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ABAS 3450 - Embryology

by: Allison Collins

ABAS 3450 - Embryology ABAS 3450

Allison Collins
GPA 3.88

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These notes cover the 3/24 lab on embryology and include pictures taken during the lab.
Anatomy and Physiology of Domestic Animals
Dr. Kevin Downs
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Allison Collins on Saturday March 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ABAS 3450 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Dr. Kevin Downs in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology of Domestic Animals in Agricultural & Resource Econ at Middle Tennessee State University.

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Date Created: 03/26/16
3/24  –  Embryology   Purpose  of  the  egg:  to  protect  and  nourish  the  embryo   Embryos  incubate  for  21  days  (remember:  incubation,   not  gestation)   Protection  –  the  shell   •   Made  of  calcium;  formed  in  the  uterus   •   Arch  shape  –  difficult  to  break  from  outside,  easy  from  inside   •   First  line  of  defense  against  microbes  –  however,  they  can  still  enter  through  the   pores   •   Inner  and  outer  shell  membrane   o   Fused  together;  formed  in  isthmus   o   Made  of  protein   o   Second  line  of  defense  against  microbes   •   Air  cell  –  only  place  inner  and  outer  membrane  aren’t  fused   o   At  wide  end  of  the  egg   o   Gets  larger  as  incubation  progresses   o   Embryo  breaks  into  it  and  starts  to  breath  air,  then  continues  to  break   through  cell  when  hatching       •   Cuticle  –  light  outer  protein  layer  that  dries  quickly  after  the  cell  is  laid   Nourishment  –  the  yolk   •   Was  originally  a  follicle  in  the  ovary   •   Majority  of  composition:  nutrients  for  the  embryo   •   Albumen  –  egg  white  –  composed  of  protein  and  water   o   Thick  albumen:  from  magnum   o   Thin  albumen:  from  uterus     •   Chalazae  –  on  either  pole  of  yolk  –  spun-­‐out  protein  fibers  from  thick  albumen,   formed  when  yolk  twists     •   Vitelline  membrane  –  thin  membrane  that  surrounds  the  yolk,  is  inside  the  yolk  sac   •   Germinal  disc  –  where  embryo  develops  if  fertilized   2   o   Blastoderm  –  fertile  disc  –  looks  like  a  donut  with  a  dark  middle     o   Blastodisc  –  infertile  disc  –  indescript  white  spot   •   Dark/light  yolk  layers  –  daytime/nighttime  –  hen  eats  during  the  day  and  the   nutrients  give  pigmentation  to  the  yolk   •   Latebra  –  tunnel  created  from  germinal  disc  to  center  of  yolk  –  unsure  of  function   3  extra-­‐embryonic  membranes   •   Amnion  –  very  thin  fluid-­‐containing  membrane  surrounding  embryo   o   Protects  embryo  by  absorbing  shock   o   Not  as  important  for  human  embryos  –  only  needed  before  implantation  of   egg  cell   o   Gets  tighter  around  embryo  as  incubation  progresses   3       •   Yolk  sac  –  enables  embryo  to  absorb  nutrients  from  the  yolk   o   Meckel’s  diverticulum  –  remnant  of  yolk  sac  attachment   o   Retains  shape  and  size  as  incubation  progresses     •   Chorio-­‐allantois  –  lines  the  shell     o   Enables  embryo  to  breathe  –  oxygen/carbon  dioxide  exchange     §   Gases  travel  through  pore  à  chorio-­‐allantois  à  blood  à  embryo   o   Store  waste  and  absorb  calcium   o   Spreads  over  entire  inside  of  shell  as  incubation  progresses   4       Hatch  position:  assumed  at  18  days   •   Correct:  head  toward  air  sac  (wide  end  of  egg),  head  under  right  wing       5   Shell/yolk  layers  from  outside  to  inside:   Cuticle  à  shell  à  outer  shell  membrane  à  inner  shell  membrane  à  chorio-­‐allantois  à   albumen  à  yolk  sac  à  yolk  à  amnion  à  amnionic  fluid  à  embryo     ß  5  days     6         7  


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