beyond their country of origin and because they are not a quotpersonquot per se they are not subject to a country39s laws except under certain aspects like monopoly laws fraud etc 0 Effects can sometimes wreak social environmental amp economic havoc without doing anything quotillegalquot under those particular laws DISCUSS After the recent Supreme Court ruling in the US Jan 2010 MNCs can also exert a strong in uence on elections through campaign ads and contributions even though they are not an individual citizen and have far more power than an individual US citizen How might this be bene cial to the democratic freedoms of the US How might it be harmful Cultural 39 39 p 13 146 165 the process of becoming more nearly uniform uniformity of ideas values technologies and institutions among culture groups widespread sameness o Often comes with globalization 0 Can cause tension between local cultures and globalizing in uences 0 Many places want to absorb some globalizing in uences and at the same time want to increase the preservation of their own cultural differences to encourage stronger cultural identity 0 Example being able to nd a MacDonald s in almost every country in the world Di usion not in textbook the process of an item or feature spreading through time across distance Diffusion can apply to ideas money disease fashion food preferences values technologies religions and people was the process by which agriculture and the domestication of animals spread around the world from a few places can take the form of contiguous ali usion ie diffusion from one place to a nearby or neighboring place 0 Globalization has changed the patterns of diffusion so continguous diffusion may be less likely in some cases Diffusion now tends to spread from one major population center to another even though they may be thousands of miles apart rather than spread to neighboring contiguous areas d can take the form of hierarchical ali usion where an idea fashion etc spreads up or down through a hierarchical social structure For example a religious rule can spread down to local churches from the main headquarters of that religion such as the Vatican Similarly an idea can spread upwards from the local level as can occur in a democracy when voters call for a vote on an issue of concern to them lt7 3 V V O V D V can be affected by distance alecay which is a decrease of the occurrence or impact of a cultural attribute the spread of an idea fashion disease etc as the distance increases from its place of origin f The effects of distance decay has been lessened by globalization Local to global interconnections a main theme of the course amp the theme of most of the vignettes throughout the textbook To understand globaltolocal amp interregional 7 connections we ll also look at topics that have no borders war on terrorism popular culture changes in the global political order environmental issues interregional trade global economy the Internet poverty international corporations hunger National identity amp borders p49 0 A nation is not a political entity but rather a shared language culture amp political identity Examples Cherokee Nation Palestine These are not actual quotstatesquot or quotcountriesquot A political entity is called a quotstatequot or quotcountryquot This leads to con icts when the borders of the nation do not match the borders of the state a political entity Example Kurds identify their ancient homeland with an area that is now part of Turkey Syria Iraq amp Iran 0 Several countries that are not of cially recognized as such by the United Nations South Ossetia Kosovo Western Sahara Palestine 0 A country is de ned by its people but to be an of cial country it must have the approval of the United Nations The quotjust worl quotphenomenon not in textbook also called the justworld theory justworld fallacy or justworld hypothesis refers to the tendency for people to believe that the world is just therefore people get what they deserve o The justworld phenomenon was rst theorized by Melvin Lerner 1980 0 Studies have shown that those who believe in a quotjust worldquot may be more likely to believe that battered wives must have deserved their beatings that sick people must have caused their own illness or that the poor deserve their lot amp that if they d just work harder they d get ahead 0 Studies also show that this attitude is actually detrimental to the group because group members do not respond to problems amp do not act to prevent them but rather quotblame the victimquot Social welfare p 176 in Europe describes this phenomenon but textbook does not use the phrase quotjust worldquot 0 How a culture thinks about the unfortunate the poor the unhealthy etc influences policy customs institutions the cultural amp political landscape the economy etc 111 Technical Aspects Scale An aspect of perception 0 Looking at a place or an issue from several perspectives 7 from close up to far away 0 Example When we think about our neighborhood we can think about it in terms of the people in that neighborhood or its relationship to the town it s in or near local scale Or we can think about how it ts within some particular region like East Tennessee or even the Southeast US 7 regional scale Or how it ts with the rest of the country 7 or the rest of the world national amp global scales 0 This kind of scale differs from Map Scale Map Scale p 45 7 indicates how much smaller the map is relative to the area depicted ie how much larger the area represented is relative to the map a represents the relationship between the distances shown on the map amp the actual distances on the earth s surface b Scales are usually expressed in three 3 ways Written statement 1 inch 1 mile Graphic scale uses a bar labeled with the ground distance Fraction one unit of length on the map corresponds to some number of units on the ground Ex 15000 7 could mean quot1 inch on the map equals 5000 feet on the groundquot map key will note measurement details If there is a large number in the denominator on the map scale Ex 1 100000 it s a SMALL scale ie there are many units on the ground per inch on the map less detail If there is a small number in the denominator Ex 1 100 the map is a LARGE scale ie there are few units on the ground per inch on the map more detail 0 As the amount of area shown on a map becomes larger the amount of detail that can be displayed decreases p45 g 14 0 Summary Small scale larger area less detail Large scale smaller area more detail TWes of Maps p 56 also some not in textbook JustFYI not on quiz but can be used for extra credit on map assignments 0 record amp analyze spatial relationships 0 represent some area of the earth s surface or some surface on the Earth such as a building interior etc must be smaller than the area it represents Map distortion because a map has to depict the curved surface of the threedimensional earth on a twodimensional sheet of paper all map projections inevitably distort Map projection designates the method chosen to represent the earth s curved surface as a at map Example Compare the shape of Australia and New Zealand on page 1 to the shape of these islands on page 436 Maps use various styles to portray information differently Popular maps styles include a Location mags general purpose reference 0 Shows without analysis a variety of natural or humanmade features of an area 0 Ex highway maps city street maps ex p4 g 14 a b Thematic mags presents a speci c spatial distribution or single category of data ie a graphic theme including the spatial characteristic of numerical data usually a single variable such as population income wheat Types of thematic maps 0 Graduated circle maps use circles of different size to show the frequency of occurrence of a topic in different places Ex p 157 g 411 population of cities combined with a choropleth map Dot distribution maps a speci ed number of occurrences of an item is recorded by a single dot to indicate distribution amp pattern Ex p 21 Fig 120 volcanoes amp earthquakes uses triangles rather than dots Cartogram maps uses statistical data to transform territorial space so that the largest areal unit on the map is the one showing the greatest statistical value A cartogram of population size would show India as much larger than the US although the land mass of the US is larger than that of India Choropleth maps present average value of the data studied per preexisting areal unit with different shading for each unit Ex p226 g63 freedom of the press Isometric maps features lines isolines that connect points of equal values of the item mapped 0 Ex Topographical maps not in textbook show the elevations of the surface features of a place using lines that connect points registering equal values of elevation often used by mountain hikers Ex Isothermic map weather map connects points recording the same temperature at some time or the average temperature for the day Ex p 228 Ex Isopleth map shows areas of different average statistical values for some item p 237 population distribution Absolute vs Relative Location not in textbook 0 Absolute location expressed in latitude amp longitude 0 Relative location expressed in terms of its relation to other features on the landscape Ex turn right at the school then its three miles past the basketball courts LongitudeLatitude p5 7 lines on a map that enable us to establish a position on the map relative to other points on the globe 0 Both latitude amp longitude lines describe circles so there are 360 degrees 360 in each circle of lat amp each circle of long 180 degrees 180 for each hemisphere ie each half of the globe are in nite in number although maps show only a few for reference A GPS shows far more detail 0 Latitude divides the planet into two hemispheres half a sphere7north and south a place is either north or south of or on the Equator o Longitude divides the planet into two different hemispheres east or west a place is either east or west of or on the Prime Meridian OR it is on the longitude line on the opposite side of the planet from the Prime Meridian the 180 longitude line where east meets west From http r39 aboutcomlibraiy faq 39 39 quot 39 htm Difference in distance between degrees of Latitude and degrees of Longitude Degrees of latitude are parallel so the distance between each degree remains almost constant but since degrees of longitude are farthest apart at the equator and converge at the poles their distance varies greatly 0 Each degree of latitude is 39 39 69 miles 111 kilometers apart 0 A degree of longitude is widest at the equator at 691 72 miles 111321 and gradually shrinks to zero at the poles At 40 north or south the distance between a degree of longitude is 53 miles 85 km Note Knoxville for reference 3582 North Latitude 8398 West Longitude Compare to Tijuana Mexico 32 32 North Latitude 117 West Longitude So Tijuana is about 276 miles south of Knoxville 3582 3232 about 4 degrees of latitude x 69 miles per degree and 1650 miles west of Knoxville 117 8398 about 33 degrees of longitude x 50 miles approximately per degree A Longitude lines are NOT parallel they are farthest apart at the Equator and converge at the poles b include the Prime Meridian measure distances east or west of a line the Prime Meridian that passes through Greenwich England are also called meridians 883 C98 09 WW cross all parallel lines at right angles can be infinite in number 7 although we use several main latitude lines as general reference points Prime Meridian zero degrees longitude All Longitude lines are the same length 180 degrees and stretch from pole to pole Western Hemisphere All areas of the globe to the west of the Prime Meridian and east of 180 degrees Long Latitude lines 3 V are parallel to the equator measure distances north or south of the equator are also called parallels Latitude circles get smaller as they get closer to the poles connect all points along the same latitude Commonly used latitude lines used as general reference points Tropic of Cancer 235 North latitude Tropic of Capricorn 235 South latitude Equator 7 0 latitude Arctic Circle 7 665quot North Latitude Antarctic Circle 7 665quot South Latitude b 333 Note The region north of the Arctic Circle is known as the Arctic and the zone just to the south of this circle is called the Northern Temperate Zone Note Knoxville is located at approximately 358 North Latitude 839 West Longitude degrees vary depending on which point you use as a reference point the southem city limit will have a lower latitude than you will find at the city limit north of the city Time zones not in textbook 21 b O V are roughly aligned with longitude lines are not all equally spaced 7 irregularities are a result of political or economic factors Examples 0 line bends around Hawaii amp Alaskan islands so they ll be in the same side of the date line Arizona amp other states does not recognize Daylight Saving Time so time in Arizona does not always correspond to time in other Mountain Time states 0 China does not recognize time zones so all of China is in the same time zone However according to several Chinese students this is not really a problem since they d never had time zones so were used to living without them Also a great deal of the population of China lives in or around Beijing so most people in China are in the same quottimequot People living far from the capital are expected to adjust Are located approximately every 15 degrees east or west of the Prime Meridian Earth rotates eastward so you must advance your clock one hour ie one hour later for every time zone you cross EAST of the prime meridian at Greenwich Ex If it s 700 AM GMT it s 800 AM at the next time zone to the East 7 and 600 AM at the next time zone to the West 0 East Tennessee is in Eastern Standard Time EST 0 Universal Time UT 7 the mean solar time for the meridian at Greenwich England used as a basis for calculating time throughout most of the world Also called Greenwich time Greenwich Mean Time Greenwich Mean Time Zulu time a lVIilitary Time Zone Z Change UT to EST by subtracting 5 hours from Greenwich Time so at 12 noon UT it s 7AM in EST The international date line not in textbook See also httpwwwworldtimezonecom o is located roughly along 180 degrees Longitude a meridian line in the Paci c Ocean 0 is west of Samoa so Samoa is in the last zone to change the date for each day39 0 passes through the Equator 0 When the time is 900 PM in Honolulu Hawaii on Monday March 7 it s 700 PM in Wellington New Zealand on Tuesday March 8 Wellington is 2 hours earlier in terms of sunlight but is a day ahead in terms of the date 0 differs slightly from the 180 degree longitude line bending around parts of Alaska so it will fall within the same date and also bending around several Paci c islands including Kirimati also called Christmas Island to include them in the same date even though some of these islands are east of Hawaii 0 See httpwwwworldtimezonecom and compare time zones amp date line to Longitude in Location trivia questions below Location trivia o What is the southernmost state in the US Hawaii 0 What is the northernmost state Alaska 0 The westernmost Alaska 0 The easternmost Alaska because the Aleutian Islands cross over the 1801 Meridian 0 Also note although Alaska is due north of Hawaii and about half the state including the Aleutian Islands are north west of Hawaii Alaska is in the time zone to the east of Hawaii for practical reasons So although you would be west ie northwest of Hawaii if you were in the western half of Alaska you would be one hour ahead of Hawaii Also note Aleutian islands have their own time zone shared with Hawaii Geographic Information System GIS not in textbook 0 An integrated software package for handling processing and analyzing geographical data 0 A computer database in which every item of information is tied to a precise geographic location 0 Requires absolute location ie latitude and longitude of the location you which to query GIS about 0 Any analysis of a particular area on the earth s surface requires 34 latitude amp longitude points to define the area such as your neighborhood your school precinct etc 0 GIS is NOT the same thing as GPS Global Positioning System 0 A GIS incorporates data storage capability computer graphics programs and statistical packages that is it takes geographic data such as population topography and political boundaries analyzes the related statistics and puts it all together on a map 0 Stores information about a location in layers does not require additional programs to View combinations of these layers 0 integrates information on environment and human populations 0 Often used in local governments amp in environmental analysis Also used by FedEx amp other businesses IV Physical geography p 1925 p 2627 Fig 124 climate map Geography uses a range of analytical r r quot to help 39 39 the l 39 quot of earth s physical processes and the interactions of humans with those processes 0 Geomorphology branch of geography that studies landforms amp how they change o Landforms mountains valleys rivers etc are continually shaped by earth processes some deep below the earth s surface and some on or above the surface but all earth groeesses are gowereal by solar energy 0 Four main spheres not in textbook are intricately linked to all geomorphic processes 3 Atmosphere gases 4 Biosphere living things 1 Hydrosphere water 2 Lithosphere minerals Two types of geomorphic processes Internal and External Internal geomorghic grocesses p19 processes like plate tectonics that originate deep beneath the surface of the earth Plate tectonics 1020 One of the most allencompassing theories in physical geography 7 the theory which proposes that the earth s surface is composed of large plates that oat on top of an underlying layer of molten rock Movement of these plates creates several important processes at the boundaries between these plates a earthwakes where continental plates collide b mountain ranges formed from the folding of plates as they collide usually in a subduction zone subduction p21 the sliding of one tectonic plate under another volcanoes occur at plate boundaries EX along the quotRing of Firequot around the edge of the Paci c Plate or weak spots in the plate EX Hawaiian islands where gases and molten rock called magma come to the earth s surface through ssures and holes in the plates Ring of Fire p20 fig 120 the ring of volcanoes and earthquake zones found around the edge of Paci c Ocean where the Pacific plate collides with continental plates 0 Causes volcanoes amp earthquake zones in Japan Indonesia Oceania the Philippines the west coast of North Middle amp South America Pangaea hygothesis p20 g 119 7 Another important theory about plate tectonics in geomorphology 0 all continents were once joined in a single great continent about 200 million years ago 0 it eventually fragmented pieces drifted into present positions due to movement of tectonic plates 0 continents piled up huge mountains on the leading edges of plates colliding with other plates 0 This theory explains the long line of mountain ranges along edges of continents Alaska to Chile and South East Asia Himalayas to the European Alps linear pattern of many mountain ranges EX Pigeon Forge used to be beach front property 0 V 0 Africa has no long line of mountain ranges like this because this continent is believed to have been at the center of Pangaea it has moved very little over the centuries Africa is like a plateau no other continents have bumped into it to form mountains so their transportation problems are going to be different than those in areas with long mountain ranges Africa39s coasts do not have many harbors formed by peninsulas etc so the physical geography did not encourage the development of seafaring skills unlike the coastlines of Europe where the coastlines encouraged the eventual development of large navies External Geomorghic Processes p 23 7 change the shape of the land externally Weathering effects of sun wind rain snow and ice on earth surfaces 0 breaks up dissolves or wears down rocks 0 loosened soils and rocks are then moved through a mass wasting gravity landslides etc b erosion caused by wind or water 0 Interaction of vegetation and erosion Plants decrease erosion by protecting the soil from effects of wind and water and by holding moisture in the soil with their roots 0 Example paved surfaces will result in increased erosion because it increases water runoff Erosion the process by which fragmented rock amp soil are moved over a distance primarily by wind amp water Effects of erosion on landscape 0 degosition the settling out of sand amp soil particles carried by wind or moving water when the speed of their ow slows o ie when wind or water slows ie loses energy particles settle out 0 this usually results in soil that is excellent for farming M p57 windblown dust that forms deep soils in North America central Europe amp China ood glain created when deposition of rocks and soils in rivers raises the riverbed silt then washes onto surrounding land attening it and creating a ood plain o In other words when a river oods it creates a ood plain by knocking down trees washing away hills amp rocks etc amp by lling in the valleys amp low areas with the debris creating a at area a ood plain often good for farming m the triangularshaped plain of sediment that forms where a river meets the sea or a larger river or lake the silt carried by the river fans out in the shape of a triangle Note More erosion will occur in rocky mountainous areas where water ows fast high energy than in delta areas where water ows slowly low energy 0 E eets of erosion in trogieal areas 0 laterite p 272 a permanently hard surface left when minerals in tropical soils are leached away 0 leaching the washing out into groundwater of soil minerals amp nutrients released into soil by decaying organic matter 0 drainage basins not in textbook the area from which all groundwater and overland ow are drained by a system of connected stream channels into a catchment area 0 A drainage basin is the topographic region from which a stream receives runoff through ow and groundwater ow Drainage basins are divided from each other by topographic barriers called a watershed o A watershed represents all of the stream tributaries that ow to some location along the stream channel 0 A watershed is a ridge of high land dividing two areas that are drained by different river systems 0 Related or alternate terms catchment catchment area catchment basin drainage area river basin water basin and watershed o The main purpose of a drainage basin to drain water to the sea 0 drainage basins may be as small as a farm field or as large as half a continent 0 smaller basins are nested within larger basins 20 o Exceptions in some places there is no outlet for the drainage as for example in the Great Divide Basin in Wyoming where mountains form a circle so that all water running off the inner slopes drains into the at desert area below and dries up drainage densi the combined length of all the stream channels in a basin divided by the area of the drainage basin 0 A basin that has soil capable of absorbing and storing most of the rain that falls will usually have a low drainage density Landscapes with soils that cannot absorb rainfall very rapidly are more easily eroded to form channels and they tend to have higher drainage densities o What would an area with a high drainage density look like It would have rocky sorls From httpwwwphysicalgeographynetfundamentalslOaahtml Erosion amp human activities building agriculture forestry roads 7 removes or changes the vegetative cover exposes surface to sun wind rain This increases erosion making surfaces less able to absorb rainwater especially if surfaces are paved such as in urban areas and roads Q What external process has had the most e ect on landscape starting around 200 years ago Human activity Climate the long term balance of temperature and precipitation creating fairly predictable weather patterns in an area The source of typical weathering processes in a region weather local short term balance of temperature air pressure amp precipitation the conditions today or even this hour short term weather is an expression of the climate of the region climate regional long term balance of temperature air pressure amp precipitation typical weather conditions of an area over several decades or more Solar energy is the quotenginequot of climate 0 It is stored in leaves animals plants including trees amp wood amp in our bodies the food we eat gives us the energy to live all derived from the sun It is also stored in coal amp oil which makes it a key factor in geopolitical power Solar energy is most intense in the band stretching between 30 North amp South Latitude mostly located between the Tropics of Cancer amp Capricorn located at 235 N amp S Latitude Storage of Heat solar energv in Land amp Water When heat is absorbed by an object as for example a balloon or an air molecule its temperature rises amp when heat is released an object cools releasing its moisture Solar energy amp resulting heat storage is the central feature in the creation of weather 0 Physical materials differ in their ability to store heat water absorbs amp releases much larger quantities of heat than land 7 because water bodies are stirred by the wind which mixes solar heat with the water and carries it down below the surface So temperature differences are more dramatic over land than over oceans Continental eZZect not in textbook temperatures are more extreme in the centers of continents amp milder along coastlines o The smallest seasonal differences in temperatures on a continent occur along coastlines Example In North America climate is mildest by the ocean especially on the Paci c Coast which has a Mediterranean climate 7 dry warm summers amp cool wet winters 7 good for certain crops like grapes for wine Summag 21 Water absorbs heat slowly and releases it slowly especially if it39s a large body of water such as an ocean that has the capacity to store lots of heat Land absorbs heat quickly and releases it quickly Weather conditions 7 driven by radiant energy from the sun 1 Solar energy is redistributed from tropical latitudes to polar regions and from lower to upper levels of Earth s atmosphere amp into space This movement of energy creates air movements that carry warm air from the tropics to high latitudes and carries cold air from the poles to warmer regions This movement of energy also carries moisture from the oceans to land and dry air from land to ocean areas In this process of moving air and water around the Earth 7 weather is created While weather varies from day to day 7 because atmospheric circulation is constantly changing this circulation follows certain fairly predictable patterns Climate Main actors a ecting climate a Earth39s tilt position of the Earth relative to the Sun b Topography Land features such as mountains and valleys c Proximity to the ocean d Moisture availability e Air pressure f Di erences in air temperatures Latitude Between tropics amp poles altitude elevation seasonal variations in solar energy inputs a result of Earth s tilt Climate one of the central Earth features that make places different p 2225 map p 2627 a b c d f g produces better agricultural conditions in some places than others produces enough water in some places too much in others and not enough in others Near the Equator the heated landscape causes air to rise causing low pressure at the surface and frequent heavy rains from convectional precipitation Around the Topic of Cancer and Capricorn o the heated air that rises over the equator then cools at high altitudes this cool air then sinks bc cool air is heavier than warm air 0 This air is now dry bc its moisture was squeezed out when it rose amp cooled in high altitudes over the Equator raining its moisture down on the Equator This dry air then sinks to the Earth39s surface between 2030 degrees approx 25 north amp south latitudes creating the world s major deserts amp steppes at these latitudes 0 These dry latitudes are called the Subtropical High Pressure Zones SHZ 0 Most of the world s major deserts occur in this zone see climate maps in textbook Deserts amp steppes also tend to occur in midlatitudes in the interiors of continents often in the rain shadows of high mountains p23 Example Mojave Desert in USA this desert is in a rain shadow but is r t in the SHZ it s at 35 to 36 North latitude and 115 to 117 West Longitude Steppes similar to deserts but receive slightly more rainfall amp are covered with grass ampor scrub Ex the Great Basin of the American West pampas of Argentina In midlatitudes like the USA air tends to move from west to east 22 More than any other feature of Earth climate regulates natural systems amp constrain the ways humans can use their environments Solar energy Central driver of all Earth s energy 0 Solar energy heats the atmosphere which results in differences in air pressure 7 which creates wind amp ocean currents drives the circulation of Earth s atmosphere varies with latitude and season and altitude elevation o Is stored in many different forms petroleum coal plants animals etc DISCUSS which forms of stored solar energy play an important role in geopolitics Atmospheric circulation redistributes energy 7 which generates weather Note Ocean currents mirror wind currents 0 Ocean currents are also affected by differences in sea water temperatures and salinity Water that is cold and salty is heavier than water that is warmer and less salty Atmospheric Pressure another major factor in the creation of weather including its interaction with air temperature p23 Atmospheric air pressure the amount of force exerted by a column of air from earth s surface to the top of the atmosphere on the air at some level in that column air pressure is highest at the Earth39s surface When solar energy heats the Earth s surface it heats the air molecules nearby When air is heated it rises 7 amp as it rises to higher altitudes it cools Gas molecules in warm air are far apart low pressure Gas molecules in cool air are close together high pressure Air tends to move from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure creating wind Continents heat up amp cool faster than oceans 7 so winds tend to blow from ocean to land during summer months amp from land to ocean during winter Simpli ed Summag 0 Arctic amp Antarctic high pressure result dry 0 Midlatitudes mixed high amp low pressure result winds 0 Equator low pressure result rainy Variation in solar radiation The amount of solar radiation striking the Earth varies a during the day b with seasonal changes in the angle of incidence or the angle at which the Sun s radiation strikes the Earth c with the tilt of Earth s axis The tilt of the Earth is 235 degrees away from being perpendicular to the Sun s incoming rays This axial tilt remains constant regardless of Earth s point in its orbit or its daily rotation Seasons not in textbook39T he amount of sunlight a place receives in a particular season depends on its latitude We can think about this in relation to the Tropics of Cancer amp Capricorn a are located at 235 North amp South Latitude They delineate seasonal differences in solar radiation 7 the sun is NEVER directly overhead ie at 90 anywhere north of the Tropic of Cancer or anywhere south of the Tropic of Capricorn 23 U V Tropic of Cancer the northernmost point at which the Sun strikes the Earth at a 90 angle June 20 or 21 ie summer solstice in the northern hemisphere WINTER solstice in the Southern Hemisphere Tropic of Capricorn the southernmost point at which the Sun strikes the Earth at a 90 angle December 20 or 21 ie winter solstice in the NORTH summer solstice in the SOUTHERN hemisphere Torrid Zone The latitudes between the Tropics of Cancer amp Capricorn between 235 North and 235 South this is the only portion of the Earth where the sun strikes directly overhead at some point during the day North pole 7 almost 24 hours of sunlight on Northern Summer Solstice ibecause pole faces the sun almost all day during summer almost 24 hours on darkness on Northern Winter Solstice 7 because pole faces away from the sun all day during winter On Spring amp Fall Equinox the Earth39s tilt is quotparallelquot to the sun 0 the North and South poles are not tilted either toward or away from the sun so on each Equinox the day is of equal length to the night The day after the Equinox the Earth s revolution moves the planet away from this point and the north pole begins to point further towardwr away fromithe sun The north pole points toward the sun in the Northern hemisphere39s spring amp summer seasons from Spring Equinox on March 21 to Autumnal Equinox on Sept 21 The north pole points away from the sun in the Northern hemisphere39s fall and winter from Autumnal Equinox on Sept 21 to Spring Equinox on March 21 o The Equinoxes are the only two days of the year when the sun rises due east and sets due west g Days are of equal length approx at the Tropics of Cancer amp Capricorn when the sun is directly overhead at the Equator This occurs on the spring Vernal equinox March 20 or 21 and autumnal equinox September 20 or 21 The Northern hemisphere receives more solar radiation from March to September Northern Spring amp Summer amp the Southern hemisphere receives more solar radiation from September to March Southern spring amp summer Summer Solstice June 2021 in the Northern Hemisphere north of the Equator is called the Winter Solstice in the Southern Hemisphere bc it marks the beginning of winter in the south 0 Vernal Equinox March 2021 in the Northern Hemisphere is called the Autumnal Equinox in the Southern Hemisphere Seasons amp culture Knowledge of the movement of the Earth around the Sun amp its effects on Earth in the form of seasons is something all cultures share regardless of their climate location amp history All cultures share these main seasonal markers Summer amp Winter Solstices Spring amp Fall Equinoxes All cultures incorporate something about these seasonal markers into their customs 0 These days form the main framework for the quotsolar calendar for the Gregorian amp Jewish calendars Easter falls on the rst Sunday after the first full moon following the Vernal Equinox so it is a blend of both lunar amp seasonal phases For centuries the Vernal Equinox for the Northern Hemisphere usually March 21 was considered New Year s Day throughout western Europe amp the American colonies because it signaled the 151 day of spring and time to start planting crops amp celebration for surviving the winter It was also considered a good day to propose marriage also good on Autumnal Equinox The custom changed in 1752 O V G V D V CD 24 Christmas occurs shortly after Winter solstice Dec 2021 an example of syncretism see Satuma 39a Saturnalia Dec 17 from preChristian Rome a celebration of harvest where the climate is warmer so harvest was later than in more northern European countries 0 Satumalia is an example of syncretisrn the Christian church picked Dec 25 as the day to celebrate the birth of Jesus partly to counteract and replace the non Christian tradition of Satumalia Halfway points between Equinoxes amp Solstices are also incorporated into cultural celebrations Examples 0 Groundhog39s Day Feb 2 is the halfway point between Winter Solstice amp Spring Equinox 0 May Day the pagan celebration of Beltane in King Arthur39s story 0 Lamastiale August 1st to celebrate the lst harvest celebrated earlier than the last harvest celebration on October 31 named after the Celtic word for quotloaf lst loaf Halloween October 31 halfway between Autumnal Equinox amp Winter Solstice Note The Islamic calendar is centered around the quotlunar calendarquot based on moon cycles but places it within the context of the solar calendar in 325year cycles T yges of Precigitation Review Main driver of weather storage of heat solar energy in land amp water When heat is absorbed by an object its temperature rises amp when heat is released an object cools releasing its moisture l Convectional precipitation not in textbook Main idea Heat rises a Sunlight warms the ground b This heats up the layer of air along the ground c Causing the air to rise d As air rises it gets cooler e As air cools it releases moisture 7 resulting in precipitation f Found mainly around the Equator 2 Orographic precipitation p23 occurs primarily along mountainous ocean coasts like California a Air that has been warmed over the ocean blows inland b When it hits the mountains it is forced upward c As it rises to the mountain tops it cools amp releases its moisture 7 causing rain or snow d By the time this air moves to the other side of the mountains facing the continent not the ocean it has very little moisture e This dry side is called the rain shadow f Rainy oceanfacing side of mountains windward g Dry continentfacing side of mountains leeward h Example Nevada is so dry because it is on the leeward side of the Sierras not windward it is in the rain shadow caused by orographic precipitation in the Sierra mountains This rain shadow extends over most of the North American continent east of the Sierras to the western slope of the Rocky Mountains 25 3 Frontal precipitation p24 a rainfall caused by the interaction of large air masses of different temperatures amp densities different air pressures b These air masses develop when air stays over an area long enough to take on the temperature of the land or sea below it c When warm air rises it leaves lower air pressure along the ground d This lower pressure pulls in cooler heavier air from surrounding areas like a vacuum cleaner 7 creating wind Note cool air is heavier than warm air e This type is typical of most precipitation in Northern lVIidlatitudes North America and North Eurasia 4 Monsoons p24 320322 opposing winter amp summer pattern of atmospheric amp moisture movement between continents amp oceans o In summer warm wet air coming in from the ocean brings copious rainfall to the continent o In winter cool dry air moves from the continental interior toward the ocean causing a dry season on the continent U V Intertropical Convergence Zone ITCZ p270272 a band of atmospheric currents circling the globe roughly at the equator warm winds from both north amp south converge at the ITCZ pushing air upward amp causing copious rainfall Note Knowledge about the ITCZ will help you understand air pressure amp precipitation in the countries near the equator 0 V Hurricanes p 106 Large tropical lowpressure storm systems which form annually in the Atlantic Ocean primarily north of the equator close to Africa Heat from the ocean surface rises lowering the atmospheric pressure This warm wet air organizes into a swirl of wind These winds move across the earth s surface from east to west The lower the air pressure the higher the speed of the winds Winds must reach 75 mph to be called a hurricane Hurricanes eventually dissipate as they move over cooler water or over land Hurricanes amp tropical storms are the most destructive of all storms causing major wind and ood damage to human habitations and crops 0 Consequences of hurricanes are increasing as coastal population densities increase Note a cyclone is an area of low atmospheric pressure characterized by inward spiraling winds that rotate counter clockwise in the northern hemisphere and clockwise in the southern hemisphere V PhysicalCultural Geography Interconnections between humans amp landscape Pnlimpsest not in textbook a manuscript page that has been written on scraped off and used agam o In geography a palimpsest refers to evidence on the landscape of earlier dominant features 0 A palimpsest can refer to physical geologic vegetative etc or human changes over time o A palimpsest can include attitudes about a place or how a place is perceived 0 Example Native American history is an deep and essential aspect of the landscape in North America although the evidence of much of that history is hidden Comparison ofMoalern Corporate Farming to quot 39 26 0 A more specific example A Native American group may see a particular mountain as sacred while a European American corporation sees that mountain in terms of pro t for mining etc The more powerful perspective overlays the older one but the older one still shows through This affects political action economics locally amp nationally local culture in the area etc o This is also an example of contested space see lecture notes above A riculture Subsistence agriculture see quotsubsistence economy quot p 39 involves polyculture planting many different crops in smaller amounts is done for food for the family most workers are family members most subsistence agriculture in the world is done by women does not produce a surplus for export does not require heavy investments in machinery or land Modern or corporate arming While we now produce enough food to feed everyone in the world food is now grown for pro t in many developed countries 0 Large corporate farms are highly productive but the result increased yields lower prices makes it dif cult for small farms to compete 0 Corporate farming is done for pro t not for family sustenance o is dominated by a few wealthy farmermanagers 0 requires heavy capital investment in land amp machinery o the majority of the local population is poor often migrant mostly Hispanic or Asian paid low wages in corporate farms or foodprocessing plants 0 uses cheap usually migrant labor no longer done by farm family members 0 is based on monoculture not polyculture as is done by family farmers The multiplier effect see below decreases in a community when it becomes dominated by corporate farms Multiplier eZZect not in textbook Money has a value to the economy that is greater than the amount that is originally spent Example If you buy jeans for 40 the shop owner uses that money to buy food pay wages buy a haircut go to the movies etc So out of your 40 about 27 recirculates into the economy and then that gets respent Typically your 40 purchase is worth about 80 to the economy Buying local products vs corporate chain store products or imported products 0 About 045 of each l spent on local products recirculates in the local economy 0 Only about 0 15 of each l spent on corporate products recirculates locally 0 When more money is spent locally the local multiplier effect increases dramatically 50 of every 100 spent locally results in 200 recirculating in the local economy 80 of every 100 results in 500 staying in the local economy from httpyesmagaZineorgarticleaspIDl565 807 0 Money spent on imports has a multiplier effect globally it brings money to the peanut farmer in Ghana for example who then has money to spend on a radio made in China which brings money to the Chinese factory worker who then has money to buy Americanmade software 27 Because corporate agriculture decreases the local multiplier e ect there are social e ects including 0 increased class amp income disparity lower education levels amp wellbeing less functional local governments more negative environmental impacts Corporate farmers have a lesser stake in long term sustainability of farming because it39s easier to ignore environmental effects erosion stream pollution loss of topsoil etc especially when corporate owners don t live in the area Global e ects of corporate agriculture 0 Rich countries subsidize their farmers 0 this encourages overproduction which increases supply which lowers prices 0 this hurts farmers in poor countries 0 especially when they can39t use tariffs if they39re under SAPs to protect against quotdumpingquot Dumping p 168 the cheap sale on the world market of overproduced commodities lowering global prices amp hurting producers of these same commodities elsewhere in the world 0 Poor farmers can39t compete globally because they don t have the same subsidies or the same expensive equipment designed for high production Many are driven out of business amp often end up migrating to big cities in their own country or to other richer countries if they can get in like the US As more farmers leave their villages other villagers go broke because the farmers aren39t buying their services any more which lowers the multiplier effect in the village and then in the subregion so even more migrate to cities or richer countries resulting in overcrowded cities in their country and immigration tensions in the richer countries DISCUSS Hype vs actuality o ADM Archer Daniels Midland Company corporate farming 0 From their website quotADM is one of the world s largest agricultural processors of soybeans corn wheat and cocoa We work with farmers across the world to turn these crops into soymeal and oil corn sweeteners our cocoa and chocolate ethanol and biodiesel as well as a wide portfolio of other valueadded food ingredients animal nutrition and industrial productsquot 0 This makes it sound like they39re helping farmers around the world when the economic facts show they39re putting massive numbers of small farmers out of business with ripple effects across the country and the globe including o overcrowded cities 0 farmers39 children sold as slaves etc Hunger and modern agriculture Modern agriculture produces enough food to feed everyone in the world but it is not distributed e ectively 0 When rich countries send surplus food to faminestricken countries farmers in the famine zone who are still producing food are often driven out of business when their markets are ooded with free food 28 0 Through use of modern agriculture techniques rich countries produce food surpluses which lowers food prices worldwide driving farmers out of business in poor countries 0 Food Aid When rich countries send surplus food to faminestricken poor countries farmers in the famine zone who are still producing food are driven out of business when their markets are ooded with free food 0 When there s a famine somewhere in the world there s usually some food in the region but when outsiders usually the US bring food to the region through NGOs Non government organizations it lowers the price of local food because it supplies free food to the region This drives some farmers out of business and gives others a disincentive to produce more in the near future It would probably work better to provide money directly to those who are hungry but this nancial aid would have to avoid the problems of local corruption where local powerholders take all the money amp do not distribute it fairly o More sustainable solutions include 0 Development of sustainable agriculture techniques and conditions in poor countries 0 Development of backward and forward linkages in poor countriesgto insure there are supplies to produce a surplus and to bring that surplus to market 0 Microcredit p 347 a program based on peer support that makes very small loansat very low interestiavailable to very lowincome entrepreneurs Microcredit 0 has been very successful worldwide 0 results in greater selfsuf ciency and innovation Discuss Bill Gates is head of an organization that aims to end world hunger He contends that developed countries have not taken action to do this although the cures are simple Gates advocates capitalistled solutions in conjunction with governments only if the governments are cooperative Another main cause of famine war displaces farmers destroys crops insuf cient backward amp forward linkages 0 Another problem with agricultural mass production 0 results in environmental problems amp drives small farmers out EX Sudan 0 Then smallscale production cannot meet the food demands of growing urban populations Green revolution p343344 increases in food production brought about through the use of new seeds fertilizers mechanized equipment irrigation pesticides amp herbicides see Chapter 8 Environmental issues Sustainable Develogrnent p4045 All human ways of life inevitably have some environmental impacts Mass consumption and what we consider high living standards have highest impacts including Ozone depletion acid rain deforestation habitat destruction Erosion air pollution Global warming water including ground water pollution Sustainable development seeks to improve present living standards in ways that will not jeopardize those of future generations ote No country or organization has yet devised a workable policy for sustainability 0 GDP may indicate that a country s economy is growing but it does not indicate how sustainable this growth is 29 0 Example a country may show high growth in GDP but may be using up its natural resources to attain short term growth Sustainable agriculture p 41 farming that meets human needs feeds everyone on the planet without poisoning the environment or using up water amp soil resources 0 Present data does not indicate how sustainable the world s agricultural systems are at present 0 Soil erosion Many of the most agriculturally productive parts of North America Europe amp Asia have already suffered moderate to serious losses of soil through erosion Soil degradation Main causesi overgrazing deforestation mismanagement of farmland Problems with irrigation often leaves soil salty amp infertile over time o It can also deplete water resources by diverting water from rivers or draining natural underground reservoirs This is often done at a rate that causes the source to shrink or disappear Modern agricultural techniques use of fertilizers pesticides herbicides kill off animal amp plant species pollinators fish and pollutes streams Example not in textbook Research in plant genetics at the Land Institute in Kansas led by Wes Jackson shows that o the 1st farmers started gathering amp planting the seeds of annual not perennial grasses such as wild wheat and barley This began the unintentional erosion of the ecological capital of the soil Over the centuries this has resulted in o Fossilfuel dependency in farming 0 Depleted the top soils to dangerously low levels requiring more amp more fertilizer 0 Environmental pollution O C Overpopulation Global warming 0 Natural systems agriculture The Land Institute is creating quotnatural systems agriculturequot which aims to mimic nature and work within nature s ecosystems rather than dominate or ignore them 0 Natural ecosystems almost always feature perennial plants in mixtures poly culture Agriculture reversed that by replacing perennial plants amp polyculture with annual plants in monoculture The Land Institute is breeding plants that look like annual crops above ground sorghum sun owers etc but below ground quotthey have deep perennial root systems like those of the mixed wild grasses amp legumes that carpeted the Midwest amp Great Plains before the plow came amp turned the prairie upside downquot These perennial grainproducing crops may be usable in agriculture in about 203 0 2050 and will 0 Recycle soil nutrients sharply reducing the need for fertilizer o The perennials39 deep roots will anchor topsoil while only the cropbearing stalks will be harvested so plowing will not be required 0 Result in sustainable agriculture Source Smithsonian November 2005 Wes Jackson by Craig Canine Global Warming p4548 o The theory of global warming proposes that the earth s climate is becoming warmer as levels of carbon dioxide C02 amp other greenhouse gases drastically increase 30 0 These greenhouse gases trap some of the heat from sunlight in the earth s atmosphere These gases exist naturally in the atmosphere making the earth warm enough for life to exist The following human activities have increase these gases dramatically over the last 200 years 0 Burning fossil fuels coal oil etc Growing certain crops paddy rice etc Use of nitrogen fertilizers Largescale grazinganimal farms produces methane Deforestation because forests soak up CO2 Possible re ects of global warming 0 Glo Glaciers amp polar ice caps melt causing a rise in sea levels displacing hundreds of millions of people in coastal areas amp islands Warm climate zones shifting northward or south in Southern Hemisphere also displacing people as well as agricultural areas Many species dying off unable to adapt to changing climate One current theory Hurricanes make global warming worse not in textbk Hurricanes stir up the ocean waters down to several hundred feet This brings cold water to surface amp warm water to depths Cold water at surface acts against global warming by cooling the tropics But warm water cycles up to poles and accentuates global warming This in turn fosters for conditions for more intense and more frequent hurricanes O bal warming re ects 2007 Netherlands announced its famous Elfstedentocht iceskating race might have to be postponed forever Armadillos reached northeast Arkansas actually now they39re around Nashville Greenland lost a hundred gigatons of ice The Inuit got airconditioning units Polar bears are closer to becoming endangered species India39s Ghoramara Island was mostly lost to the Bay of Bengal Papua New Guinea s Malasiga village was mostly lost to the Solomon Sea Alaska39s Shishmaref village decided to evacuate before being lost to the Chukchi Sea A European satellite showed a temporary crack in the ice pack leading from northem Russia all the way to the North Pole NOAA Nat39l Oceanic and Atmospheric Admin announced that last winter 20062007 was the warmest since it began keeping records in 1880 The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate change announced that eleven of the last twelve years were the warmest in human history E ects on global warming of buying local vs corporate chain products buying local products cuts down on the amount of CO2 generated by fuel use Most food products in chain grocery stores travels an average of 1494 miles Most food grown locally travels an average of 56 miles httpyesmagazineorgarticleaspID 1565 807 De I e o o isa serti ication p 263 308 a set of ecological changes that converts nondesert lands into serts decreases the fertility of the soil and requires more investment in agricultural development process by which semiarid vegetation and soil become more desertlike as a result of human use especially where population growth lead people to populate semiarid areas 31 can result when plowing fields for agriculture rips apart the soil amp moistureholding system of plant roots in the natural vegetation cover allowing the soil to become eroded by rain and wind resulting in the loss of so much topsoil that only desert plants can survive Human causes 0 Overgrazing o Deforestation for fuel wood amp pro t 0 Clearing original vegetation for farming or for development occurs in many places around the globe estimates show that about 23000 square miles become new desert each year 0 Example Chaco Canyon New Mexico 300 years ago large herds of native grazers amp newly introduced cattle could be supported on extensive grasslands here Today only a few animals can be supported because grass cover is now greatly reduced Maj or deserts ofthe world in order of size ame Location 1 Sahara North Africa 2 Australian Western Interior Australia 3 Arabian Arabian Peninsula 4 Turkestan Central Asia 5 North America SW US New Mexico 6 Patagonian Argentina 7 India Pakistan 8 Kalahari SW Africa 9 Gobi Mongolia China 10 Takla Makan Sinkiang China 11 Iranian Iran Afghanistan 12 Atacama Peru Chile Look at a map to determine which of these deserts are a result of a rain shadow and which ones are caused by their location in the global high pressure band that occurs around the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn at 235 North amp South T ragedy of the Commons not in textbook the economic reality that when a resource is available to all each user in the absence of collective controls thinks he or she is best served by exploiting the resource to the maximum even though this means its eventual depletion Human Geography 73911 edition F ellman Getis amp Getis Example 0 Over shing in the world39s oceans partly the result of the accepted view that the oceans are common property a resource open to anyone s use with no one responsible for its maintenance protection or improvement Since 1976 many coastal countries have been claiming a 200nautical mile exclusive economic zone EEZ within which they can regulate or prohibit foreign shing eets 0 But by the mid1990s overfishing in developed country waters was worse than ever as domestic eets expanded to replace banned or restricted foreign shing in territorial waters Externalities external costs not in textbook a consequence of an economic activity that is experienced by unrelated third parties An externality can be either positive or negative 0 Costs of an activity that are not included in the actual market price 0 Externalities can be re ected in the landscape both environmental amp social landscape 32 0 Ex the recent 2009 coal ash spill in Harriman Tennessee The price of electricity produced by the coal does not cover the quotexternal costsquot including the costs of the spill The people in Harriman must bear the quotexternal costs DISCUSS This contaminated water will eventually make it to the Gulf of Mexico and will affect many watersheds Which ones NIMBY quotNotIn My Back Y ard39Q Related to External costs Most people want to avoid the external costs so prefer to push it on other areas far from where they live So people with less political power end up getting the Superfund sites etc Looking at a map of Superfund sites will generally reveal the locations of poor neighborhoods VI Human Geography Population p 3540 Pogulation gatterns 7 densi amp growth p 3637 0 90 of world population is located north of the equator between 20 60 north latitude 0 Although population is measured in population per square mile pop psm population per square mile number of people divided by number of square miles population isn t equally distributed this is only an average of population distribution 0 pop psm is an average 7 so may not give accurate picture about a country Ex Egypt mostly empty because desert but high pop density along the Nile River Most population centers are located along one or more of the following a along rivers b around centers of trade c in areas high in natural resources Population densi does NOT indicate 0 amount of natural resources in the area can have high density in area with no natural resources but population sustains itself through trade 0 level of wealth in an area Europe Japan 7 wealthy high density India Bangladesh 7 poor high density Better indicators of population 0 rate of natural increase 139 e growth rate p36 0 shows relationship between number being born amp number dying 0 does not include changes in population due to migration 0 Zertil 1Q rate p37 0 average number of children born to each woman of childbearing age in a particular country 0 Fertility rates are almost always high in areas with widespread poverty or difficulty war natural disasters 0 The world39s highest fertility rate is in Somalia 69 ie an average of about seven children born to each woman of childbearing age 0 The fertility rate of the US is about 207 but the world39s lowest fertility rates are found in European countries especially from the Mediterranean to central and eastern Europe where rates are falling below 15 ie below replacement levels of 20 Pogulation gyramids p 3738 Age amp gender structures which are use to better understand the structure of a population amp better predict future changes These include 0 Age distribution or structure 7 proportion of the total population in each age gTouP 0 Gender structure proportion of males amp females in each age group 33 0 These re ect past amp present social conditions 0 Population pyramid 7 graph depicting age amp gender structures See examples p 38 9092 159 200 239 280 330 387 411 amp wwwcensusgov search for quotpopulation pyramid summaryquot click on quotpyramidsquot by country Missing females in gogulation statistics p 3839 amp fig 133 Statisticians have noticed that there are about 60 100 million females quotmissingquot from the population statistics of some countries as re ected in population pyramids etc Fewer females than males can indicate a female infanticide b missing statistics for females for other reasons It is important to be sure statistics are accurate and include females because 0 it gives a more accurate assessment of the resources of an economy when women s unpaid work is included knowing the accurate number of females in a population allows for better assessment of where and how much to invest in education for females This is important for economic development because according to the World Bank when a country increases investment in female education GNP increases 0 it gives a more accurate assessment of the overall wellbeing of a population When there are more males than females in a particular age group in a population it may indicate preference for sons is high so girls are fed less than boys or aborted or killed female infanticide 0 poor women may not receive enough food or medical care so are more likely to die in childbirth 0 female seclusion may make health care less accessible to women Pogulation growth rates and wealth p 39 Places with slow population growth rates tend to be more affluent countries with a high population growth rate tend to have widespread poverty 0 The cost to prepare a child to compete in the economy of a developed country is high because hitech jobs require hightech education In places where families rely on subsistence agriculture most work is done by hand so need more children for labor and for caregiving to the elderly when children are adults since conditions are tough these parents are more concerned about producing enough children to survive to adulthood 0 As agricultural production is mechanized less need for agricultural labor subsistence lifestyles that need larger families more labor decline in cash economies to buy things that a family cannot provide themselves children are a drain on family income Global health amp poverty 0 Over 25 billion 40 of the world s population live without toilets or latrines 0 They are unable to practice basic hygiene such as washing their hands with soap in safe water About 5000 children under 5 years of age 15 million a year die every day from diseases associated with poor hygiene and lack of sanitation Main solutions include 1 proper disposal of wastes 2 accessible sources of clean water amp soap for everyone Demograghic transition p 40 amp g 134 a period of high population growth rate replaced by a period of much lower grth rates that usually accompanies a cluster of other changes such as 34 change from a subsistence to a cash economy increasing education rates and urbanization occurs during a time of major social amp economic changes 0 This transition used to take one or more generations 0 Now usually occurs faster with the spread of education amp information Urbanization Changing population patterns p 8081 In 1700 less than 10 of world population lived in cities by 2003 47 lived in cities 0 Large urban populations result in problems with water supply sanitation housing environmental damage As people move from rural agricultural work to industry or service sector jobs in cities they begin to use more resources per capita amp draw their resources from a wider amp wider area 0 This increases the tendency to overconsume 7 convenience encourages waste 0 The rich minority of the world s population 20 consume 80 of the world s available resources the 80 of poor are left with remaining 20 primate city p 1 151 17 a city that is vastly larger than all others in a country amp in which economic amp political activity is centered 0 Examples Mexico City Mexico Lima Peru 0 Note the USA does not have a primate city Migration push factors p 428 negative features of the place where people are living that impel them to move elsewhere Example famine war pull factors positive features of a place that attract people to move there Example an abundance of good jobs remittances p 9 earnings sent home by immigrant workers chain migration p 83 a pattern in which immigrants to a new country encourage their family amp friends to join them thus creating a community of culturally similar immigrants in a particular place acculturation p 133 173 adaptation of a minority culture to the host culture enough to function effectively amp be selfsupporting cultural borrowing assimilation p 133 172 the loss of old ways of life and the adoption of the lifestyle of another culture emigration 7migration from a place especially migration from your native country in order to settle in another emigrant someone who leaves one country to settle in another immigration7migration into a place especially migration to a country of which you are not a native in order to settle there to enter and settle in a country or region to which one is not native Economic issues in geography p 28 the study of how people interact with their environment as they earn a living 0 resources 7 what people use to make their living 0 The development of economic systems 7 sprang from the invention of agriculture Two es 0 resources I Extractive mined from earth s surface or grown from its soil mining logging etc 2 Nonmaterial resources skills amp brainpower Three economic sectors not in textbook but see p 30 quotWhat is the economyquot 1 Primary extractive O 2 Sec 35 most directly involved with the natural world The acquisition of a material resource through mining logging agriculture or other means Has no quotvalue addedquot Ex agriculture mining logging shing See quotCommoditiesquot for details below ondary industrial production in which resources from the primary sector are transformed into new commodities metalautos canesugar this quotadds valuequot T er peo O L tiary exchange or service bartering amp trading of resources amp products retail amp ple s services also includes production of knowledge books software Also called Service sector p 30 73 economic activity that amounts to doing services for others 0 Tourism the world39s largest service sector industry 0 ecotourism p 138139 natureoriented vacations often taken in endangered amp remote landscapes usually by travelers from industrialized nations quotPerformancequot of culture in tourism not in textbook Tourism encourages those in the destination region to quotperformquot aspects of their culture in order to provide a show for the tourist 0 These aspects of local color may not even exist any longer or may be based on stereotypes expected by the tourist even though they may never have existed in actuality Example the hillbilly with bare feet amp moon shine jug seen on many signs and logos throughout Sevier County Tennessee Workers in local businesses may be paid or required to wear quothillbillyquot costumes because tourists will pay to see quothillbilliesquot even though few people in the area fit this stereotype Note To move from the primary to the secondary or tertiary sector value must be added to the extracted primary product quotvalue addedquot 0 Re Primar x Timber can be sold in the primary sector after logging 0 However more pro t can be made if more quotvaluequot is added to the timber in the secondary sector sawmill produces lumber factory produces furniture and even more value can be added in the tertiary sector eg furniture is designed and labeled to sell for a higher price Every time value is quotaddedquot to a product it brings a higher price y Sector aka quotCommodities undifferentiated products orange juice grain etc where you can39t tell one orange or grain from another quotCommoditiesquot now even include some manufactured items such as USB ports All quotcommoditiesquot are sold on the world market at very low prices so there is very little pro t so global events affects sales amp price supply amp demand Ex a drought in the Ukraine affects the price of grain everywhere The price will go up due to the shortage of grain in Ukraine This is good for poor farmers but this higher price also results in a higher incentive to produce more grain next year But in the next year farmers may then produce too much which then results in a lower price Conversely a bumper crop in Ukraine will result in lower grain prices worldwide which is bad for poor farmers driving some of them out of business Many then migrate to the cities which causes the cities to continue to expand beyond their capacity resulting in huge shanty towns around many of the world39s major cities in undeveloped countriesa due to a country39s dependence on the global market in commodities Places dependent on commodities as a main percentage of their economy do not make much pro t because 36 0 primary goods have no quotvalue addedquot 0 AND the price of inputs keeps rising IF prices continue to in ate as they usually do so it costs more and more to produce these products for which prices uctuate so widely Ex Logging in Brazil the logger must buy imported tools if none are produced as cheaply in Brazil such as chain saws trucks fuelgin order to cut down the trees process the logs and bring them to a port city Overall the prices of inputs backward linkages keep rising and the pro ts are often small so a country relying primarily on primary sector goods falls farther and farther behind Two ages of economies I p 30 I formal economy 0 all aspects of the economy that take place in official channels 0 all activities that are recorded in a country s GDP gross domestic product 0 all these businesses pay taxes amp have a business license 2 Informal economy p 30 124 all aspects of the economy that take place outside of cial channels goods amp services produced outside formal markets Work is often traded for noncash payment No work in informal economy is reported to the government 7 so does not pay taxes About 13 or the world s work falls into the informal economy Also includes illegal activities drug sales etc Work in this sector may be unpaid but most is essential to the functioning of the formal economy 7 such as child rearing elder care housework subsistence farming where families produce most of their own food This work is mostly done by women amp children Two ages of economies 22 0 Command economy p 196 155 an economy in which government bureaucrats plan locate amp manage all production amp distribution 0 Also known as Centrally planned governments rule from the center do not allow state level decisions the government makes economic decisions based on ideology Example Communist China 0 Capitalist economy p 196 Also known as quotmarket economyquot the customer the quotmarketquot ie buyers send quotsignalsquot to producers to indicate to producers what to produce and when and where to supply the market Example the USA See also backward and forward linkages Ch 1 lecture notes Develoged vs Develoging countries Developed or advanced country not in textbook just F Y for use in your essays countries with developed economies in which the tertiary sector dominates o This level of economic development usually translates into a high income per capita and a high Human Developmentlndex HDI see below Countries with high gross domestic product GDP per capita often t the above description of a developed economy 0 However anomalies exist when determining quotdevelopedquot status by the factor GDP per capita alone so other measures such as the HDI are also used to determine level of development Developing country has a relatively low standard of living an undeveloped industrial base and a moderate to low HDI score and per capita income but is in a phase of economic development 37 0 Usually all countries which are neither a developed country nor a failed state are classi ed as developing countries 0 Countries with more advanced economies than other developing nations but which have not yet fully demonstrated the signs of a developed country are grouped under the term newly industrialized countries 0 Other developing countries which have maintained sustained economic growth over the years and exhibit good economic potential are termed as emerging markets 0 The application of the term developing country to any country which is not developed is inappropriate because a number of poor countries have experienced prolonged periods of economic decline 0 Such countries are classi ed as either least developed countries LDCs or failed states 0 Example Afghanistan Haiti 0 Development entails a modern infrastructure both physical and institutional and a move away from low value added sectors such as agriculture and natural resource extraction primary sector 0 Developed countries in comparison usually have economic systems based on continuous self sustaining economic growth in the valueadded sectors and high standards of living Economic measures GNPgc PPP Measures of economic development p33 GDPgc Gross domestic product per capita can increase dramatically in a country but the bene ts may go to a small few GDPpc re ects the average national productivity PPP gurchasing gower gari the amount that a local currency equivalent of US 1 will purchase in a given country Ex 5000pc in Jamaica buys a middleclass lifestyle but cannot provide even basic shelter in New York City Draw backs of GDPpc 0 does not show how the majority of the population is living so most of country may live in extreme poverty with a few living in extreme wealth but GDPpc might show the country as prospering does not show the PPP Measures only formal economic activity even though the informal economy may contribute more productivity amp be essential to the country Ignores all aspects of development other than economic ones 0 Does not indicate the long range sustainability of the current economic activity Alternative measures To measure such important aspects of a country s overall wellbeing including how fast it is consuming its natural resources how well it is educating its young how fairly resources are shared Note human well being p35 the ability of people to obtain for themselves a healthy life in a place amp community of their choosing Alternative measures for these aspects of wellbeing include p3435 1 Human DevelopmentInalex HDI considers adjusted real income what people can buy with what they earn life expectancy educational attainment o ranks 175 countries 0 does not score a country directly on the equality of income distribution 38 0 does not measure females separately from males so gender inequality cannot be determined by HDI 0 uses speci c criteria to measure quotwellbeing such as longevity infant amp maternal mortality rates etc ie aspects of a society that are measurable amp are likely to be measured through public health systems etc o GDI GEM and other measures of quotwellbeingquot also use this kind of speci c criteria UN Gender Development ndex GDI ranks countries according to how much a country provides basic literacy health care amp access to income available to both males amp females 0 ranks 144 countries 3 UN Gender EmpawerrnentMeasure GEZW ranks countries according to how well they enable participation by women in the political amp economic life of the country 0 Ranks 80 countries 0 includes 0 the number ampor of total seats of women holding parliamentary seats 0 the number amp or of administrators managers amp professional amp technical workers who are female 0 women s GDPpc o All these alternative measures rank a country either high starting with 1 best medium or low worst 0 See textbook amp table 7 p36 on quiz S Cagital p 31 wealth in the form of money or property used to produce more wealth Free trade amp Ian39st p32 the unrestricted international exchange of goods services and capital the movement of goods amp capital without government restrictions 0 All governments including the US now impose some restrictions on trade to protect their own economies from foreign competition 0 Restrictions take the form of tarijfk amp import quotas which raise the price of foreign goods 0 T ari p 32 7475 a tax imposed by a country on imported goods usually intended to protect industries within that country 0 a charge on certain imports to make the price of imports higher than the price of locallymade goods 0 Regional trade blocs amp global institutions p 32 7577 have been acting to reduce these restrictions including NAFTA the EU European Union the WTO World Trade Organization amp the World Bank Note 0 Bloc a group of trading entities such as the European Union EU or the North American Free Trade Agreement NAFTA that join together to enhance trade especially by removing trade barriers between themselves they support free trade 0 Block anything used as a barrier to trade such as a tariff or import quota M ieroeredit p 347348 a program that makes very small loans available to poor entrepreneurs This encourages the development of the multiplier effect in a community Income wealth disgari p 118 a dramatic gap in wealth amp resources between the rich elite amp the poor majority of a country or region when the difference in income is extremely high between the wealthiest 20 of the population and the poorest 20 of the population 0 In countries where the difference is small wealth is more evenly distributed Countries with low income disparity include among many other countries 39 0 Canada 51 income disparity of 51 the wealthiest 20 of the population is ve times wealthier than the poorest 20 of the population 0 France 61 lVIiddle amp South America have the world39s highest income disparity including 0 Brazil 261 ie the wealthiest 20 is 26 times wealthier than the poorest 20 0 Guatemala 301 US income disparity is getting worse in recent years Current ratio 91 Problems with income disparity 0 moral many argue that it is morally wrong for wealth to be concentrated among a very small elite while so many have so little poverty prevents people from contributing to economies with their own purchasing power multiplier effect or with their skills which tend to remain low 0 This combination limits the potential for a nation s economic growth Digital divide p 10 74 the discrepancy in access to information technology between small rural and poor areas and large wealthy cities major government research laboratories and universities ie the gap between the small percentage of the world39s population that has access to computers amp the huge majority who do not Social eagital not in textbook tools and training that enhance human productivity 0 Such tools amp training require social networks Compare to physical capital Example a bulldozer or human capital a college education both of which can increase one39s productivity Social networks are required to produce each form of capital Example 1 In Cuba many residential buildings were falling apart amp new ones were poorly built because carpentry amp related skills had been neglected when individual A 39 391 was quot 39bythe quot When a country is lacking in any form of capital it cannot increase its productivity Often after a country has been devastated by war it is lacking in social capital because there are few people left who know how to do what it takes to rebuild Example 2 When pilot Chesley Sully Sullenberger III successfully ditched US Airways Flight 1549 in the Hudson River off Manhattan New York City on January 15 2009 saving the lives of all 155 people on the aircraft he was acting from years of experience As more airline pilots retire there have been fewer pilots hired to replace them Now there is a gap in social capital in the airline industry as more pilots are ying with less experience Land ownershig not in textbook 0 Land is less productive and GNP does not rise when restrictions on land ownership keep most land in the hands of a few Few of the pro ts from crops sold by large landowners go into social programs and investments that increase the GNP per capita for that nation Sharecroppers are less productive because they have no incentive to increase production if all their surplus goes to the landowner Because sharecroppers cannot sell their surplus they have no capital to invest in equipment to increase production When the poor are not land owners they are less likely to participate in government social improvements and the economy 40 Colonialism p 9 the practice of taking over the human and natural resources of often distant places in order to produce wealth for the colonizer country Structural Adl39ustment Policies SAPs p32 123 o The World Bank makes loans to countries that need money for development projects 0 The World Bank often requires a developing country to reorganize its economy to achieve freer trade through SAPs structural adjustment programs It may do this by requiring a country to improve conditions for private enterprise by reducing or removing government support for industry amp agriculture ampor by reducing government services school health care social services to lower taxes But these measures while bene ting some may cause hardships for many more Also when small national economies are forced to compete with the global economy with protections removed they are often hurt by the competition Where labor unions have been banned there is no way to bargain for wages that can support a healthy life Multinational corporations set up production where environmental protection laws are not in place amp use polluting but cheap production methods to raise pro ts These problems with free trade have led to a debate about the bene ts of free trade amp globalization p32 Imgort Substitution industrialization 1S1 p121 a form of industrialization involving the use of public funds to set up factories to produce goods that previously had been imported Economic 1 1 developing country First stage income is earned through exports of raw materials with no quotvalue added ie no manufacturing Ex raw cotton Second stage income earned from 1st stage is invested in simple manufacturing Ex textile mills to produce cloth producing valueadded exports Third stage income from 2 01 stage is invested in industries that add even more value to raw materials before exporting Ex garment industries to produce clothing Fourth stage income from 3ml stage is invested in adding even more value to products for export Ex machines that produce textile milling amp garmentproducing machines Fifth stage income from 439h stage is invested in adding even more value Ex investments in education help shift the economy from manufacturing to service such as sales of machines Additional stages 7 income is continually reinvested to increase the value of national production allowing the country to compete globally especially in technologyrelated services 0 The United States Japan amp most European countries followed this pattern of development 0 Some countries encounter obstacles to this development pattern including most Middle amp South American countries other countries skip one or more stages in the process F lving geese pattern not in textbook a typical development pattern for a bunk VVVV U V 0 V Global economy p 2832 7 the ways in which goods capital labor amp resources are exchanged among distant amp very different places Example 1 Paychecks In the vignette p28 all of these people are part of the global econom It presents examples of how 0 workers in different places are paid at dramatically different rates for jobs that require about the same skill level 41 But varying costs of living amp different local standards of wealth make the difference between those who are middleclass or wealthy relative to those around them amp those who live in near poverty 7 even if their income is far higher than those considered af uent in other countries But all workers dependent on the global economy are also dependent on circumstances beyond their control For example depending on the tourist trade may bring in higher income but the cruise line could decide to switch to another resort Example 2 Banks not in textbook International connections between banks amp effects on economies Banks loan cash to other banks for the short term when one bank is short of cash such as for example right before payday when bank customers have tapped all the cash from their accounts to get through the week but will now need to get the cash from their paychecks These bank loans occur between countries also But when one country39s banks have based their liquidity on something unreliable such as credit card fees high risk loans etc other banks become reluctant to loan to them causing a crunch on cash that can ripple through the economy For example in Summer 2007 overseas banks had been loaning cash to US banks but became nervous about continuing to do so when some of the subprime lenders began to default 0 These lenders were going under because too many of their customers couldn39t pay their loans This put the US banks on shaky ground so overseas banks were less likely to loan them shortterm cash 0 The US banks then have to cut back on their expenses including letting some of their employees go o This creates even more people who cannot buy a new car or TV or maybe even pay their mortgage so car and TV dealers have less money to spend on furniture TVs cars etc o The effects ripple through the economy lowering the multiplier effect and if it continues affects the world markets causing a global recession B kward amp Forward linkages not in textbook ac o backward linkages inputs that you need BEFORE you can produce your quotproductquot forward linkages inputs that you need AFTER you produce your quotproductquot to get it to market etc Example Backward linkages for a farm could include a fertilizer factory oil amp electricity production to run your equipment roads to your farm Forward linkages must include some kind of storage for your products grain etc amp might also include vehicles amp roads to transport your products to market Less developed economies require far fewer such linkages but must develop more linkages to develop enough to compete globally Geogolitics p485 0 the international jockeying among countries for territory resources or in uence in the world the use of strategies by countries to ensure that their best interests are served 0 Cold War Era from postWW2 1946 to early 1990s 7 free market capitalism versus centrallyplanned economies The Cold War Era ended with the breakup of the USSR the Soviet Union along with the fall of the Berlin Wall when many formerly communist countries became free market democracies But then con icts increased in many undeveloped countries of Asia Africa Middle East amp Eastern Europe
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