General Biology I
General Biology I BIOL 1110
pellissippi state community college
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Mrs. Rebeka Ankunding
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dr. Saul Grimes on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1110 at pellissippi state community college taught by Nancy Keene in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see /class/232973/biol-1110-pellissippi-state-community-college in Biology at pellissippi state community college.
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Date Created: 11/01/15
Chapter 1 Section 1 N w P 11 How to define life Living things are organisms Paramecium is an example of a microscopic protist a eukaryotic organism that is not plant fungus or animal that is more complex and larger than bacteria Organisms can be distinguished by howthey get theirfood fungi digests its food externally flowers make their own food and fowl ingests its food Organisms are composed of chemical elements and obey the same laws of chemistry and physics that govern everything Living things are organized They begin with atoms basic units of matter Atoms form molecules Molecules form cells a variety of molecules working together and is the basic unit of structure for living things Unicellular paramecia live independentlyother cells cluster in colonies Multicellular organisms contain more than one cell Similar cells 39 sue nerve 39 39 mmon in animals Tissues make up organs Organs work together to form systems Systems are combine to formtIs t joined together to form a complete living thing or organism All the members of one species in a particular area belong to a population Populations of various animals make up a communit Communities of populations interact with the physical environment and form ecosystems All earth39s ecosystems make upthe biosphere Tissue O Organism Population Community A group of Composed of An 39 39 39 i y 39 Interacting structural cells witha tissues comp ex the same populations ayn common functioning individuals species in a in a particular functionval structure together for a contain particular area unitlof an specific task or area livingthings function systems m l 9 Lo H 53 H H Moving to the right each hierarchy is more complex and acquires new emergent properties qualities that appear as biological complexity increases that are determined by interactions between individual parts These properties are new and unique characteristics Living things need food for energy the capacity to do work and it takes work to maintain organization ofthe cell and organism Cells use nutrient molecules to make their parts and products they carry out a sequence of chemical reactions Metabolism encompasses all the chemical reactionsthat occur in a ce The ultimate form of energy for nearly all life on earth is the sun Plants and other organisms use solar energy for photosynthesis process that transforms solar energy into chemical energy of organic nutrient molecules Homeostasis a state of biological balance necessary for organisms to survive Physiological factors such as temp moisture level acidity need to remain in the tolerance range for the organism for homeostasis to occur Homeostasis is maintained by systems of the organism Some are intricate feedback and control systems requiring no conscious activity controlled by tissues or nervous systems Many organisms rely on behaviorto regulate internal environments Behaviors are controlled bythe nervous system Living things interact with environment and other living things The ability to respond often results in movement leaves of plants turn towar t e sun animals dart toward safety Appropriate responses help insure survival Every type of living thing reproduces and develops An organism39s metabolism and organization are encoded in genes which contain specific information or how the organism is to be ordered made of DNA deoxyribonucleic acid Random combinations of sperm and egg each containing a unique collection of genes ensure that new individual has new and different characteristics DNA undergoes mutations overtime This ensures a diversity of life even within a group of organisms Sometimesthese new characteristics helpthem be more suited to their way of life Adaptations are modificationsthat make organisms better able to function in a particular environment Evolution includesthe way in which populations of organisms change over the course of many generations to become more suited to their environments Evolution constantly reshapes the species providing a way for organisms to persist despite a changing environment anisms share the same basic characterist cs Section 12 Evolution the Unifying Concept of Biology 1 Org i N w a All composed of cells organized in a similar manner b Genes composed of DNA c Carry out the same metabolic reactions to acquire energy and maintain organization d Their unity suggeststhat they are descended from a common ancestor about 4 billion years a o Evolution may be considered the unifying concept of biology because it explains so many aspects of biology including how living organisms arose from a single ancestor axonomy isthe discipline of identifying and grouping organisms according to certain rules It changes as more is learned about living things and evolutionary 39 39 p i 5 up 39 39 quot individuals Basic classification categories are called taxa From the least inclusive to the most inclusive specific to general are 7 e ass a eCIes Cl b Genus f Phylum Am c Family g Kingdom Hmmeus DA V d omain Organle DNAdllleveniihan 3 39 EA ii i li Domains Bacteria Archaea and Eukana Prokaryotes V eukaryoieslhan bad a Prokaryotes are structurally simple but metabolically complex No membrane bound nUClEUS b Bacteria are variously adapted to living anywhere Em mes c Archaea can live in aquatic environments that lack oxygen Memliryaneboundcellnuclemjl are too salty hot or acidic for most other organisms Archaea Ejg feuws m are least evolved forms of life Bo Photos nihelig lu d Protists comprise a number of kingdoms range from CW unicellulartoafew multicellular some 39 g photosynthesize and some acquire food Common EUKARYA protists are algae protozoans water molds OD Plants Fungi and Animals most likely evolved from Protists e Plants kingdom Plantae are multicellular photosynthesis organisms f Fungi kingdom Fungi are familiar molds an mushrooms that along with bacteria compose ead organisms p g Animals kingdom Animalia are multicellular and must ingest and process g quot pm their food h An evolutionary tree graphic shows how the domains are related by way of common ancestors 13 How the Biosphere is organized 1 Biosphe 2 3 14 The 1 MN 4 5 Scientific Name a Scientists use binomial nomenclature based on Latin to assign each livingthing a twopart name called a scientific name The first word isthe GENUS and the second word isthe specific epithet of a SPECIES within a genus The genus may be abbreviated as in H sapiens for GENUS SPECIES Homo sapiens Evolution a quotCommon descent with modificationquot sums upthe process of evolution because it meansthat as descent occurs from common ancestors so do modifications that cause organisms to be adapted to the environment Charles Danrvin came to the conclusion that natural selection wasthe processthat made modification adaptation possible Natural Selection a Duringthe process of natural selection some aspect ofthe environment selects which traits are more apt to be passed on to the next generation It coul be an abiotic agent altitude or biotic agent part ofthe living environment as in the deerpreference for smooth leaves example Mutations fuel natural selection because mutation introduces variations among the members of a population Living things with advantageous traits produce more offspring than those that lack them so living things change over time and these changes are passed on from one generation to the next Fr re the zone of air land and water at the surface ofthe Earth where organisms exist Individual organisms belong to a population al mem ers of a species within a particular area b Populations of a community interact among themselves with the physical environment forming an ecosystem Populations interact by forming food chains in which one population feeds off another Interactions between various food chains make up a food web c Ecosystems are characterized by chemical cycling and energy flow both of which begin when photosynthetic plants aquatic gae and some bacteria take in solar energy and inorganic nutrients to produce food in the form of organic nutrients Human population Humans forested Biodiversity a The two most biologically diverse ecosystems tropical rain forests and coral reefs are home to many organisms and are threatened by human activity Destruction of healthy ecosystems has many unintended effects we depend on them forfood medicine and various raw materials All ecosystems keep chemicals cycling thru the entire biosphere Biodiversity is the total number and relative abundance of species the variability of their genes and the different ecosystems in which they live The present biodiversity of our planet has been estimated to be as high as 15 million species and so far less than 2 million have been identified and named Extinction isthe death of a species or larger classification category Estimated loss is 400 species p r day c The primary bioethical issue of our time is preservation of ecosystems possess the unique ability to modify existing ecosystems which can greatly upset their nutrient cycles clearing and grasslands to grow crops small towns to cities Coastal ecosystems are most vulnerable Fr Process of Science Biology is the scientific study of life with many disciplines and area of specialty cytologystudy of cells anatomystudy of structure physiologystudy of function botanystudy of plants zoologystudy of animals geneticsstudy of heredity ecologystudy of interrelationships between organisms and their environment Religion aesthetics ethics and science usingthe scientific process are all ways in which humans seek order in the natural world Science differs because it usesthe scientific method a standard series of steps used in gaining new knowledge The Scientific Method a Ob e vation using all the senses instruments and knowledge of others thru research previous data b Hypothesis after making observations and gathering knowledge a scientist uses inductive reasoning occurs when a person uses creative thinking to combine isolated facts into a cohesive whole to come up with a hypothesis a possible explanation for a natural event A hypothesis is a statement that can be tested thru experiments in a manner suited to the process of science Experiments Further observations testing a hypothesis involves ifthen logic and may make a prediction Good experimental design uses an experimental variable and a control group Predictions help scientists know what to do next The manner in which a scientist conducts an experiment is called the experimental design A good design ensures that scientists are testing what they need to test so that their results will be meaningful A control group goes thru all the steps of an experiment but lacks or is not exposed to the factor being tested A model or representation of the actual object may be used when alteringthe original object may be impossible expensive or morally questionable Birds computer models medical mice and bacteria are sed because they are inexpensive and reproduce quic Data the results of an experiment are referred to as data It should be observable and objective The probability of error is a mathematical calculation based on the conditions and methods ofthe experiment If results are significant at a 030 level then the probability that the correlation is incorrect is 30 or less a high probability of error e Conclusion After analyzing the data a conclusion is drawn as to whetherthe hypothesis is supported or not Several conclusions in a particular area may allow scientists to arrive at a theory such as the cell theory the gene theory or the theory of evolut on Theon The ultimate goal of science is to understand the natural world in terms of scientific theories concepts that join together well supported and related ypot eses b The theory of evolution has helped scientists generate new hypotheses and because it39s been supported by so man observations and experiments for over 100 years many scientists referto the principle of evolution The term quotlawquot instead of rinciple is preferred by some Using the Scientific Method a dependent variable experimental variable the factor being tested Dependent variable responding variable result or change that occurs due to experimental variable The dependent variable is the result you will get depending on the independent variable you choseWhen graphing your data the independent variable goes on the X axis while the dependent one goes on the Y Independent Variable can be p
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